Cell theory

steady-state membrane pump
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.wikipedia
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Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.

Theodor Schwann

SchwannTheodore SchwannTheodor Ambrose Hubert Schwann
This is usually credited to Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.
His most significant contribution to biology is considered to be the extension of cell theory to animals.

Rudolf Virchow

VirchowRudolph VirchowRudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow
However, many other scientists like Rudolf Virchow contributed to the theory.
Cellular Pathology (1858), regarded as the root of modern pathology, introduced the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula ("All cells come from cells").

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory.

Cell biology

cytologycell biologistcellular biology
This discovery is largely attributed to Robert Hooke, and began the scientific study of cells, also known as cell biology.
All of this preceded the cell theory which states that all living things are made up of cells and that cells are the functional and structural unit of organisms.

Matthias Jakob Schleiden

Matthias SchleidenSchleidenMatthias Jacob Schleiden
This is usually credited to Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.
Matthias Jakob Schleiden was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.

Protozoa

protozoanprotozoanspellicle
Leeuwenhoek named these “animalcules,” which included protozoa and other unicellular organisms, like bacteria.
In 1848, as a result of advancements in cell theory pioneered by Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden, the anatomist and zoologist C. T. von Siebold proposed that the bodies of protozoans such as ciliates and amoebae consisted of single cells, similar to those from which the multicellular tissues of plants and animals were constructed.

Scientific theory

theoryscientific theoriestheories
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.

History of cell membrane theory

cell membrane theorymembranemembrane theory
The term osmosis originated in 1827 and its importance to physiological phenomena realized, but it wasn’t until 1877, when the botanist Pfeffer proposed the membrane theory of cell physiology.
Cell theory has its origins in seventeenth century microscopy observations, but it was nearly two hundred years before a complete cell membrane theory was developed to explain what separates cells from the outside world.

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
The term osmosis originated in 1827 and its importance to physiological phenomena realized, but it wasn’t until 1877, when the botanist Pfeffer proposed the membrane theory of cell physiology.
Schleiden was a microscopist and an early plant anatomist who co-founded the cell theory with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow and was among the first to grasp the significance of the cell nucleus that had been described by Robert Brown in 1831.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
In this view, the cell was seen to be enclosed by a thin surface, the plasma membrane, and cell water and solutes such as a potassium ion existed in a physical state like that of a dilute solution.
While Robert Hooke’s discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell Theory, Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the time.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
Leeuwenhoek named these “animalcules,” which included protozoa and other unicellular organisms, like bacteria.
His observations had also included protozoans which he called animalcules, and his findings were looked at again in the light of the more recent findings of cell theory.

Gilbert Ling

Association Induction HypothesisGilbert N. Ling
In 1962, Gilbert Ling became the champion of the bulk phase theories and proposed his association-induction hypothesis of living cells.
In 1962 he proposed the Association induction hypothesis, which claims to be unifying, general theory of the living cell, and is an alternative and controversial hypothesis to the membrane and steady-state membrane pump theories, and three years later added the Polarized-Oriented Multilayer (PM or POM) theory of cell water.

Henri Dutrochet

René Joachim Henri DutrochetDutrochetRené Dutrochet
This conclusion was not made until Henri Dutrochet.
*Cell theory

Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologically
The term osmosis originated in 1827 and its importance to physiological phenomena realized, but it wasn’t until 1877, when the botanist Pfeffer proposed the membrane theory of cell physiology.
In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.

Germ theory of disease

germ theorygermsbacteriological revolution

Microscope

microscopesmicroscopicmicroscopically
With continual improvements made to microscopes over time, magnification technology advanced enough to discover cells in the 17th century.

Robert Hooke

HookeDr Robert HookeHooke, Robert
This discovery is largely attributed to Robert Hooke, and began the scientific study of cells, also known as cell biology.

Spontaneous generation

spontaneously generatedspontaneously generatesarise spontaneously
It was an important step in the movement away from spontaneous generation.

Non-cellular life

acellularAphanobiontanon-cellular entities
The first of these tenets is disputed, as non-cellular entities such as viruses are sometimes considered life-forms.

Glass

glassmakersilicate glassvitreous
In the first century BC, Romans were able to make glass, discovering that objects appeared to be larger under the glass.

Glasses

eyeglassesspectacleseyeglass
The expanded use of lenses in eyeglasses in the 13th century probably led to wider spread use of simple microscopes (magnifying glasses) with limited magnification.

Magnifying glass

hand lensmagnifying lensmagnifier
The expanded use of lenses in eyeglasses in the 13th century probably led to wider spread use of simple microscopes (magnifying glasses) with limited magnification.

Objective (optics)

objectiveobjective lensobjectives
Compound microscope, which combine an objective lens with an eyepiece to view a real image achieving much higher magnification, first appeared in Europe around 1620 In 1665, Robert Hooke used a microscope about six inches long with two convex lenses inside and examined specimens under reflected light for the observations in his book Micrographia.