Cello

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The cello (plural celli or cellos) or violoncello is a bowed (and occasionally plucked) string instrument of the violin family.wikipedia
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List of cellists

cellistcellistsviolinist
Played by a cellist or violoncellist, it enjoys a large solo repertoire with and without accompaniment, as well as numerous concerti.
A person who plays the cello is called a cellist.

Viola

violistviolaselectric viola
Its four strings are usually tuned in perfect fifths: from low to high, C 2, G 2, D 3 and A 3, an octave lower than the viola. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight.
Since the 18th century, it has been the middle or alto voice of the violin family, between the violin (which is tuned a perfect fifth above) and the cello (which is tuned an octave below).

List of solo cello pieces

Cello solowithout accompaniment
Played by a cellist or violoncellist, it enjoys a large solo repertoire with and without accompaniment, as well as numerous concerti.
This is a list of notable solo cello pieces.

Cello sonata

cellocello sonatas3 Sonatas for Viola / Violoncello and Piano
Played by a cellist or violoncellist, it enjoys a large solo repertoire with and without accompaniment, as well as numerous concerti.
A cello sonata is usually a sonata written for solo cello with piano accompaniment.

Cello concerto

celloconcertiConcerto
Played by a cellist or violoncellist, it enjoys a large solo repertoire with and without accompaniment, as well as numerous concerti.
A cello concerto (sometimes called a violoncello concerto) is a concerto for solo cello with orchestra or, very occasionally, smaller groups of instruments.

String instrument

stringsstringstring instruments
The cello (plural celli or cellos) or violoncello is a bowed (and occasionally plucked) string instrument of the violin family.
Bowed instruments include the string section instruments of the Classical music orchestra (violin, viola, cello and double bass) and a number of other instruments (e.g., viols and gambas used in early music from the Baroque music era and fiddles used in many types of folk music).

Orchestra

symphony orchestraorchestralchamber orchestra
The cello often plays the bass part, both in chamber music such as string quartets and the orchestra's string section, where the cello may be reinforced an octave lower by the double basses. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, and is the bass voice of the string quartet (although many composers give it a melodic role as well), as well as being part of many other chamber groups.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of Western classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass, brass instruments such as the horn, trumpet, trombone and tuba, woodwinds such as the flute, oboe, clarinet and bassoon, and percussion instruments such as the timpani, bass drum, triangle, snare drum, cymbals, and mallet percussion instruments each grouped in sections.

String quartet

string quartetsquartetstring ensemble
The cello often plays the bass part, both in chamber music such as string quartets and the orchestra's string section, where the cello may be reinforced an octave lower by the double basses. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, and is the bass voice of the string quartet (although many composers give it a melodic role as well), as well as being part of many other chamber groups.
A string quartet refers to a musical ensemble consisting of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or to a musical composition written to be performed by such a group.

String section

stringsstringstring arrangement
The cello often plays the bass part, both in chamber music such as string quartets and the orchestra's string section, where the cello may be reinforced an octave lower by the double basses. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, and is the bass voice of the string quartet (although many composers give it a melodic role as well), as well as being part of many other chamber groups.
It normally consists of first and second violins, violas, cellos, and double basses.

Bassline

bassbass linewalking bass
The cello often plays the bass part, both in chamber music such as string quartets and the orchestra's string section, where the cello may be reinforced an octave lower by the double basses.
A bassline (also known as a bass line or bass part) is the term used in many styles of music, such as jazz, blues, funk, dub and electronic, traditional music, or classical music for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played (in jazz and some forms of popular music) by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass, double bass, cello, tuba or keyboard (piano, Hammond organ, electric organ, or synthesizer).

Double bass

bassupright bassacoustic bass
The cello often plays the bass part, both in chamber music such as string quartets and the orchestra's string section, where the cello may be reinforced an octave lower by the double basses. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight.
Classical bass students learn all of the different bow articulations used by other string section players (e.g., violin and cello), such as détaché, legato, staccato, sforzato, martelé ("hammered"-style), sul ponticello, sul tasto, tremolo, spiccato and sautillé.

Viol

viola da gambabass violgambist
Figured bass music of the Baroque-era typically assumes a cello, viola da gamba or bassoon as part of the basso continuo group alongside chordal instruments such as organ, harpsichord), lute or theorbo).
Although bass viols superficially resemble cellos, viols are different in numerous respects from instruments of the violin family: the viol family has flat rather than curved backs, sloped rather than rounded shoulders, c holes rather than f holes, and five to seven rather than four strings; some of the many additional differences are tuning strategy (in fourths with a third in the middle—similar to a lute—rather than in fifths), the presence of frets, and underhand ("German") rather than overhand ("French") bow grip.

Clef

treble clefbass cleftreble
Music for the cello is generally written in the bass clef, with tenor clef and treble clef used for higher-range passages.
The tenor clef is used for the upper register of several instruments that usually use bass clef (including cello, bassoon, and trombone), while the alto is only used by the viola and a few other instruments.

Cello Suites (Bach)

Cello SuitesCello SuiteBach Cello Suites
Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach's six unaccompanied Suites.
The six Cello Suites, BWV 1007-1012, are suites for unaccompanied cello by Johann Sebastian Bach.

Chamber music

chamberchamber ensemblechamber works
The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, and is the bass voice of the string quartet (although many composers give it a melodic role as well), as well as being part of many other chamber groups.
The instrumentation of trio sonatas was also often flexibly specified; some of Handel's sonatas are scored for "German flute, Hoboy [oboe] or Violin" Bass lines could be played by violone, cello, theorbo, or bassoon, and sometimes three or four instruments would join in the bass line in unison.

Cello rock

cello metalCello rock and cello metal
Cellos are found in many other ensembles, from modern Chinese orchestras to cello rock bands.
Cello rock and cello metal are subgenres of rock music characterized by the use of cellos (as well as other bowed string instruments such as the violin and viola) as primary instruments, alongside or in place of more traditional rock instruments such as electric guitars, electric bass guitar, and drum set.

Endpin

end pinRock Stop
Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight.
The endpin or spike is the component of a cello or double bass that makes contact with the floor to support the instrument's weight.

Baroque music

BaroqueBaroque eraBaroque period
Figured bass music of the Baroque-era typically assumes a cello, viola da gamba or bassoon as part of the basso continuo group alongside chordal instruments such as organ, harpsichord), lute or theorbo).
Baroque concerts were typically accompanied by a basso continuo group (comprising chord-playing instrumentalists such as harpsichordists and lute players improvising chords from a figured bass part) while a group of bass instruments—viol, cello, double bass—played the bassline.

Double Concerto (Brahms)

Double ConcertoDouble Concerto in A minorConcerto for Violin, Cello and Orchestra
Other well-known works of the era include the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms.
The Double Concerto in A minor, Op. 102, by Johannes Brahms is a concerto for violin, cello and orchestra.

Jacqueline du Pré

Jacqueline du PreJacqueline DuPreJacqueline "Jackie" du Pre
Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudnadottir, Han-Na Chang, Mstislav Rostropovich and Beatrice Harrison.
Jacqueline Mary du Pré, OBE (26 January 1945 – 19 October 1987) was a British cellist.

Hildur Guðnadóttir

Hildur GudnadóttirHildur GudnadottirLost In Hildurness
Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudnadottir, Han-Na Chang, Mstislav Rostropovich and Beatrice Harrison.
A classically trained cellist, she has played and recorded with the bands Pan Sonic, Throbbing Gristle, Múm and Stórsveit Nix Noltes, and has also toured with Animal Collective and Sunn O))).

Mstislav Rostropovich

RostropovichMstislav RostropovitchRostropovitch
Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudnadottir, Han-Na Chang, Mstislav Rostropovich and Beatrice Harrison.
Mstislav Leopoldovich "Slava" Rostropovich (Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, ; 27 March 1927 – 27 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian cellist and conductor.

Intonation (music)

intonationintonateintonation sensitivity
Its four strings are usually tuned in perfect fifths: from low to high, C 2, G 2, D 3 and A 3, an octave lower than the viola.
With fretless string instruments such as violins or cellos, intonation depends on the exact places the musician's fingers press the strings against the instrument's fingerboard, as well as any pull or push the musician exerts on the string, either along the string's length or perpendicular to it.

Yo-Yo Ma

Yo Yo MaYoYo MaItzhak Perlman, Yo Yo Ma
Others include Anner Bylsma, Yo-Yo Ma, Pablo Casals, Julian Lloyd Webber, Alfred Wallenstein, Mischa Maisky and Gregor Piatigorsky.
Yo-Yo Ma (born October 7, 1955) is an American cellist.

Zara Nelsova

Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudnadottir, Han-Na Chang, Mstislav Rostropovich and Beatrice Harrison.
Zara Nelsova (December 23, 1918 – October 10, 2002) was a prominent cellist.