Cellular differentiation

differentiationcell differentiationdifferentiatedifferentiatedundifferentiateddedifferentiationdevelopmentdifferentiated celldifferentiatesdifferentiating
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.wikipedia
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Adult stem cell

adult stem cellsadult stem cell researchadult
Differentiation continues in adulthood as adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover.
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues.

Developmental biology

developmentdevelopmental biologistdevelopmental
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The main processes involved in the embryonic development of animals are: regional specification, morphogenesis, cell differentiation, growth, and the overall control of timing explored in evolutionary developmental biology:

Gene expression

expressionexpressedexpress
These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression and are the study of epigenetics.
Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism.

Meristem

apical meristemapexshoot apical meristem
Such cells are called meristematic cells in higher plants and embryonic stem cells in animals, though some groups report the presence of adult pluripotent cells.
Meristematic cells are incompletely or not at all differentiated, and are capable of continued cellular division.

Germ cell

germ cellsprimordial germ cellsgerm
Three basic categories of cells make up the mammalian body: germ cells, somatic cells, and stem cells.
There, they undergo meiosis, followed by cellular differentiation into mature gametes, either eggs or sperm.

Gastrulation

gastrulablastoporedorsal lip
A pathway that is guided by the cell adhesion molecules consisting of four amino acids, arginine, glycine, asparagine, and serine, is created as the cellular blastomere differentiates from the single-layered blastula to the three primary layers of germ cells in mammals, namely the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm (listed from most distal (exterior) to proximal (interior)).
Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula. Before gastrulation, the embryo is a continuous epithelial sheet of cells; by the end of gastrulation, the embryo has begun differentiation to establish distinct cell lineages, set up the basic axes of the body (e.g. dorsal-ventral, anterior-posterior), and internalized one or more cell types including the prospective gut.

Somatic cell

somatic cellssomaticvegetative cell
Three basic categories of cells make up the mammalian body: germ cells, somatic cells, and stem cells.
In contrast, gametes are cells that fuse during sexual reproduction, germ cells are cells that give rise to gametes, and stem cells are cells that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types.

Progenitor cell

progenitor cellsprogenitorprogenitors
Pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent progenitor cells that then give rise to functional cells.
But progenitors are said to be in a further stage of cell differentiation.

Ploidy

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Most cells are diploid; they have two copies of each chromosome.
However, in many situations somatic cells double their copy number by means of endoreduplication as an aspect of cellular differentiation.

Grading (tumors)

gradelow-gradetumor grade
"Grade" is a marker of how differentiated a cell in a tumor is.
The neoplastic grading is a measure of cell anaplasia (reversion of differentiation) in the sampled tumor and is based on the resemblance of the tumor to the tissue of origin.

Mesenchymal stem cell

mesenchymal stem cellsmesenchymal cellmesenchymal
Mesenchymal stem cells (adult stem cells) from the bone marrow that give rise to stromal cells, fat cells, and types of bone cells
Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).

Cell type

cell typescell-typecell-types
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Most distinct cell types arise from a single totipotent cell that differentiates into hundreds of different cell types during the course of development.

Germ layer

germ layersmesodermectoderm
A pathway that is guided by the cell adhesion molecules consisting of four amino acids, arginine, glycine, asparagine, and serine, is created as the cellular blastomere differentiates from the single-layered blastula to the three primary layers of germ cells in mammals, namely the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm (listed from most distal (exterior) to proximal (interior)).
Although they have differentiated cells (e.g. collar cells), they lack true tissue coordination.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Most distinct cell types arise from a single totipotent cell, called a zygote, that differentiates into hundreds of different cell types during the course of development.

Blastocyst

blastocysts
In humans, approximately four days after fertilization and after several cycles of cell division, these cells begin to specialize, forming a hollow sphere of cells, called a blastocyst.
During human embryogenesis, approximately 5–6 days after fertilization, the cells of the morula begin to undergo cell differentiation, and the morula changes into the blastocyst.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself.
Consequently, these proteins are often the targets of the signal transduction processes that control responses to environmental changes or cellular differentiation and development.

Radial glial cell

radial gliaBergmann gliaRadial glial cells
Radial glial cells (embryonic neural stem cells) that give rise to excitatory neurons in the fetal brain through the process of neurogenesis.
Studies suggest that Müller glia can dedifferentiate into readily dividing neural progenitors in response to injury.

White blood cell

leukocyteleukocyteswhite blood cells
Hematopoietic stem cells (adult stem cells) from the bone marrow that give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
The other dichotomy is by lineage: Myeloid cells (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils) are distinguished from lymphoid cells (lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).

Tissue (biology)

tissuetissuesbiological tissue
Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as it changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types.
Ground tissue - Ground tissue is less differentiated than other tissues. Ground tissue manufactures nutrients by photosynthesis and stores reserve nutrients.

Morphogenesis

developmentmorphogeneticmorphogenic
The systems biology approach to developmental biology emphasizes the importance of investigating how developmental mechanisms interact to produce predictable patterns (morphogenesis).
It is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation, unified in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo).

Regulation of gene expression

gene regulationregulatoryregulation
Each cell type is defined by its particular pattern of regulated gene expression.
In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives cellular differentiation and morphogenesis in the embryo, leading to the creation of different cell types that possess different gene expression profiles from the same genome sequence.

Myosatellite cell

satellite cellssatellite cellmuscle satellite cells
Muscle satellite cells (progenitor cells) that contribute to differentiated muscle tissue.
Activated satellite cells initially proliferate as skeletal myoblasts before undergoing myogenic differentiation.

Multicellular organism

multicellularmulticellular organismsmulticellularity
Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as it changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types.
The mechanism of this latter colony formation can be as simple as incomplete cytokinesis, though multicellularity is also typically considered to involve cellular differentiation.

Stem cell

stem cellsstem cell researchstem-cell research
Three basic categories of cells make up the mammalian body: germ cells, somatic cells, and stem cells.
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells, and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

Cell culture

cultureculturedcell cultures
Cells in cell culture can lose properties they originally had, such as protein expression, or change shape.
Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cellular differentiation.