Cellulose

cellulolyticcellulosiccellulose estercellulolysisCellulosic biomass(1,4-beta-D-glucosyl)nE460Rosette terminal complex40%(C 6 H 10 O 5 ) n C 6 H 10 O 5
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D -glucose units.wikipedia
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Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D -glucose units.
There it is used to make cellulose in cell walls, which is the most abundant carbohydrate.

Cell wall

cell wallsplant cell wallprimary cell wall
Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes.
The primary cell wall of land plants is composed of the polysaccharides cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectin.

Polysaccharide

polysaccharidesheteropolysaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D -glucose units.
Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.

Cotton

cotton woolcotton industrycotton fiber
The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.
The fiber is almost pure cellulose.

Wood

heartwoodwoodensapwood
The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.
It is an organic material - a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression.

Paper

sheetpaper manufacturingpaper making
Cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

Cellophane

cellocellophant
Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon.
Cellophane is a thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose.

Cellulosic ethanol

Cellulosic biofuelcellulose ethanolcellulosic technologies
Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel source.
Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit.

Termite

termitesIsopterawhite ants
Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Trichonympha.
Termites mostly feed on dead plant material and cellulose, generally in the form of wood, leaf litter, soil, or animal dung.

Biofuel

biofuelsbio-fuelbio-fuels
Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel source.
Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production.

Dietary fiber

fiberdietary fibresoluble fiber
In human nutrition, cellulose is a non-digestible constituent of insoluble dietary fiber, acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and potentially aiding in defecation.
Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignins, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth.
A variety of other natural polymers exist, such as cellulose, which is the main constituent of wood and paper.

Rayon

modalviscose rayonviscose process
Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon.
Rayon is made from purified cellulose, harvested primarily from wood pulp, which is chemically converted into a soluble compound.

Human nutrition

nutritionhuman dietnutritional
In human nutrition, cellulose is a non-digestible constituent of insoluble dietary fiber, acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and potentially aiding in defecation.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms.
Bacterial cell walls are different from the cell walls of plants and fungi, which are made of cellulose and chitin, respectively.

Anselme Payen

distinguished French scientist who discovered cellulosePayen, Anselme
Cellulose was discovered in 1838 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who isolated it from plant matter and determined its chemical formula.
Anselme Payen (6 January 1795 – 13 May 1871) was a French chemist known for discovering the enzyme diastase, and the carbohydrate cellulose.

Lignin

lignifiedlignificationlignins
The high tensile strength of plant stems and of the tree wood also arises from the arrangement of cellulose fibers intimately distributed into the lignin matrix. Plant-derived cellulose is usually found in a mixture with hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other substances, while bacterial cellulose is quite pure, has a much higher water content and higher tensile strength due to higher chain lengths.
It is one of the most abundant organic polymers on Earth, exceeded only by cellulose.

Ruminant

ruminantschew their cudruminate
Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Trichonympha.
Fiber, especially cellulose and hemicellulose, is primarily broken down in these chambers by microbes (mostly bacteria, as well as some protozoa, fungi, and yeast) into the three volatile fatty acids (VFAs): acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid.

Celluloid

ParkesineXylonitefilm
Cellulose was used to produce the first successful thermoplastic polymer, celluloid, by Hyatt Manufacturing Company in 1870.
Parkesine was made from cellulose treated with nitric acid and a solvent.

Bacterial cellulose

microbial celluloseBacterial
Plant-derived cellulose is usually found in a mixture with hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other substances, while bacterial cellulose is quite pure, has a much higher water content and higher tensile strength due to higher chain lengths.
While cellulose is a basic structural material of most plants, it is also produced by bacteria, principally of the genera Acetobacter, Sarcina ventriculi and Agrobacterium.

Regenerated cellulose

Cellulose in regenerated cellulose fibers is cellulose II.
Regenerated cellulose is a class of materials manufactured by the conversion of natural cellulose to a soluble cellulosic derivative and subsequent regeneration, typically forming either a fiber (via polymer spinning) or a film (via polymer casting).

Hemicellulose

hemi-cellulosehemicellulosic15%
Plant-derived cellulose is usually found in a mixture with hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other substances, while bacterial cellulose is quite pure, has a much higher water content and higher tensile strength due to higher chain lengths.
A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is one of a number of heteropolymer (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all terrestrial plant cell walls.

Cellodextrin

cellodextrins
Molecules with very small chain length resulting from the breakdown of cellulose are known as cellodextrins; in contrast to long-chain cellulose, cellodextrins are typically soluble in water and organic solvents.
Cellodextrins are glucose polymers of varying length (two or more glucose monomers) resulting from cellulolysis, the breakdown of cellulose.

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
This linkage motif contrasts with that for α(1→4)-glycosidic bonds present in starch and glycogen.
The glucose is used to generate the chemical energy required for general metabolism, to make organic compounds such as nucleic acids, lipids, proteins and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose, or is stored in the form of starch granules, in amyloplasts.

Nanocellulose

nanocrystalline cellulosecellulose nanocrystalscellulose nanofibers
By treating it with strong acid, the amorphous regions can be broken up, thereby producing nanocrystalline cellulose, a novel material with many desirable properties.
CNF is a material composed of nanosized cellulose fibrils with a high aspect ratio (length to width ratio).