Cellulose acetate film

safety filmvinegar syndromecellulose acetatesafety film stocksafety stockacetate "safety" filmacetate baseAcetate filmacetate filmsacetate safety
Cellulose acetate film, or safety film, is used in photography as a base material for photographic emulsions.wikipedia
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Photography

photographerphotographicstill photography
Cellulose acetate film, or safety film, is used in photography as a base material for photographic emulsions.
Although cellulose acetate or "safety film" had been introduced by Kodak in 1908, at first it found only a few special applications as an alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantages of being considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper.

Arthur Eichengrün

Cellulose diacetate film was first created by the German chemists Arthur Eichengrün and Theodore Becker, who patented it under the name Cellit, from a process they devised in 1901 for the direct acetylation of cellulose at a low temperature to prevent its degradation, which permitted the degree of acetylation to be controlled, thereby avoiding total conversion to its triacetate.
He contributed to photochemistry by inventing the first process for the production and development of cellulose acetate film, which he patented with Becker.

Photographic film

filmfilm camerafilms
Miles's process (partially hydrolysing the polymer) was employed commercially for photographic film in 1909 by Eastman Kodak and the Pathé Fréres.
Although cellulose acetate or "safety film" had been introduced by Kodak in 1908, at first it found only a few special applications as an alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantages of being considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper.

Nitrocellulose

nitrate filmguncottoncellulose nitrate
It was introduced in the early 20th century by film manufacturers and intended as a safe film base replacement for unstable and highly flammable nitrate film.
After numerous fires caused by unstable nitrate films, "safety film" (cellulose acetate film) started to be used from the 1930s in the case of X-ray stock and from 1948 for motion-picture film.

Cellulose diacetate

diacetate fiber
Cellulose diacetate film was first created by the German chemists Arthur Eichengrün and Theodore Becker, who patented it under the name Cellit, from a process they devised in 1901 for the direct acetylation of cellulose at a low temperature to prevent its degradation, which permitted the degree of acetylation to be controlled, thereby avoiding total conversion to its triacetate.
When cellulose diacetate deteriorates, it shrinks and releases acetic acid, causing a "vinegar syndrome".

Film base

baseNitratebases
It was introduced in the early 20th century by film manufacturers and intended as a safe film base replacement for unstable and highly flammable nitrate film.
This is known as vinegar syndrome.

Cellulose triacetate

triacetatetriacetate fiber
Starting with cellulose diacetate, this innovation continued with cellulose acetate propionate and cellulose acetate butyrate in the 1930s, and finally in the late 1940s, cellulose triacetate was introduced, alongside polyester bases.

Film stock

filmmotion picture filmstock
During early stages of decay, the film content can be rescued by transferring it to new film stock.
In the 1930s, film manufacturers introduced "safety film" with a cellulose triacetate plastic base.

Replication (microscopy)

ReplicationReplication (metallography)
Replication can be used to understand the distribution, for example, of different types of iron in carbon steel samples, or the fine distribution of damage to a sample subject to mechanical wear.
The same materials, cellulose acetate films, are used for creating replicas of biological materials such as bacteria.

Photographic emulsion

emulsionemulsionsphoto emulsion
Cellulose acetate film, or safety film, is used in photography as a base material for photographic emulsions.

Combustibility and flammability

flammableflammabilitycombustible
It was introduced in the early 20th century by film manufacturers and intended as a safe film base replacement for unstable and highly flammable nitrate film.

Acetone

(CH 3 ) 2 COacetonylCH 3 COCH 3
A cellulose diacetate film more readily dissolved in acetone was developed by the American chemist George Miles in 1904.

Pathé

Pathé ExchangePathé FrèresPathé Distribution
Miles's process (partially hydrolysing the polymer) was employed commercially for photographic film in 1909 by Eastman Kodak and the Pathé Fréres.

Polyester

polyestersUnsaturated polyesteraromatic polyester
Starting with cellulose diacetate, this innovation continued with cellulose acetate propionate and cellulose acetate butyrate in the 1930s, and finally in the late 1940s, cellulose triacetate was introduced, alongside polyester bases.

Chemical stability

stabilitythermodynamic stabilitychemically stable
The chemical instability of cellulose acetate material, unrecognized at the time of its introduction, has since become a major threat for film archives and collections.

Kodak

Eastman KodakEastman Kodak CompanyEastman Kodak Co.
Miles's process (partially hydrolysing the polymer) was employed commercially for photographic film in 1909 by Eastman Kodak and the Pathé Fréres.

Acetic acid

aceticglacial acetic acidacetate
This material releases acetic acid, the key ingredient in vinegar and responsible for its acidic smell.

Vinegar

malt vinegarwhite vinegarcoconut vinegar
This material releases acetic acid, the key ingredient in vinegar and responsible for its acidic smell.

Acetyl group

acetylAcacetylate
In acetate film, acetyl (CH 3 CO) groups are attached to long molecular chains of cellulose.

Cellulose

cellulolyticcellulosiccellulose ester
In acetate film, acetyl (CH 3 CO) groups are attached to long molecular chains of cellulose.