A report on Middle Ages and Celtic Britons

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
Drawing of two Celtic Britons (c. 1574); one with tattoos, and carrying a spear and shield; the other painted with woad, and carrying a sword and round shield.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
The Staffordshire Moorlands Pan
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
The Battersea Shield, a ceremonial bronze shield dated 3rd–1st century BC, is an example of La Tène Celtic art from Britain
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
Tribal groups in southern Britain c.150 AD
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
A reconstruction drawing of Pagans Hill Romano-British temple
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
Britons migrated westwards during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Yr Hen Ogledd (the Old North) c. 550 – c. 650
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Great Britain and adjacent islands in the 5th century AD, before the invasion and subsequent founding of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.
Mainly (non-Pictish) Brittonic areas
Mainly Pictish areas
Mainly Goidelic areas
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
Celtic warrior recreation, including carnyx and a replica of the Waterloo Helmet
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
Recreated Celtic Village at St Fagan National Museum of History, Wales
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Recreation of Celt Playing Carnyx War Trumpet
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

The Britons (*Pritanī, Britanni), also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons were the Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from at least the British Iron Age and into the Middle Ages, at which point they diverged into the Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).

- Celtic Britons

Elsewhere in Gaul, the Franks and Celtic Britons set up stable polities.

- Middle Ages
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

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Brittany

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Peninsula, historical country, and cultural area in the west of modern France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.

Peninsula, historical country, and cultural area in the west of modern France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.

The Carnac stones
The five Gallic tribes of Brittany
The temple of Mars in Corseul
A French map of the traditional regions of Brittany in Ancien Régime France. The earlier state of Domnonia or Domnonée that united Brittany comprised the counties along the north coast
The Brythonic community around the 6th century. The sea was a communication medium rather than a barrier.
A 1922 nationalist engraving of Nominoe, first king of Brittany
Battle of Ar Roc'h-Derrien during the War of the Breton Succession
Anne of Brittany is regarded in Brittany as a conscientious ruler who defended the duchy against France.
Province of Brittany (1789) - showing internal borders of five new departments: Côtes-du-Nord (now Côtes-d%27Armor), Finistère, Ille-et-Villaine, Loire-Inférieure (now Loire-Atlantique) and Morbihan.
The mutineers of Fouesnant arrested by the National Guard of Quimper in 1792
A Royal Air Force attack on Saint-Malo in 1942
The Amoco Cadiz oil spill in 1978 significantly affected the Breton coast
The Château des ducs de Bretagne in Nantes, permanent residence of the last dukes
The region Brittany comprises four historical Breton départements. Loire-Atlantique, in light blue, is part of the Pays de la Loire region.
This Loire-Atlantique road sign reads "welcome to historical Brittany".
The Pink Granite Coast around Trégastel
A bog around the Monts d'Arrée
The Pointe du Raz, one of the westernmost extents of both Brittany and Metropolitan France
An ocean sunfish exhibiting its characteristic horizontal basking behaviour several miles off Penmarch
A Breton horse
A battalion of the Saint-Cyr-Coëtquidan military academy
, once the world's largest passenger ship, was built in Saint-Nazaire.
A fishing trawler from Le Guilvinec
Rennes, the most populated city in Region Brittany and the second in historical Brittany, behind Nantes
Breton women wearing the Bigouden distinctive headdress, one of the symbols of Breton identity
Lower Brittany (in colours), where the Breton language is traditionally spoken and Upper Brittany (in shades of grey), where the Gallo language is traditionally spoken. The changing shades indicate the advance of Gallo and French, and retreat of Breton from 900 AD.
Bilingual road signs can be seen in traditional Breton-speaking areas.
Signs in Gallo are very rare and the writing systems they use are unknown by most of the speakers.
Sculpted "calvaries" can be found in many villages in Lower Brittany.
A chapel and a calvary in Locronan, Finistère
A sculpted Ankou in Ploudiry
Josselin Castle
A traditional house in Plougoumelen
An Art Deco villa in Bénodet
The Beautiful Angèle by Paul Gauguin
The Lann-Bihoué bagad
Nolwenn Leroy and Alan Stivell (2012)
The singer-songwriter Théodore Botrel dressed in traditional Breton costume
The Götheborg ship replica at the Brest tall ship meeting in 2012
Roazhon Park in Rennes
Galettes served with eggs and sausages
An old road sign on the Route Nationale 786 in Tréveneuc
The Morlaix railway viaduct is one of the highest in France.
The Brittany Ferries MS Bretagne off Saint-Malo
The modern flag of Brittany
The ermine was the badge of several dukes of Brittany.
Merlin's tomb in the Brocéliande forest, Paimpont
A dolmen in Plouharnel
The city wall of Guérande
Castle of Saint-Malo, Qui Qu'en Grogne Tower
Château de Suscinio
Île Vierge lighthouse
Parlement of Brittany in Rennes
Abbey and lighthouse of Saint-Mathieu
Ar Meilhoù Glaz, a Bagad from Quimper
Festival du chant de marin, sea songs festival in Paimpol
A Breton headdress from Batz-sur-Mer
Modern Brittany - Illustration from Legends & Romances of Brittany by Lewis Spence, illustrated by W. Otway Cannell.
Men Ruz lighthouse, Ploumanac'h

The word Brittany, along with its French, Breton and Gallo equivalents Bretagne, Breizh and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means "land of the Britons".

The best soils were primitively covered by large forests which had been progressively replaced by bocage during the Middle Ages.

St. Kildans sitting on the village street Victorian-era Property of the National Trust for Scotland taken in 1886.

Scottish people

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The Scots (Scots Fowk; Albannaich) are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland.

The Scots (Scots Fowk; Albannaich) are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland.

St. Kildans sitting on the village street Victorian-era Property of the National Trust for Scotland taken in 1886.
The Covenanters were members of a 17th-century Scottish religious and political movement
Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie
James Naismith, the inventor of Basketball.
The province of Nova Scotia where over 30% of the population are of Scottish origin.
The Australian city of Brisbane is named after Scotsman Thomas Brisbane.
Scottish Highland family migrating to New Zealand in 1844
Troops of the South African Scottish regiment in France, 1918
Guy Scott, the 12th vice-president and acting president of Zambia from Oct 2014 – Jan 2015, is of Scottish descent.
Patrick Gordon was a Russian General originally from Scotland and a friend of Peter the Great.

In the Early Middle Ages, Scotland saw several ethnic or cultural groups mentioned in contemporary sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels, the Britons, and the Angles, with the last of these settling in the southeast of the country.

Historian Susan Reynolds has put forward how, since the Middle Ages, there have been attempts to obfuscate the ethnic plurality of Scottish people due to the political practicalities of nation building.