Celtic languages

CelticCeltic languageQ-CelticCeltic wordCeltic-speakingP-CelticCeltic language familyCeltic linguisticslanguageQ Celtic
The Celtic languages (usually, but sometimes ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic.wikipedia
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Proto-Celtic language

Proto-CelticCelticCommon Celtic
The Celtic languages (usually, but sometimes ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic.
The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.

Celts

CelticCeltCeltic people
The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707, following Paul-Yves Pezron, who made the explicit link between the Celts described by classical writers and the Welsh and Breton languages.
The Celts (, see pronunciation of Celt for different usages) are a collection of ethnic groups of Europe identified by their use of the Indo-European Celtic languages and cultural similarities.

Welsh language

WelshWelsh-languageWelsh-speaking
The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707, following Paul-Yves Pezron, who made the explicit link between the Celts described by classical writers and the Welsh and Breton languages. There are four living languages: Welsh, Breton, Irish and Scottish Gaelic. These are the Goidelic languages (i.e. Irish and Scottish Gaelic, which are both descended from Middle Irish) and the Brittonic languages (i.e. Welsh and Breton, which are both descended from Common Brittonic).
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg ) is a Brittonic language of the Celtic language family.

Breton language

BretonOld BretonMiddle Breton
The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707, following Paul-Yves Pezron, who made the explicit link between the Celts described by classical writers and the Welsh and Breton languages. There are four living languages: Welsh, Breton, Irish and Scottish Gaelic. These are the Goidelic languages (i.e. Irish and Scottish Gaelic, which are both descended from Middle Irish) and the Brittonic languages (i.e. Welsh and Breton, which are both descended from Common Brittonic).
Breton (, ; brezhoneg or in Morbihan ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family spoken in Brittany.

Irish language

IrishGaelicIrish Gaelic
There are four living languages: Welsh, Breton, Irish and Scottish Gaelic. These are the Goidelic languages (i.e. Irish and Scottish Gaelic, which are both descended from Middle Irish) and the Brittonic languages (i.e. Welsh and Breton, which are both descended from Common Brittonic).
Irish (undefined) is a Goidelic language of the Celtic languages family, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family.

Cornish language

CornishOld CornishMiddle Cornish
The Cornish and Manx languages went extinct in modern times.
Cornish (Standard Written Form: Kernewek or Kernowek ) is a Southwestern Brittonic language of the Celtic language family.

Manx language

ManxManx Gaeliclanguage
The Cornish and Manx languages went extinct in modern times.
Manx (native name Gaelg or Gailck, pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a member of the Goidelic (Gaelic) language branch of the Celtic languages of the Indo-European language family; it was spoken as a first language by some of the Manx people on the Isle of Man until the death of the last native speaker, Ned Maddrell, in 1974.

Continental Celtic languages

Continental CelticCelticContinental
They may be divided into a Continental group and an Insular group, or else into P-Celtic and Q-Celtic.
The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles, Ireland and Brittany.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
They form a branch of the Indo-European language family.
He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic languages.

Ireland

IrishIRLisland of Ireland
Welsh is an official language in Wales and Irish is an official language of Ireland and of the European Union.
According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that also included Britain, western France and Iberia, and that this is where Celtic languages developed.

Galatian language

GalatianAnatoliaGalatian Celtic
The Continental Celtic languages, such as Celtiberian, Galatian and Gaulish, are all extinct.
Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken by the Galatians in Galatia mainly in north central lands of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to at least the 4th century AD, although ancient sources suggest it was still spoken in the 6th century.

Celtiberian language

CeltiberianCeltib.Celtiberic
The Continental Celtic languages, such as Celtiberian, Galatian and Gaulish, are all extinct.
Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians in an area of the Iberian Peninsula between the headwaters of the Douro, Tagus, J煤car and Turia rivers and the Ebro river.

Celtic literature

literaturea rich literary traditionCeltic
The Celtic languages have a rich literary tradition.
In the strictly academic context of Celtic studies, the term Celtic literature is used by Celticists to denote any number of bodies of literature written in a Celtic language, encompassing the Irish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Scottish Gaelic and Breton languages in either their modern or earlier forms.

Lepontic language

LeponticLepontic Celtic languageLepontics
The earliest specimens of written Celtic are Lepontic inscriptions from the 6th century BC in the Alps.
Lepontic is an ancient Alpine Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Rhaetia and Cisalpine Gaul (what is now Northern Italy) between 550 and 100 BC.

Common Brittonic

BrittonicBrythonicBritish
These are the Goidelic languages (i.e. Irish and Scottish Gaelic, which are both descended from Middle Irish) and the Brittonic languages (i.e. Welsh and Breton, which are both descended from Common Brittonic).
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.

Latin alphabet

LatinRoman alphabetRoman
Between the 4th and 8th centuries, Irish and Pictish were occasionally written in an original script, Ogham, but the Latin alphabet came to be used for all Celtic languages.
During the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was used (sometimes with modifications) for writing Romance languages, which are direct descendants of Latin, as well as Celtic, Germanic, Baltic and some Slavic languages.

Brittonic languages

BrythonicBrittonicBrythonic languages
These are the Goidelic languages (i.e. Irish and Scottish Gaelic, which are both descended from Middle Irish) and the Brittonic languages (i.e. Welsh and Breton, which are both descended from Common Brittonic). Irish and Scottish form the Goidelic languages, while Welsh and Breton are Brittonic.
The names "Brittonic" and "Brythonic" are scholarly conventions referring to the Celtic languages of Britain and to the ancestral language they originated from, designated Common Brittonic, in contrast to the Goidelic languages originating in Ireland.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
Welsh is an official language in Wales and Irish is an official language of Ireland and of the European Union.
Most official languages of the EU belong to the Indo-European language family, represented by the Balto-Slavic, the Italic, the Germanic, the Hellenic, and the Celtic branches.

Old Italic scripts

Old ItalicOld Italic alphabetOld Italic script
Early Continental inscriptions used Italic and Paleohispanic scripts.
The Old Italic alphabets were used for various different languages, which included some Indo-European ones (predominantly from the Italic branch, but also Celtic or Germanic) and some non-Indo-European ones (such as Etruscan itself).

Pictish language

PictishPictsa Brythonic language
Between the 4th and 8th centuries, Irish and Pictish were occasionally written in an original script, Ogham, but the Latin alphabet came to be used for all Celtic languages.

Edinburgh

Edinburgh, ScotlandCity of EdinburghEdinburgh, United Kingdom
"Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language formerly spoken there.

Language revitalization

Language revivalrevitalizationrevival
All are minority languages in their respective countries, though there are continuing efforts at revitalisation.
While English is dominant through most of Ireland, Irish, a Celtic language, is still spoken in certain areas called Gaeltachta铆, but there it is in serious decline.

Edward Lhuyd

Edward LhwydEdward LluydEdward Llwyd
The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707, following Paul-Yves Pezron, who made the explicit link between the Celts described by classical writers and the Welsh and Breton languages.
Lhuyd noted the similarity between the two linguistic families: Brythonic or P鈥揅eltic (Breton, Cornish and Welsh); and Goidelic or Q鈥揅eltic (Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic).

Wales

馃彺鬆仹鬆仮鬆伔鬆伂鬆伋鬆伩WelshWAL
Welsh is an official language in Wales and Irish is an official language of Ireland and of the European Union.
In his 1707 work Archaeologia Britannica Edward Lhuyd, keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, noted the similarity between the two Celtic language families: Brythonic or P鈥揅eltic (Breton, Cornish and Welsh); and Goidelic or Q鈥揅eltic (Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic).

Galway

Galway CityGalway, IrelandCity of Galway
NUI Galway also holds the archive of spoken material for the Celtic languages.