Cenozoic

Cenozoic EraCainozoicAge of MammalsCaenozoicLate CenozoicCainozoic Era50 million yearsCenezoicCenozoic agecenozoic plants
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.wikipedia
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Mesozoic

Mesozoic EraAge of Dinosaursage of the dinosaurs
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
The Mesozoic ("middle life") is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, preceded by the Paleozoic ("ancient life") and succeeded by the Cenozoic ("new life").

Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian
The Cenozoic is also known as the Age of Mammals, because the extinction of many groups allowed mammals to greatly diversify so that large mammals dominated the Earth.
The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, and have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present.

Quaternary

Quaternary PeriodQuaternary agelast 2.5 million years
The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

Era (geology)

Eraerasgeologic era
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
The Phanerozoic Eon is divided into three such time frames: the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic (meaning "old life", "middle life" and "recent life") that represent the major stages in the macroscopic fossil record.

Paleogene

PalaeogenePaleogene PeriodLower Tertiary
The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene.
It is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era of the present Phanerozoic Eon.

Pleistocene

Pleistocene epochLate PleistocenePleistocene era
The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene. The Earth's climate had begun a drying and cooling trend, culminating in the glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch, and partially offset by the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.
The Pleistocene is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era.

Paleocene

PalaeoceneLate PaleocenePaleocene epoch
The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene. It features three epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene.
It is the first epoch of the Paleogene Period in the modern Cenozoic Era.

Eocene

Late EoceneMiddle EoceneEocene Epoch
The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene. It features three epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

Tertiary

Tertiary periodTertiary eraTertiary age
The Quaternary Period was officially recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy in June 2009, and the former term, Tertiary Period, became officially disused in 2004 due to the need to divide the Cenozoic into periods more like those of the earlier Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
The period began with the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, at the start of the Cenozoic Era, and extended to the beginning of the Quaternary glaciation at the end of the Pliocene Epoch.

Epoch (geology)

epochepochsgeological epoch
It features three epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene.
Cenozoic

Holocene

PresentRecentHolocene epoch
The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene.
The suffix '-cene' is used for all the seven epochs of the Cenozoic Era.

Pliocene

Pliocene epochLate PlioceneEarly Pliocene
The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene.
It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

Great American Interchange

Great American Biotic Interchangefaunal exchangefaunal interchange
The isthmus of Panama formed, and animals migrated between North and South America during the great American interchange, wreaking havoc on local ecologies.
The Great American Interchange was an important late Cenozoic paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central America to South America and vice versa, as the volcanic Isthmus of Panama rose up from the sea floor and bridged the formerly separated continents.

Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

extinction of the dinosaursCretaceous-Paleogene extinction eventK-Pg extinction event
It is generally believed to have started on the day of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event when an asteroid hit the earth.
It marked the end of the Cretaceous period and with it, the entire Mesozoic Era, opening the Cenozoic Era that continues today.

Poaceae

grassturfgrass family
The Late Eocene saw the rebirth of seasons, which caused the expansion of savanna-like areas, along with the evolution of grass.
The evolution of large grazing animals in the Cenozoic contributed to the spread of grasses.

Phorusrhacidae

phorusrhacidterror birdterror birds
A group of avians known as the "terror birds" grew larger than the average human and were formidable predators.
Phorusrhacids, colloquially known as terror birds, are an extinct clade of large carnivorous flightless birds that were the largest species of apex predators in South America during the Cenozoic era; their conventionally accepted temporal range covers from 62 to 1.8 million years (Ma) ago.

Ice age

ice agesglacial maximumglacial period
The Mediterranean Sea dried up for several million years (because the ice ages reduced sea levels, disconnecting the Atlantic from the Mediterranean, and evaporation rates exceeded inflow from rivers).
The Antarctic ice sheet began to form earlier, at about 34 Ma, in the mid-Cenozoic (Eocene-Oligocene Boundary).

Phanerozoic

Phanerozoic Eoncomplex lifelast 544 million years of history
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
The Phanerozoic is divided into three eras: the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic, which are further subdivided into 12 periods.

Neogene

Neogene PeriodUpper TertiaryLate Tertiary
The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene.
By dividing the Cenozoic Era into three (arguably two) periods (Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary) instead of seven epochs, the periods are more closely comparable to the duration of periods in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic eras.

Cretaceous

Cretaceous PeriodMiddle CretaceousEarly Cretaceous
Australia-New Guinea, having split from Pangea during the early Cretaceous, drifted north and, eventually, collided with South-east Asia; Antarctica moved into its current position over the South Pole; the Atlantic Ocean widened and, later in the era (2.8 million years ago), South America became attached to North America with the isthmus of Panama.
The end of the Cretaceous is defined by the abrupt Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary (K–Pg boundary), a geologic signature associated with the mass extinction which lies between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.

Terrestrial animal

terrestrialterrestrial animalsland animal
Mammals came to occupy almost every available niche (both marine and terrestrial), and some also grew very large, attaining sizes not seen in most of today's terrestrial mammals. During the Cenozoic, mammals proliferated from a few small, simple, generalized forms into a diverse collection of terrestrial, marine, and flying animals, giving this period its other name, the Age of Mammals, despite the fact that there are more than twice as many bird species as mammal species.
Most terrestrial lineages originated under a mild or tropical climate during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, whereas few animals became fully terrestrial during the Cenozoic.

Mediterranean Sea

MediterraneanMediterranean coastWestern Mediterranean
The Tethys Sea finally closed with the creation of the Arabian Peninsula, leaving only remnants as the Black, Red, Mediterranean and Caspian Seas.
During Mesozoic and Cenozoic times, as the northwest corner of Africa converged on Iberia, it lifted the Betic-Rif mountain belts across southern Iberia and northwest Africa.

Geology

geologicalgeologistgeologic
Geologically, the Cenozoic is the era when the continents moved into their current positions.

Dinosaur

dinosaursDinosaurianon-avian dinosaurs
The extinction of many large diapsid groups, such as flightless dinosaurs, Plesiosauria and Pterosauria allowed mammals and birds to greatly diversify and become the world's predominant fauna.
It is often cited that mammals out-competed the neornithines for dominance of most terrestrial niches but many of these groups co-existed with rich mammalian faunas for most of the Cenozoic Era.

Bird

birdsAvesavian
During the Cenozoic, mammals proliferated from a few small, simple, generalized forms into a diverse collection of terrestrial, marine, and flying animals, giving this period its other name, the Age of Mammals, despite the fact that there are more than twice as many bird species as mammal species.
The discovery of Vegavis, a late Cretaceous member of the Anatidae, proved that the diversification of modern birds started before the Cenozoic.