Central America

Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize are historically the seven nations in Central America politically, geographically and culturally.
The seven countries of Central America and their capitals
Central America geography
El Chorreron in El Salvador
One of the hanging bridges of the skywalk at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Monteverde, Costa Rica disappearing into the clouds
Central America and the Caribbean Plate
Linguistic variations of classic Central American Spanish.
Central America map of indigenous people before European contact
Coat of Arms of the Central American Parliament
Federal Republic of Central America, 4 Escudos (1835). Struck in the San Jose, Costa Rica mint (697 were minted)
Secretariat of Central American Economic Integration
The Great Blue Hole off the coast of Belize is a prime ecotourism destination. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Semuc Champey, Guatemala.
The city rail in La Ceiba, Honduras is one of the few remaining passenger train services in Central America
Ancient footprints of Acahualinca, Nicaragua
Stone spheres of Costa Rica
Tazumal, El Salvador
Tikal, Guatemala
Copan, Honduras
Altun Ha, Belize
The United Provinces of Central America
Federal Republic of Central America
National Representation of Central America
Greater Republic of Central America
Guatemala
El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
Costa Rica
Panama
Belize
Belize
Montecristo National Park, El Salvador
Maderas forest, Nicaragua
Texiguat Wildlife Refuge Honduras
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica.
Parque Internacional la Amistad, Panama
Petén–Veracruz moist forests, Guatemala
Lycaste skinneri, Guatemala
Yucca gigantea, El Salvador
Rhyncholaelia digbyana, Honduras
Plumeria, Nicaragua
Guarianthe skinneri, Costa Rica
Peristeria elata, Panama
Prosthechea cochleata, Belize
Resplendent quetzal, Guatemala
Turquoise-browed motmot, El Salvador and Nicaragua
Keel-billed toucan, Belize
Scarlet macaw, Honduras
Clay-colored thrush, Costa Rica
Harpy eagle, Panama
Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador
Lake Atitlán, Guatemala
Mombacho, Nicaragua
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica
Guatemalan textiles
Mola (art form), Panama
El Salvador La Plama art form
Playa Blanca Guatemala
Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador
Roatán, Honduras
Pink Pearl Island Nicaragua
Tamarindo, Costa Rica
Cayos Zapatilla, Panama
Corozal Beach, Belize

Region of North America.

- Central America

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New Spain

Integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and having its capital in Mexico City.

Integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and having its capital in Mexico City.

Giacomo Gastaldi's 1548 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Spanish historical presence, claimed territories, and expeditions in North America.
In 1794.
New Spain in 1819 with the boundaries established at the Adams–Onís Treaty
Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet the emperor Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlán, November 8, 1519.
Evangelization of Mexico
An auto-da-fé in New Spain, 18th century
Girolamo Ruscelli's 1561 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North (1540), by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
General locations of the Spanish Presidios built in the 1660s, officered by Spaniards and manned by personnel from Mexico and Peru that defended the native Filipino settlements from Muslim, Wokou, Dutch and English attacks.
White represents the route of the Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the flota in the Atlantic; blue represents Portuguese routes.
Viceroy don Antonio de Mendoza and Tlaxcalan Indians battle with the Caxcanes in the Mixtón war, 1541–42 in Nueva Galicia.
José de Gálvez, 1st Marquess of Sonora, Visitador in New Spain, who initiated major reforms
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790.
18th-century soldado de cuera in colonial Mexico
Bernardo de Gálvez and his army at the Siege of Pensacola in 1781.
Spanish territorial claims in the northern West Coast of North America, 18th century
On September 28, 1810, Miguel Hidalgo led the siege of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato
Territories of the Viceroyalty of New Spain which became parts of the United States, Mexico, and other nations by 1900.
Silver coin minted in New Spain. Silver was its most important export, starting in the 16th century. '''8 reales Carlos III - 1778
Indigenous man collecting cochineal with a deer tail by José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1777). Cochineal was New Spain's most important export product after silver and its production was almost exclusively in the hands of indigenous cultivators
Arrieros in Mexico. Mules were the main way cargo was moved overland, engraving by Carl Nebel
Pedro de Alvarado, one of the first negotiators to hold office in Hibueras where he founded the towns of San Pedro Sula and Guatemala.
View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City, 1695 by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Indian Wedding and Flying Pole, circa 1690
New Spain after the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 (not including the island territories of the Pacific Ocean).
San Miguel chapel in New Mexico.
Church of Santo Domingo, Oaxaca City
Arco de Santa Catalina, Antigua Guatemala
18th century golden altar piece insede the Tegucigalpa cathedral.
Nahua depiction of smallpox, Book XII on the conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex (1576)
Español and Mulata with their Morisco children
Mestizo and India with their Coyote children
Carlos Francisco de Croix, 1st Marquess of Croix, Viceroy of New Spain (1766–1771)
Antonio María de Bucareli, Viceroy of New Spain
Juan Vicente de Güemes, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo, Viceroy of New Spain (1789–1794)

Its jurisdiction comprised a huge area that included what are now Mexico, much of the Southwestern U.S. and California in North America, Central America, northern parts of South America, and several territorial Pacific Ocean archipelagos, the largest and most important being the Philippine Islands.

Federal Republic of Central America

Guatemala or United States of Central America; with exception of the Kingdom of Mosquitia, which was a British Protectorate until 1860.
Federal Republic of Central America, 4 Escudos (1835). Struck in the San Jose, Costa Rica mint (697 were minted).
Manuel José Arce
The five rowed volcanos in the coat of arms of Central America was inspired by the Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range of El Salvador, visible from the city of Sonsonate, which became the capital of the Federal Republic of Central America in 1834.

The Federal Republic of Central America (República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America (Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America that consisted of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain.

Captaincy General of Guatemala

Map of the provinces of the Kingdom of Guatemala.
The colonial coat of arms of Antigua Guatemala and Guatemala City.
The Fort of San Fernando, Omoa. Built by the Spaniards to defend against pirates.

The Captaincy General of Guatemala (Capitanía General de Guatemala), also known as the Kingdom of Guatemala (Reino de Guatemala), was an administrative division of the Spanish Empire, under the viceroyalty of New Spain in Central America, including the present-day nations of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala, and the Mexican state of Chiapas.

1990s CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection

Americas

The Americas, which are sometimes collectively called America, are a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America.

The Americas, which are sometimes collectively called America, are a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America.

1990s CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection
America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.
The Plaza Occidental in Copán, Honduras
Map of early human migrations based on the Out of Africa theory.
Statue representing the Americas at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
Christopher Columbus leads expedition to the New World, 1492.
Map showing the dates of independence from European powers. Black signifies areas that are dependent territories or parts of countries with a capital outside the Americas.
Satellite photo of the Americas on Earth
Aconcagua, in Argentina, is the highest peak in the Americas
Climate zones of the Americas in the Köppen climate classification system.
Languages spoken in the Americas
Mexico City – Largest metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of 22,300,000 in 2017
São Paulo – Largest city in the Americas, with a population of 12,038,175 (city) in 2016
New York City – Largest urban area in the Americas, with a population of 18,351,295 in 2010

Since the Americas extend 14000 km from north to south, the climate and ecology vary widely, from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America.

Flag of Spanish conquistadors with the crown of Castile on a red flag, used by Hernán Cortés, Francisco Pizarro and others

Spanish colonization of the Americas

Spearheaded by the Spanish conquistadors.

Spearheaded by the Spanish conquistadors.

Flag of Spanish conquistadors with the crown of Castile on a red flag, used by Hernán Cortés, Francisco Pizarro and others
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790
Iberian territory of Crown of Castile.
The Discovery Of America (Johann Moritz Rugendas).
Cover of the Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (1552), Bartolomé de las Casas
The cruelties used by the Spaniards on the Indians
Theodor de Bry depiction of Caribbean indigenous fighting back against Spaniards, showing cannibalism and forcing a Spaniard to swallow molten gold.
A 16th-century illustration by Flemish Protestant Theodor de Bry for Las Casas' Brevisima relación de la destrucción de las Indias, depicting Spanish atrocities during the conquest of Hispaniola. Bartolome wrote: "They erected certain Gibbets, large, but low made, so that their feet almost reached the ground, every one of which was so ordered as to bear Thirteen Persons in Honour and Reverence (as they said blasphemously) of our Redeemer and his Twelve Apostles, under which they made a Fire to burn them to Ashes whilst hanging on them"
Meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma, 17th c. depiction
Depiction of Pizarro seizing the Inca emperor Atahualpa. John Everett Millais 1845.
Extent of Inca empire at the Spanish conquest
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Monument to Pedro de Mendoza, Buenos Aires
Bust of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, who wrote epic account of years of wandering in the North American south and southwest.
Cerro Rico del Potosi, the first image of silver mountain in Europe. Pedro Cieza de León, 1553
National Palace, Mexico City, built by Hernán Cortés in the Aztec central zone of palaces and temples.
A mounted Mapuche carrying off a Spanish woman. Johann Moritz Rugendas
17th c. Dutch map of the Americas
Nicolás de Ovando, sent by the crown to assert royal control
Fray Bartolome de Las Casas, Protector of the Indians
First viceroy of Peru, Blasco Núñez Vela, overthrown by Spaniards for implementing the New Laws
Detail of a gallery of portraits of sovereigns in Peru, showing continuity from Inca emperors to Spanish monarchs. Published in 1744 by Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa in Relación del Viaje a la América Meridional
Cabildo building of Tlaxcala, Mexico
View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City and the viceroy's palace, by Cristóbal de Villalpando, 1695
View of the Plaza Mayor, Lima, ca. 1680
Members of the Real Audiencia (Royal Audience) of Lima, the presidente, alcaldes de corte, fiscal and alguacil mayor. (Nueva Crónica y Buen Gobierno, p. 488)
Map of Spanish America ca. 1800, showing the 4 viceroyalties (New Spain, pink), (New Granada, green), (Peru, orange), (Río de la Plata, blue) and provincial divisions
Cabildo in the city of Salta (Argentina)
The San Diego presidio in California
Modern bas-relief of Franciscan friar Motolinia
Lima Cathedral, construction begun in 1535, completed 1649
Church of la Companía Society of Jesus in Cuzco, Peru
Depiction of smallpox in Book XII of the 16th-century Florentine Codex (compiled 1540–1585) in conquest-era central Mexico suffering from smallpox
Population collapse in Mexico
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and racial hierarchy, 1750. Museo de América, Madrid.
Tribute from one region of the Aztec Empire as shown in Codex Mendoza
Aztec maize agriculture as depicted in the Florentine Codex (1576)
Depiction of the patio process at the Hacienda Nueva de Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Pietro Gualdi, 1846.
Development of Spanish American Independence
Spanish and Portuguese empires. Settlement in the Americas, ca. 1600. Although the crowns asserted sovereignty over great expanses of territory, this modern map shows the sparseness of actual European settlement in dark blue.
Spanish historical presence, claimed territories, points of interest and expeditions in North America.

Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean and gaining control over more territory for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands, half of South America, most of Central America and much of North America.

Belize

Extent of the Maya civilization
"Caana" at Caracol
"El Castillo" at Xunantunich
An excerpt from the 1898 Gazette that declared 10 September an official holiday, part of the efforts of the Centennial Committee
Colonial flag of British Honduras, 1870–1919
Colonial flag of British Honduras, 1919–1981
A British Honduras postage stamp overprinted in 1962 to mark Hurricane Hattie
National Assembly in Belmopan
A British Royal Marine training in the jungle of Belize in 2017
Belizean Coast Guard working with the United States Navy
Districts of Belize
Topography of Belize
Belizean jungles are home to the jaguar and many other mammals. Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary was founded in 1990 as the first wilderness sanctuary for the jaguar and is regarded by one author as the premier site for jaguar preservation in the world.
Scarlet macaws are native to Central and northern South America. Various bird sanctuaries exist in Belize, such as the Crooked Tree Wildlife Sanctuary.
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary
Belize Barrier Reef; aerial view looking north
The Great Blue Hole, a phenomenon of karst topography
Köppen climate classification of Belize
A proportional representation of Belize's exports in 2019
A sugar cane processing plant, Orange Walk Town, Belize. Sugar is one of Belize's top exports.
Panoramic view of Caye Caulker
Belize electricity supply by source
Belize has a wide diversity of ethnicities.
Maya children
Traditional Garifuna dancers in Dangriga, Belize
Mennonite children selling peanuts near Lamanai in Belize. Over 12,000 Plautdietsch-speaking Mennonites live in Belize, farming the land and living according to their religious beliefs.
Holy Redeemer Catholic Diocesan Centre
Rice and beans (with coconut milk), stewed chicken and potato salad. An inter-ethnic staple meal.
Accomplished Belizean cyclist Shalini Zabaneh
The keel-billed toucan

Belize is a country on the northeastern coast of Central America.

North America

Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere.

Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere.

Map of populous North America showing physical, political and population characteristics as per 2018
Map of North America, from 1621
The totality of North America seen by the Apollo 16 crew, with Canada being covered by clouds
Landforms and land cover of North America
Sonoran Desert in Arizona
Moraine Lake in Banff National Park
Nuuk, the capital city of Greenland
Principal hydrological divides of Canada, the United States and Mexico
Geologic map of North America published by USGS
North America map of Köppen climate classification
Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European settlements
Non-native nations' control and claims over North America c. 1750–2008
Native languages of the US, Canada, Greenland, and Northern Mexico
Percentage of people who identify with a religion in North America, according to 2010–2012 data
Mexican President Peña Nieto, U.S. President Trump, and Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau sign the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 30 November 2018
Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
2006 map of the North American Class I railroad network
Baseball is traditionally known as America's national pastime, but is also played in Canada, and many Latin American countries as well.

The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, and the Caribbean.

Felipe Baloy

Panamanians

Felipe Baloy
Spanish laborers during construction of the Panama Canal, early 1900s
Juan Carlos Varela 37th President of Panama.
Jorge Cham
Iglesia San Pedro, Taboga Island, Panama. The Iglesia San Pedro is the second-oldest colonial church in the Western Hemisphere.

Panamanians (Spanish: Panameños) are people identified with Panama, a transcontinental country in Central America (a region within North America) and South America, whose connection may be residential, legal, historical, or cultural.

Caribbean

Region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

Region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

Map of Caribbean region, including dependencies
Map of the Caribbean
A Cuban PT-76 tank crew performing routine security duties in Angola during the Cuban intervention into the country
Tropical monsoon climate in San Andrés island, Caribbean, Colombia.
Köppen climate map of the islands of the Caribbean.
A field in Pinar del Rio planted with Cuban tobacco
Puerto Rico's south shore, from the mountains of Jayuya
Grand Anse beach, St. George's, Grenada
A church cemetery perched in the mountains of Guadeloupe
A view of Nevis island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts
Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600
Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 16th century
Cayo de Agua, Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Palancar Beach in Cozumel Island, Mexico
Guanaja Island, Bay Islands, Honduras
A linen market in Dominica in the 1770s
Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape Brooklyn Museum
Asian Indians in the late nineteenth century singing and dancing in Trinidad and Tobago
Street scene, Matanzas, Cuba
Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago
Havana Cathedral (Catholic) in Cuba completed in 1777
Holy Trinity Cathedral, an Anglican Christian cathedral in Trinidad and Tobago
Temple in the Sea, a Hindu mandir in Trinidad and Tobago
Muhammad Ali Jinnah Memorial Masjid, a Muslim masjid in Trinidad and Tobago
A Jewish synagogue in Suriname
A Haitian Vodou alter
Flag of the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)
Doubles, one of the national dishes of Trinidad and Tobago
Arroz con gandules, one of the national dishes of Puerto Rico
thumb|Counter-attack by Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces supported by T-34 tanks near Playa Giron during the Bay of Pigs Invasion, 19 April 1961.
thumb|A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors a position along the international neutral corridor in Santo Domingo, 1965.
thumb|A Soviet-made BTR-60 armored personnel carrier seized by US forces during Operation Urgent Fury (1983)
thumb|US Army Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk, Bell AH-1 Cobra and Bell OH-58 Kiowa helicopters on deck of the US Navy aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) off Haiti, 1994.
Epiphytes (bromeliads, climbing palms) in the rainforest of Dominica.
A green and black poison frog, Dendrobates auratus
Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Guadeloupe.
Costus speciosus, a marsh plant, Guadeloupe.
An Atlantic ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) in Martinique.
Crescentia cujete, or calabash fruit, Martinique.
Thalassoma bifasciatum (bluehead wrasse fish), over Bispira brunnea (social feather duster worms).
Two Stenopus hispidus (banded cleaner shrimp) on a Xestospongia muta (giant barrel sponge).
A pair of Cyphoma signatum (fingerprint cowry), off coastal Haiti.
The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.
Anastrepha suspensa, a Caribbean fruit fly.
Hemidactylus mabouia, a tropical gecko, in Dominica Edited by: Taniya Brooks.

The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America islets, reefs and cays (see the list of Caribbean islands).

Costa Rica

A stone sphere created by the Diquis culture at the National Museum of Costa Rica. The sphere is the icon of the country's cultural identity.
The Ujarrás historical site in the Orosí Valley, Cartago province. The church was built between 1686 and 1693.
The 1849 national coat of arms was featured in the first postal stamp issued in 1862.
Costa Rica map of Köppen climate classification
Red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas)
Real GPD per capita development in Costa Rica
An Intel microprocessor facility in Costa Rica that was, at one time, responsible for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 5% of the country's GDP.
A proportional representation of Costa Rica's exports, 2019
Countries (in blue) which have signed Free Trade Agreements with Costa Rica
A coffee plantation in the Orosí Valley
An industrial park in Heredia
Poás Volcano Crater is one of the country's main tourist attractions.
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The extent of Costa Rica's western EEZ in the Pacific
Symbolic act of Costa Rica's army abolition by president José Figueres Ferrer on December 1, 1948, at Cuartel Bellavista (former army headquarters), site which now hosts the National Museum
Costa Rica population pyramid in 2021
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Basílica de Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles (Basilica of Our Lady of the Angels), during 2007 pilgrimage
Las Carretas (oxcarts) are a national symbol.
Costa Rican breakfast with gallo pinto
Costa Rica supporters at the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil
The University of Costa Rica is the largest university of the country and one of the most recognizable across Central America
Development of life expectancy in Costa Rica
Hospital Calderón Guardia, named after the president who instituted universal health care across the country in 1941
Hospital CIMA in Escazú

Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, and maritime border with Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.