A report on Central AmericaSouth America and Panama

Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize are historically the seven nations in Central America politically, geographically and culturally.
Map of South America showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018
The seven countries of Central America and their capitals
A composite relief image of South America
Embera girl dressed for a dance
Central America geography
Modern political map of South America
El Chorreron in El Salvador
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
One of the hanging bridges of the skywalk at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Monteverde, Costa Rica disappearing into the clouds
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for South America
"New Caledonia", the ill-fated Scottish Darien scheme colony in the Bay of Caledonia, west of the Gulf of Darien
Central America and the Caribbean Plate
Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006
Santo Domingo Church
Linguistic variations of classic Central American Spanish.
The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos, or "Cave of the Hands", in Argentina
1903 political cartoon. The US government, working with separatists in Panama, engineered a Panamanian declaration of independence from Colombia, then sent US warships and marines to Panama.
Central America map of indigenous people before European contact
The Inca estate of Machu Picchu, Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.
US President Theodore Roosevelt sitting on a steam shovel at the Panama Canal, 1906
Coat of Arms of the Central American Parliament
Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907
Federal Republic of Central America, 4 Escudos (1835). Struck in the San Jose, Costa Rica mint (697 were minted)
The Inca–Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead.
Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies of land redistribution.
Secretariat of Central American Economic Integration
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Brazil in 1500
US President Jimmy Carter shakes hands with General Omar Torrijos after signing the Panama Canal Treaties (September 7, 1977).
The Great Blue Hole off the coast of Belize is a prime ecotourism destination. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Dutch colonial houses in Paramaribo, Suriname
The aftermath of urban warfare during the US invasion of Panama, 1989
Semuc Champey, Guatemala.
A painting of the settlement of Pernambuco in colonial Brazil by Frans Post
British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson swapped football shirts with the President of Panama, Juan Carlos Varela in London, May 14, 2018.
The city rail in La Ceiba, Honduras is one of the few remaining passenger train services in Central America
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790
A map of Panama
Ancient footprints of Acahualinca, Nicaragua
Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.
La Palma, Darién
Stone spheres of Costa Rica
The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822
The Chagres River
Tazumal, El Salvador
The Guayaquil conference between José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar
Colón Harbor, 2000
Tikal, Guatemala
Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of Brazil
Panama map of Köppen climate classification
Copan, Honduras
Bernardo O'Higgins swears officially the independence of Chile.
A cooler climate is common in the Panamanian highlands.
Altun Ha, Belize
The Thirty-Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine Province.
The National Assembly of Panama
The United Provinces of Central America
Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War
Panama's President-elect Juan Carlos Varela and Vice President Isabel Saint Malo with US Secretary of State John Kerry just before Varela's inauguration in 2014
Federal Republic of Central America
Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of Paysandú, 1865
GDP per capita development Panama since 1950
National Representation of Central America
The Uruguayan Army at the Battle of Sauce, 1866
A proportional representation of Panama exports, 2019
Greater Republic of Central America
The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in Paraguay, 1868
A Panamax ship in transit through the Miraflores locks, Panama Canal
The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of Chorrillos, 1883
Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the Panama Papers leak on April 15, 2016
El Salvador
A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air Force PBY Catalina, 31 July 1943
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's largest airport
Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War
Zapatilla Island, Panama
The Brazilian Minas Geraes class kindled an Argentine–Brazilian–Chilean naval arms race.
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
Costa Rica
Presidents of UNASUR member states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.
Population pyramid, 2016
Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito, Ecuador
Panama's population, 1961–2003
Scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations Statistics Division.
Panama City, Panama's capital
South American flags
Plaza de la independencia, Panama City
Montecristo National Park, El Salvador
Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.
Erika Ender
Maderas forest, Nicaragua
Official languages in South America
A couple dancing Panamanian Cumbia
Texiguat Wildlife Refuge Honduras
Las Lajas Sanctuary, Ipiales, Colombia.
Panamanian baseball catcher Carlos Ruiz during 2007 Spring Training
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica.
Spanish-Venezuelan protesters in Madrid.
Parque Internacional la Amistad, Panama
A Japanese-Brazilian Miko during a festival in Curitiba
Petén–Veracruz moist forests, Guatemala
Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do Sul
Lycaste skinneri, Guatemala
Peruvian woman and her son
Yucca gigantea, El Salvador
Launch at the Kourou Space Centre in French Guiana
Rhyncholaelia digbyana, Honduras
Refinery of Brazilian state-owned Petrobras in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Plumeria, Nicaragua
Chuquicamata is the largest open pit mine in the world, near the city of Calama in Chile.
Guarianthe skinneri, Costa Rica
KC-390 is the largest military transport aircraft produced in South America by the Brazilian company Embraer.
Peristeria elata, Panama
Vineyard in Luján de Cuyo, province of Mendoza, Argentina
Prosthechea cochleata, Belize
Sugarcane plantation in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 746 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's sugarcane.
Resplendent quetzal, Guatemala
Soy plantation in Mato Grosso. In 2020, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 130 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's soybeans.
Turquoise-browed motmot, El Salvador and Nicaragua
Coffee in Minas Gerais. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 3.5 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's coffee.
Keel-billed toucan, Belize
Orange in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 17 million tonnes. South America produces 25% of the world's orange.
Scarlet macaw, Honduras
Truck of a meat company in Brazil. South America produces 20% of the world's beef and chicken meat.
Clay-colored thrush, Costa Rica
EMS, the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry
Harpy eagle, Panama
Braskem, the largest Brazilian chemical industry
Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador
Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, still a major silver mine
Lake Atitlán, Guatemala
Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul. South America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst, topaz, emerald, aquamarine and tourmaline
Mombacho, Nicaragua
Iron mine in Minas Gerais. Brazil is the world's second largest iron ore exporter.
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica
Bird (UOB Plaza, Singapore), sculpture of Colombian artist Fernando Botero
Guatemalan textiles
“Chromovegetal Maze” by Carlos Cruz Diez, in Caracas.
Mola (art form), Panama
Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
El Salvador La Plama art form
Panorama of the interior of the Maracanã stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
Playa Blanca Guatemala
Wind farm in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela
Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador
Wind power in Parnaíba.
Roatán, Honduras
Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro
Pink Pearl Island Nicaragua
Pirapora Solar Complex, the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW.
Tamarindo, Costa Rica
Rodovia dos Bandeirantes, Brazil
Cayos Zapatilla, Panama
Ruta 9 / 14, in Zarate, Argentina
Corozal Beach, Belize
Rio–Niterói Bridge
Rio de Janeiro International Airport
Port of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Stretch of the Pan-American Highway in Argentina
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge in Venezuela
The Port of Callao in Lima
The La Paz cable car system in Bolivia is home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world
Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.
Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers
Salmon farming in Chile. One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country.
Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio. South America specializes in food processing
Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest
Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world
Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca. Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world.
Hering, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world
Mercedes-Benz plant in São Paulo. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.
Copper mine in Chile. Latin America produces more than half of the world's copper
Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers
Copacabana Palace, the best hotel in South America, in Rio de Janeiro. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.
Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world.
Sunflower plantation in Argentina. The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed.
Chilean cherries. Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world.
Chilean kiwi. The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world.
Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.
Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. South America produces close to 20% of the world's pineapple.
Oil refinery in Amuay. Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world.

Panama (, ; Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country in Central America and South America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

- Panama

Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.

- Central America

In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ascension Island (dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British Overseas Territory), Bouvet Island (dependency of Norway), Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago may also be considered parts of South America.

- South America

Geopolitically and geographically, all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is typically included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.

- South America

Central America is a part of North America consisting of a tapering isthmus running from the southern extent of Mexico to the northwestern portion of South America.

- Central America

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The Pan-American Highway from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to Quellón, Chile, and Ushuaia, Argentina, with official and unofficial routes shown in Mexico and Central and South America. A few selected unofficial routes shown through the United States and Canada as they existed in the early 1960s. In 1966 the new U.S. Interstate Highway System brought official status to most previously unofficial routes in the lower 48 states.

Pan-American Highway

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Network of roads stretching across the Americas and measuring about 30,000 km in total length.

Network of roads stretching across the Americas and measuring about 30,000 km in total length.

The Pan-American Highway from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, to Quellón, Chile, and Ushuaia, Argentina, with official and unofficial routes shown in Mexico and Central and South America. A few selected unofficial routes shown through the United States and Canada as they existed in the early 1960s. In 1966 the new U.S. Interstate Highway System brought official status to most previously unofficial routes in the lower 48 states.
Map of the Alaska Highway portion (in red) of the Pan-American Highway system.
Interstate 35 in the U.S. state of Iowa. I-35 is a de facto branch of the Pan-American Highway.
Interstate 25 in the U.S. state of New Mexico. I-25 is part of the other de facto branch, and is signed "Pan-American Freeway" in Albuquerque.
1933 map of the Inter-American Highway portion of the Pan-American Highway.
Pan-American Highway in Chimaltenango (Guatemala), 2015.
Pan-American Highway at David, Chiriquí
Map of the Darién Gap and the break in the Pan-American Highway between Yaviza, Panama and Turbo, Colombia
A Vía PanAm shield sign is sometimes found on routes in South American countries (such as Chile) associated with the Pan-American Highway.
Sculpture of a native man standing at the entrance of Fusagasugá, Colombia, over the Highway 40.
Monument on the Equator on the highway near Cayambe, Ecuador.
Almost all Pan-American sections in Gran Buenos Aires are modern highways
West Access to Buenos Aires
Stretch of the Pan-American Highway in Argentina
The northern end of the Pan-American Highway at Deadhorse, Alaska, USA
Interstate 25 (Pan-American Freeway) approaching the Big I interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
Pan-American Highway through San Martin, El Salvador.
Another view of the Pan-American Highway in El Salvador.
Pan-American Highway in El Salvador between Lourdes and Santa Ana; this flat 1.5 km (0.93 mi) long straight section can be used as an airstrip and it was used during El Salvador Civil War.
Pan-American Highway in Guanacaste, Costa Rica (going towards the Nicaraguan border, still many kilometres [miles] away.)
Pan-American Highway in Tres Rios, Costa Rica, right before the toll plaza (about 337 more km / 209 more mi to go until the Panamanian border).
Pan-American Highway, at the border of Costa Rica and Panama
Panamericana – Pan American Highway – in Pichincha, Ecuador, near Cashapamba
Panamericana – Pan American Highway – northern Peru near Pacasmayo
Pan-American Highway near Pisco (Peru)
Panamericana – Pan American Highway – near Puerto De Lomas, Peru
Panamericana – Pan American Highway – in the Atacama Desert northern Chile
Chevy Suburban traveled all of the Pan-American Highway. Patagonia, Chile.
Panamericana – Pan American Highway – in the Cordillera de los Andes, southern Ecuador, near to Catacocha, 2,500m / 8,000 ft Elev.
National Route 7—Pan-American Highway in Junín, Buenos Aires, Argentina

It is only possible to cross by land between South America and Central America—the last town in Colombia to the first outpost in Panama—by a difficult and dangerous hike of at least four days through one of the rainiest areas of the planet.

Finally, on July 29, 1937, in the latter years of the Great Depression, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Canada, and the United States signed the Convention on the Pan-American Highway, whereby they agreed to achieve speedy construction, by all adequate means.