Expanded definition of Central Asia. Core definition that includes the five post-Soviet states in dark green. Afghanistan, the most commonly added country to Central Asia, in green.
Approximate extent of Scythia within the area of distribution of Eastern Iranian languages (shown in orange) in the 1st century BC
Kyrgyz Khaganate
Three sets of possible boundaries for the Central Asia region (which overlap with conceptions of South and East Asia).
Meeting of the leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Bishkek, 2008. The CIS initiated the lengthy process of Eurasian integration.
On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region.
Cuman–Kipchak confederation in Eurasia circa 1200. The Kazakhs are descendants of Kipchaks, Nogais and other Turkic and medieval Mongol tribes
Silk road caravansarai utilized during the Islamic Golden Age
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Central Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
Ural Cossacks skirmish with Kazakhs (the Russians originally called the Kazakhs "Kirgiz")
Bishkek
Current decision-making process of the Eurasian Customs Union and the Single Economic Space
Iranian-speaking people circa 170 BC. Eastern Iranian languages are in orange, Western Iranian languages are in red.
Map of the Kazakh Territory in 1903
Urial on a Kyrgyzstan stamp
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocs) in no particular order
Uzbek men from Khiva, ca. 1861–1880
Stanitsa Sofiiskaya, Talgar. 1920s
Nomads in Kyrgyzstan
The Moscow International Business Center is a commercial district in Moscow that is currently under construction. The complex includes some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers.
The Chinese Tang dynasty at its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
Kyrgyz family in the village of Sary-Mogol, Osh Region
A silver altyn minted in 1711 during the reign of Peter the Great
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, 1979
The International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
Kyrgyzstan's second-largest city, Osh, in 2018
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a vital link between the Russian Far East and the rest of Eurasia.
Mosque in Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan
The Monument of Independence, Republic Square, Almaty
Kyrgyzstan's topography
The Turkestan–Siberia Railway connects the Central Asian republics to Siberia.
Saadi Shirazi is welcomed by a youth from Kashgar during a forum in Bukhara.
Satellite image of Kazakhstan (November 2004)
On the southern shore of Issyk Kul lake, Issyk Kul Region
A Rye Field by Ivan Shishkin
Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi in Hazrat-e Turkestan, Kazakhstan. Timurid architecture consisted of Persian art.
The Kazakh Steppe is part of the Eurasian Steppe Belt (in on the map)
A map of Kyrgyzstan
Past and projected GDP (nominal) per capita in EAEU countries.
Kazakh man on a horse with golden eagle
Karaganda Region
Kyrgyzstan map of Köppen climate classification
Free trade agreements of EEU. Red - EEU. Green - Countries that have FTA with EEU.
GDP growth trends in Central Asia, 2000–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.1
Kazakhstan map of Köppen climate classification
Sadyr Japarov, President of Kyrgyzstan
On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019, Russia plans to provide natural gas to China for the next 30 years.
GDP in Central Asia by economic sector, 2005 and 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030, Figure 14.2
Corsac fox
Supreme Council building in Bishkek.
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GDP per capita development in Central Asia, since 1973
Ak Orda Presidential Palace
Japarov with Vladimir Putin.
Ilham Aliyev, Dmitry Medvedev and Serzh Sarkisian hold peace talks in Moscow on 2 November 2008.
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Parliament of Kazakhstan
President Sooronbay Jeenbekov at the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit in China, June 2018
Mount Elbrus – Russia
Central Asian researchers by sector of employment (HC), 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.5
Nur Otan Headquarters in Nur-Sultan
Kyrgyz soldiers conducting mine sweeping exercises.
Mountain range – Armenia
Central Asian researchers by field of science, 2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.4
President Nazarbayev with U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in 2012
A proportional representation of Kyrgyzstan exports, 2019
Lama River – in the Moscow region of Russia
Scientific publications from Central Asia catalogued by Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded, 2005–2014, UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.6
President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev with 
Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2019
Southern shore of Issyk Kul Lake.
Sharyn Canyon – Kazakhstan
Cumulative total of articles by Central Asians between 2008 and 2013, by field of science. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 14.6
Member states of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
Issyk Kul Lake
On the southern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, Issyk-Kul Region – Kyrgyzstan
Ethnic map of Central Asia.
White areas are thinly-populated semi-desert.
The three northwest-tending lines are the Syr Darya and Amu Darya Rivers flowing from the eastern mountains into the Aral Sea and in the south the irrigated north side of the Kopet Dagh mountains.
Kazakhstan Republican Guard
A population pyramid showing Kyrgyzstan's age distribution (2005).
Winter – Belarus
Uzbek children in Samarkand
A Kazakhstan Sukhoi Su-27
Population density of Kyrgyzstan, 2015
A view of Mount Aragats from Aragatsotn – Armenia
Children in Afghanistan
Downtown Nur-Sultan
Kyrgyz men in Naryn Region
A view of Mount Mönkh Saridag – Okinsky District, Russia
Tartar prostrating before Qianlong Emperor of China (1757).
GDP per capita development, since 1973
Uzbeks in Osh
Lake Ayger – Armenia
Political cartoon from the period of the Great Game showing the Afghan Amir Sher Ali with his "friends" Imperial Russia and the United Kingdom (1878)
A proportional representation of Kazakhstan exports, 2019
The name of Kyrgyzstan rendered in the traditional script in use from 13th century to 1920.
Lake Servech – Belarus
Islam Karimov (President, Uzbekistan) in the Pentagon, March 2002
Aktau is Kazakhstan's only seaport on the Caspian Sea
Karakol Dungan Mosque
Winter in the Altai Krai – Russia
A map of Kazakhstan's imports, 2013
Bishkek Eastern Orthodox Church
Tian Shan mountain range – Kyrgyzstan
Kazakhstan has the largest proven oil reserves in the Caspian Sea region.
Mosque under construction in Kyrgyzstan
Saint Petersburg, the second-largest city and cultural capital of Russia
Grain fields near Kokshetau
Musicians playing traditional Kyrgyz music.
Yerevan, the capital and financial hub of Armenia
Map of Kazakhstan railway network
A traditional Kyrgyz manaschi performing part of the Epic of Manas at a yurt camp in Karakol
Business centre in central downtown Nur-Sultan
Train 22 Kyzylorda – Semipalatinsk, hauled by a Kazakhstan Temir Zholy 2TE10U diesel locomotive. Picture taken near Aynabulak, Kazakhstan
Hunting with an eagle
Almaty, the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan
Borovoe, view from Mount Bolectau
Bandy: Kyrgyzstan in red against Japan
Bishkek, the capital and financial hub of Kyrgyzstan
A ski resort in Almaty
Bishkek West Bus Terminal
Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union
Observer states
Candidate states
Astana Expo 2017 "Nur Alem" Pavilion
Street scene in Osh.
Almaty
Trends in research expenditure in Central Asia, as a percentage of GDP, 2001–2013. Source: UNESCO Science Report: 2030 (2015), Figure 14.3
Group of Kazakhstan physicists in collaboration with Uzbek researchers working at the ion accelerator DC-60
Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's oldest and largest operational spaceport
Population pyramid, 2020
Central Asian ethnolinguistic patchwork, 1992
Kazakhstanis on a Lake Jasybay beach, Pavlodar Region
Ascension Cathedral in Almaty
Khazret Sultan Mosque is the biggest mosque in Kazakhstan
Kazakh National University of Arts
A Kazakhstan performer demonstrates the long equestrian heritage as part of the gala concert during the opening ceremonies of the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion
Kanysh Satpayev, one of the founders of Soviet era metallogeny, principal advocate and the first president of Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences
1965 Soviet stamp honouring Kazakh essayist and poet Abai Qunanbaiuly
Nowruz on stamp of Kazakhstan
A-Studio was created in 1982 in Almaty, then called Alma-Ata, hence called "Alma-Ata Studio"
Astana Arena opened in 2009
Nikolai Antropov
International Astana Action Film Festival, 2010
Timur Bekmambetov, a notable Kazakh director

Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental landlocked country located mainly in Central Asia and partly in Eastern Europe.

- Kazakhstan

Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia.

- Kyrgyzstan

It borders Russia to the north and west, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan to the southeast, Uzbekistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southwest.

- Kazakhstan

Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the south, and the People's Republic of China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.

- Kyrgyzstan

The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union was signed on 29 May 2014 by the leaders of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and came into force on 1 January 2015.

- Eurasian Economic Union

The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

- Central Asia

Treaties aiming for Armenia's and Kyrgyzstan's accession to the Eurasian Economic Union were signed on 9 October and 23 December 2014, respectively.

- Eurasian Economic Union

Kazakhstan is a member state of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization of Turkic States, and the International Organization of Turkic Culture.

- Kazakhstan

Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organisation of Turkic States, the Türksoy community and the United Nations.

- Kyrgyzstan

The idea was quickly seen as a way to bolster trade, boost investment in Central Asia, Armenia and Belarus, and serve as a complement to the Eastern Partnership.

- Eurasian Economic Union

Kazakhstan is also one of the three founding members of the Eurasian Economic Union in 2014, along with Belarus and the Russian Federation.

- Central Asia

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