Central Europe

A view of Central Europe dating from the time before the First World War (1902):
Geopolitical Challenges - Panel on the Future of Europe
Habsburg-ruled lands
The Danube watercourse system throughout Central and Southeastern Europe
Population density in Central European countries
Population density (people per km2) by country, 2018
Map showing the score for the KOF Globalization Index.
Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2015.
Rail network density.
Karolinum of the Charles University in Prague
The entrance of the Central European University in Budapest
The Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy index map for 2020, with greener colours representing more democratic countries
Global Peace Index Scores.
Central European Time Zone (dark red)
Frankish Empire and its tributaries (AD 843–888)
alt=Moravia under Svatopluk|Certain and disputed borders of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I (AD 870–894)
Eastern Frankish Kingdom or East Francia during the 900s
Kingdoms of Hungary and Poland in 1190
Bohemia in 1273
Holy Roman Empire in 1600 superimposed on modern state borders
Central Europe according to Peter J. Katzenstein (1997)
According to The Economist and Ronald Tiersky, a strict definition of Central Europe means the Visegrád Group{{sfn|Tiersky|2004|p=472}}
Map of Central Europe, according to Lonnie R. Johnson (2011){{sfn|Johnson|1996|p=16}}{{legend|#FE0000|Countries usually considered Central European (citing the World Bank and the OECD)}}{{legend|#FEC5C5|Countries considered to be Central European only in the broader sense of the term.}}
Central European countries in Encarta Encyclopedia (2009)
The Central European Countries according to Meyers Grosses Taschenlexikon (1999):
Middle Europe (Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, 1998)
Central Europe according to Swansea University professors Robert Bideleux and Ian Jeffries (1998)<ref>{{cite book|author1=Robert Bideleux|author2=Ian Jeffries|title=A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xdGEAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA12|access-date=16 October 2015|date=10 April 2006|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-134-71984-6|page=12}}</ref>
Central Europe, as defined by E. Schenk (1950)<ref>Erich Schenk, Mitteleuropa. Düsseldorf, 1950</ref>
Central Europe, according to Alice F. A. Mutton in Central Europe. A Regional and Human Geography (1961)
Central Europe according to Meyers Enzyklopaedisches Lexikon (1980)
Visegrád Group
Central European Defence Cooperation
Three Seas Initiative
Central European Initiative
CEFTA founding states
CEFTA members in 2003, before joining the EU
Current CEFTA members

Area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common historical, social and cultural identity.

- Central Europe

500 related topics



A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.

Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe.

Western Europe

Western region of Europe.

Schism of 1054 (East–West Schism) in Christianity, the predominant religion in Europe at the time
Political spheres of influence in Europe during the Cold War; neutral countries (shaded gray or light blue) considered informally Western-oriented but not formally aligned to the West
Former Western European Union – its members and associates
WEOG member and observer states
European climate. The Köppen-Geiger climates map is presented by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Center of the Deutscher Wetterdienst.

Under this definition of Eastern and Western Europe, Eastern Europe contains Southeastern European countries as well, while Western Europe includes Northern and Central European countries.

Visegrád Group

The Visegrád Group signing ceremony in February 1991
Prague, Czech Republic
Budapest, Hungary
Warsaw, Poland
Bratislava, Slovakia
Visegrád Fund building in Bratislava.
The countries participating in the Austerlitz format. (From North to South: Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria.)
{{flagicon|CZE}} Czech Republic
{{flagicon|HUN}} Hungary
{{flagicon|POL}} Poland
{{flagicon|SVK}} Slovakia

The Visegrád Group (also known as the Visegrád Four, the V4, or the European Quartet) is a cultural and political alliance of four Central European countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia.

Magdeburg rights

Magdeburg rights (Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish Law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages granted by the local ruler.

City charter of Kraków, Poland's medieval capital; inscribed in Latin.
Monument to the Magdeburg Rights in Kyiv

Named after the German city of Magdeburg, these town charters were perhaps the most important set of medieval laws in Central Europe.


Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica (near Basel) was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.
The Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 (dark green) to the sixteenth century (light green) and its associates (blue). In the other colours shown are the subject territories.
The 1291 Bundesbrief (federal charter)
The Act of Mediation was Napoleon's attempt at a compromise between the Ancien Régime and a Republic.
The first Federal Palace in Bern (1857). One of the three cantons presiding over the Tagsatzung (former legislative and executive council), Bern was chosen as the permanent seat of federal legislative and executive institutions in 1848, in part because of its closeness to the French-speaking area.
Inauguration in 1882 of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel connecting the southern canton of Ticino, the longest in the world at the time
General Ulrich Wille, appointed commander-in-chief of the Swiss Army for the duration of World War I
In 2003, by granting the Swiss People's Party a second seat in the governing cabinet, the Parliament altered the coalition that had dominated Swiss politics since 1959.
Physical map of Switzerland (in German)
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for Switzerland
The Swiss Federal Council in 2022 with President Ignazio Cassis (bottom) standing on an abstract, reduced railway lines map and positioned at their respective political origins
The Federal Palace, seat of the Federal Assembly and the Federal Council
The Landsgemeinde is an old form of direct democracy, still in practice in two cantons.
The colour-reversed Swiss flag became the symbol of the Red Cross Movement, founded in 1863 by Henry Dunant.
A Swiss Air Force F/A-18 Hornet at Axalp Air Show
Swiss-built Mowag Eagles of the Land Forces
The Old City of Bern
A proportional representation of Switzerland exports, 2019
The city of Basel (Roche Tower) is the capital of the country's pharmaceutical industry, which accounts for around 38% of Swiss exports worldwide.
The Greater Zürich area, home to 1.5 million inhabitants and 150,000 companies, is one of the most important economic centres in the world.
The University of Basel is Switzerland's oldest university (1460).
Some Swiss scientists who played a key role in their discipline (clockwise):
Leonhard Euler (mathematics)
Louis Agassiz (glaciology)
Auguste Piccard (aeronautics)
Albert Einstein (physics)
The LHC tunnel. CERN is the world's largest laboratory and also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.
Members of the European Free Trade Association (green) participate in the European Single Market and are part of the Schengen Area.
Switzerland has the tallest dams in Europe, among which the Mauvoisin Dam, in the Alps. Hydroelectricity is the most important domestic source of energy in the country.
Entrance of the new Lötschberg Base Tunnel, the third-longest railway tunnel in the world, under the old Lötschberg railway line. It was the first completed tunnel of the greater project NRLA.
Population density in Switzerland (2019)
Percentage of foreigners in Switzerland (2019)
Urbanisation in the Rhone Valley (outskirts of Sion)
Alphorn concert in Vals
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was not only a writer but also an influential philosopher of the eighteenth century.
Ski area over the glaciers of Saas-Fee
Roger Federer has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles, making him among the most successful men's tennis players ever.
Fondue is melted cheese, into which bread is dipped

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a landlocked country at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.


Silver coin: 5 corona, 1908 - The bust of Franz Joseph I facing right surrounded by the legend "Franciscus Iosephus I, Dei gratia, imperator Austriae, rex Bohemiae, Galiciae, Illyriae et cetera et apostolicus rex Hungariae"
Emperor Franz Joseph I in 1905
Electoral districts of Austria and Hungary in the 1880s. On the map opposition districts are marked in different shades of red, ruling party districts are in different shades of green, independent districts are in white.
Austrian Parliament building
Hungarian Parliament building
Emperor Franz Joseph I visiting Prague and opening the new Emperor Francis I Bridge in 1901
Kraków, a historical Polish city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire where in 1870 authorities allowed the use of the Polish language in the Jagiellonian University
Coronation of Francis Joseph I and Elisabeth Amalie at Matthias Church, Buda, 8 June 1867
Map of the counties of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen (Hungary proper and Croatia-Slavonia)
Circuits (Kreise) of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Banja Luka, Bihać, Mostar, Sarajevo, Travnik, Tuzla
Demonstration for universal right to vote in Prague, Bohemia, 1905
Bosnian Muslim resistance during the battle of Sarajevo in 1878 against the Austro-Hungarian occupation
Recruits from Bosnia-Herzegovina, including Muslim Bosniaks (31%), were drafted into special units of the Austro-Hungarian Army as early as 1879 and were commended for their bravery in service of the Austrian emperor, being awarded more medals than any other unit. The jaunty military march Die Bosniaken Kommen was composed in their honor by Eduard Wagnes.
Traditional clothing in Hungary, late 19th century
Traditional costumes of Tyrol
Parade in Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia, 1900
Romantic style Great Synagogue in Pécs, built by Neolog community in 1869
Religions in Austria–Hungary, from the 1881 edition of Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas. Catholics (both Roman and Uniate) are blue, Protestants purple, Eastern Orthodox yellow, and Muslims green.
Funeral in Galicia by Teodor Axentowicz, 1882
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910
Meyers Konversations-Lexikon ethnographic map of Austria–Hungary, 1885
Literacy in Austria–Hungary (census 1880)
Literacy in Hungary by counties in 1910 (excluding Croatia)
Physical map of Austria–Hungary in 1914
Orthodox Jews from Galicia in Leopoldstadt, Vienna, 1915
A 20-crown banknote of the Dual Monarchy, using all official and recognized languages (the reverse side was Hungarian)
Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of 1873 and Long Depression followed.
A stentor reading the day's news in the Telefonhírmondó of Budapest
Detailed railway map of Austrian and Hungarian railways from 1911
The start of construction of the underground in Budapest (1894–1896)
The SS Kaiser Franz Joseph I (12,567 t) of the Austro-Americana company was the largest passenger ship ever built in Austria. Because of its control over the coast of much of the Balkans, Austria–Hungary had access to several seaports.
Dubrovnik, Kingdom of Dalmatia
This picture of the arrest of a suspect in Sarajevo is usually associated with the capture of Gavrilo Princip, although some believe it depicts Ferdinand Behr, a bystander.
Crowds on the streets in the aftermath of the Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, 29 June 1914
MÁVAG armoured train in 1914
Franz Josef I and Wilhelm II
with military commanders during World War I
Siege of Przemyśl in 1915
Italian troops in Trento on 3 November 1918, after the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. Italy's victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front and secured the dissolution of Austria–Hungary.
War memorial in Păuleni-Ciuc, Romania
The revolt of ethnic Czech units in Austria in May 1918 was brutally suppressed. It was considered a mutiny by the code of military justice.
The Treaty of Trianon: Kingdom of Hungary lost 72% of its land and 3.3 million people of Hungarian ethnicity.
Czechoslovak declaration of independence rally in Prague on Wenceslas Square, 28 October 1918

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918.


Roman provinces: Illyricum, Macedonia, Dacia, Moesia, Pannonia, Thracia
Attila, king of the Huns (434/444–453)
Italian fresco – Hungarian warrior shooting backwards
Hungarian Conquest (of the Carpathian Basin) – painting by Mihály Munkácsy
Hungarian raids in the 10th century
King Saint Stephen, the first King of Hungary, converted the nation to Christianity.
The Holy Crown (Szent Korona), one of the key symbols of Hungary
Christ Pantocrator on the Holy Crown of Hungary. Hungary is traditionally a Christian country.
A map of lands ruled by Louis the Great
Western conquests of Matthias Corvinus
Painting commemorating the Siege of Eger, a major victory against the Ottomans
Francis II Rákóczi, leader of the war of independence against Habsburg rule in 1703–11
Count István Széchenyi offered one year's income to establish the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Lajos Kossuth, Regent-President during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
The Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen consisted of the territories of the Kingdom of Hungary (16) and the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (17).
5 July 1848: The opening ceremony of the first parliament which was based on popular representation. The members of the first responsible government are on the balcony.
Coronation of Francis Joseph I and Elisabeth Amalie at Matthias Church, Buda, 8 June 1867
Hungarian-built dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István during World War I
With the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost 72% of its territory, its sea ports and 3,425,000 ethnic Hungarians
Miklós Horthy, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1944)
Kingdom of Hungary, 1941–44
Jewish women being arrested on Wesselényi Street in Budapest during the Holocaust, c. undefined 20–22 October 1944
The Széchenyi Chain Bridge and the Buda Castle in ruins after World War II (1946)
A destroyed Soviet tank in Budapest during the Revolution of 1956. Times Man of the Year for 1956 was the Hungarian Freedom Fighter.
János Kádár, General Secretary of MSZMP, the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (1956–1988)
The Visegrád Group signing ceremony in February 1991
Geographic map of Hungary
The Sándor Palace is the official residence of the President of Hungary.
The Hungarian Parliament Building on the banks of the Danube in Budapest
The original and future seat of the Curia, Hungary's highest court
Meeting of the leaders of the Visegrád Group, Germany and France in 2013
United Nations conference in the assembly hall of the House of Magnates in the Hungarian Parliament Building
HDF 34th Special Forces Battalion
JAS 39 Gripen multirole combat aircraft
Hungary is part of the European Union's internal market with 508 million consumers and part of Schengen Area
A proportional representation of Hungary's exports, 2019
Albert Szent-Györgyi won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of Vitamin C. The Nobel Prize has been awarded to 13 Hungarians.
Founded in 1782, the Budapest University of Technology and Economics is the oldest institute of technology in the world.
The research and development centre of Gedeon Richter Plc., one of the largest biotechnology companies in Central and Eastern Europe, in Budapest.
Siemens Desiro passenger trains on the Hungarian State Railways network, which is one of the densest in the world.
Population density in Hungary by district
Towns and villages in Hungary
Regions of Central and Eastern Europe inhabited by Hungarian speakers today
King Saint Stephen offering the Hungarian crown to Virgin Mary – painting by Gyula Benczúr, in the St. Stephen's Basilica
Rector's Council Hall of Budapest Business School, the first public business school in the world, founded in 1857
Szent István Hospital on Üllői Avenue, Budapest. Together with Szent László Hospital, they form the largest hospital complex in Hungary, built at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Eszterháza Palace, the "Hungarian Versailles", in Fertőd, Győr-Moson-Sopron County
Romanesque Ják Abbey, Vas County, built between 1220 and 1256
The Museum of Applied Arts, an Art Nouveau building designed by Ödön Lechner
The Hungarian State Opera House on Andrássy út (a World Heritage Site)
Ferenc Liszt, one of the greatest pianists of all time; a renowned composer and conductor
Béla Bartók, a composer of great influence in the early 20th century; one of the founders of ethnomusicology
The alphabet of the Székely-Hungarian runiform; the country switched to the Latin alphabet during the reign of King Saint Stephen (1000–1038)
The oldest extant Hungarian poem, the Old Hungarian Lamentations of Mary (1190s)
Sándor Petőfi, Hungarian poet and revolutionary
Sándor Márai, Hungarian writer and journalist
Hortobágyi palacsinta in Sopron
Dobos torte
The famous Tokaji wine. It was called Vinum Regum, Rex Vinorum ("Wine of Kings, King of Wines") by Louis XIV of France.
Hungarians in traditional garments / folk costumes dancing the csárdás
Hungary men's national water polo team is considered among the best in the world, holding the world record for Olympic golds and overall medals.
The Groupama Aréna, home of Ferencvárosi TC, a UEFA Category 4 Stadium
Ferenc Puskás, the greatest top division scorer of the 20th century. The FIFA Puskás Award is named in his honour.

Hungary (Magyarország ) is a landlocked country in Central Europe.


Venus of Willendorf, 28,000 to 25,000 BC, at the Museum of Natural History Vienna
The Battle of Vienna in 1683 broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.
The Congress of Vienna met in 1814–15. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
Map of the German Confederation (1815–1836) with its 39 member states
An ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, whose assassination sparked World War I, one of the most disastrous conflicts in human history
German-speaking provinces claimed by German-Austria in 1918: The border of the subsequent Second Republic of Austria is outlined in red.
Adolf Hitler speaking at Heldenplatz, Vienna, 1938
Austria in 1941 when it was known as the "Ostmark"
The liberation of Mauthausen concentration camp, 1945
The United Nations Office in Vienna is one of the four major UN office sites worldwide.
Austria joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
The Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna
The Leopoldine Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna, home to the offices of the Austrian president
The Federal Chancellery on Ballhausplatz
The European Parliament: Austria is one of the 27 EU members.
A topographic map of Austria showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitants
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Austria
A proportional representation of Austria exports, 2019
Austria is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.
The Kölnbrein Dam in Carinthia
Children in Austria, near Au, Vorarlberg
Bilingual sign of Oberwart (in Hungarian Felsőőr) in Burgenland
The birthplaces of foreign-born naturalised residents of Austria
The Basilica of Mariazell is Austria's most popular pilgrimage site.
Stiftsgymnasium Melk is the oldest Austrian school.
The University of Vienna
The campus of the Vienna University of Economics and Business
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)
The Vienna State Opera
Arnold Schwarzenegger is a well-known Austrian and American actor.
Karl Popper
Wiener Schnitzel, a traditional Austrian dish
Innsbruck hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics, as well as the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics, the first in history.
Ski racer Franz Klammer won a gold medal at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck.

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, situated at Eastern Alps.


Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Old Romanian
Skull from the Peștera cu Oase (the oldest known remains of Homo sapiens in Europe).
Maximum territorial extent of the Kingdom of Dacia during Burebista's reign (early 40s BC.)
Ruins of sanctuaries at Sarmizegetusa Regia (Dacia's capital during the reigns of Burebista and Decebalus)
Gutthiuda, or the land of the Gothic-speaking Thervingi, and the neighbouring tribes (370s AD)
Vlad III of Wallachia (also known as Vlad the Impaler), medieval ruler of Wallachia
Changes in Romania's territory since 1859
Alexandru Ioan Cuza was the first Domnitor (i.e. Prince) of Romania (at that time the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia) between 1862 and 1866
Late 19th century ethnic map of Central Europe depicting predominantly Romanian-inhabited territories in blue. Hungarians are marked in yellow and Germans in pink.
King Carol I of Romania with his nephew Ferdinand I of Romania and great-nephew Carol II of Romania
Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940. Of these territories, only Northern Transylvania was regained after the end of World War II.
American B-24 Liberator flying over a burning oil refinery at Ploiești, as part of Operation Tidal Wave on 1 August 1943. Due to its role as a significant supplier of oil to the Axis, Romania was a prime target of Allied strategic bombing in 1943 and 1944.
King Michael I of Romania was forced to abdicate by the Communists in late December 1947, concomitant with the Soviet occupation of the country
Nicolae Ceaușescu ruled Romania as its communist leader from 1965 until 1989
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was one of the few violent revolutions in the Iron Curtain that brought an end to communist rule
An anti-Communist and anti-FSN rally in Bucharest (1990)
Romania saw large waves of protests against judicial reforms during the 2017–2019 Romanian protests
Romania joined the European Union in 2007 and signed the Treaty of Lisbon
Romania joined NATO in 2004 and hosted its 2008 summit in Bucharest
Topographic map of Romania
Diplomatic missions of Romania
Romania is a noteworthy ally of the United States, being the first NATO member state that agreed to support increasing its defence spending after the 2017 Trump–Iohannis meeting at the White House
Romanian marine troopers during a combined Dutch–Romanian exercise at Vadu beach
Romanian Mircea Geoană, Deputy Secretary General of NATO
A proportional representation of Romania exports, 2019
The CEC Palace is situated on Bucharest's Victory Avenue
The Bucharest Stock Exchange Palace, situated in the capital's historical city centre
Dacia Duster concept at the Geneva Motor Show (2009)
Romania's road network
Graph depicting Romania's electricity supply mix as of 2015
Romanians in Romania by counties (Ethnic maps 1930–2011)
Ethnic map of the Kingdom of Romania based on the 1930 census data
Map of Romanian language frequency as spoken in Romania by districts (according to the 2011 census)
Map highlighting the use of the Romanian language worldwide, both as a native and as a foreign language
The University of Bucharest was opened in 1864
The Colțea Hospital in Bucharest completed a $90 million renovation in 2011.
Sibiu was the 2007 European Capital of Culture and 2019 European Region of Gastronomy
Timișoara was designated the European Capital of Culture in 2021 but will hold this title in 2023 due to COVID-19 postponement
Christmas market in Bucharest

Romania (România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Map of Europe in 1930, showing the Kingdom of Yugoslavia highlighted in green
Celebrations of South Slavs in Zagreb during the formation of the National Council of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, October 1918
Map of Europe in 1930, showing the Kingdom of Yugoslavia highlighted in green
Serbian Army in Zagreb's Ban Jelačić Square in 1918
Delegation of the National Council of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs led by Ante Pavelić reading the address in front of regent Alexander, 1 December 1918
Mihajlo Pupin, Serbian physicist and physical chemist. He influenced the final decisions of the Paris Peace Conference when the borders of the Kingdom were drawn.
Slovene farmers threshing wheat (1930s)
Bond of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes for the liquidation of the agro-debts from Bosnia and Herzegovina, issued 18 June 1921
Between 1918 and 1926, Nikola Pašić held the position of Prime Minister of Yugoslavia three times.
Provinces of the Kingdom in 1920–1922
Oblasts of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
The Vidovdan Constitution
In 1929, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was subdivided into nine banovinas. This became eight in 1939, when two were merged to form the Banovina of Croatia.
In 1939, the Banovina of Croatia was founded, aimed at solving the "Croatian question". It was formed from the Sava Banovina and Littoral Banovina, with small parts ceded from the Drina, Zeta, and Danube banovinas.
1939 Yugoslav postage stamp featuring King Peter II
Passport of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Kraljevina Jugoslavija / Краљевина Југославија; Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941.