Central Europe

CentralCentral Europeanmiddle EuropeCentral and Eastern Europecentral European countriesCentral-EuropeanMid-Europeancentral and southern EuropeCentral Europe regionCentral European cuisines
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.wikipedia
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Visegrád Group

Visegrád FourV4Central Europe
Central Europe is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope and the Visegrád Four.
The Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four, or V4 is a cultural and political alliance of four Central European states – the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, that are members of the European Union (EU) and NATO – for the purposes of advancing military, cultural, economic and energy cooperation with one another along with furthering their integration in the EU.

Centrope

Central Europe is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope and the Visegrád Four.
Centrope also known as Czechaushunvakia, is an Interreg IIIA project to establish a multinational region in Central Europe encompassing four European countries: Slovakia, Austria, Hungary and Czech Republic.

Switzerland

Swiss🇨🇭SWI
On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein (Central European Economic Association) was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany and Austria–Hungary (with eventual extension to Switzerland, Belgium and the Netherlands) as its main aim. According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon, Central Europe is a part of Europe composed of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states – Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia), as well as northeastern France.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western, central and southern Europe.

Magdeburg rights

city rightsMagdeburg lawMagdeburg city rights
In the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights.
Named after the German city of Magdeburg, these town charters were perhaps the most important set of medieval laws in Central Europe thus far.

Poland

🇵🇱PolishPOL
The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have (re)appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, and Poland from 1910 to 1930. According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon, Central Europe is a part of Europe composed of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states – Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia), as well as northeastern France. Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later Austria-Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube River: Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, large parts of Romania and Serbia, and smaller parts of Poland and Ukraine
Poland (Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska ), is a country located in Central Europe.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have (re)appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. Hungarian scholar Magda Adam wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe (2006): "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia, Romania and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), created in 1921 not for Central Europe's cooperation nor to fight German expansion, but in a wrong perceived notion that a completely powerless Hungary must be kept down". The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, and Poland from 1910 to 1930. According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon, Central Europe is a part of Europe composed of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states – Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia), as well as northeastern France.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia ( Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko ), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

Austria

🇦🇹AUTAustrian
Before World War I, it embraced mainly German states (Germany, Austria), non-German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination – German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance. The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, and Poland from 1910 to 1930. Besides Austria, only the marginal Central European states of Finland and Yugoslavia preserved their political sovereignty to a certain degree, being left out of any military alliances in Europe. According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon, Central Europe is a part of Europe composed of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states – Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia), as well as northeastern France. Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later Austria-Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube River: Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, large parts of Romania and Serbia, and smaller parts of Poland and Ukraine
Austria (, ; Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich, ), is a country of nearly 9 million people in Central Europe.

Romania

🇷🇴ROURomanian
Hungarian scholar Magda Adam wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe (2006): "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia, Romania and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), created in 1921 not for Central Europe's cooperation nor to fight German expansion, but in a wrong perceived notion that a completely powerless Hungary must be kept down". According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon, Central Europe is a part of Europe composed of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states – Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia), as well as northeastern France. Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later Austria-Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube River: Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, large parts of Romania and Serbia, and smaller parts of Poland and Ukraine
Romania (România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

Germany

🇩🇪GermanGER
The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, and Poland from 1910 to 1930. According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon, Central Europe is a part of Europe composed of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states – Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia), as well as northeastern France.
Germany (Deutschland ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland, ), is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

YugoslaviaKingdom of Serbs, Croats and SlovenesYugoslav
Hungarian scholar Magda Adam wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe (2006): "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia, Romania and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), created in 1921 not for Central Europe's cooperation nor to fight German expansion, but in a wrong perceived notion that a completely powerless Hungary must be kept down".
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Краљевина Југославија / Kraljevina Jugoslavija; Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe that existed from 1929 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.

Mitteleuropa

MitteleuropeanCentral EuropeanGerman hegemony
The German term Mitteleuropa (or alternatively its literal translation into English, Middle Europe ) is an ambiguous German concept.
Mitteleuropa, meaning Middle Europe, is one of the German terms for Central Europe.

Polish People's Republic

Polandcommunist PolandRepublic of Poland
In Germany the connotation was also sometimes linked to the pre-war German provinces east of the Oder-Neisse line which were lost as the result of World War II, annexed by People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union, and ethnically cleansed of Germans by communist authorities and forces (see expulsion of Germans after World War II) due to Yalta Conference and Potsdam Conference decisions.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was a state in Central Europe that existed from 1947 to 1989, and the predecessor of the modern democratic Republic of Poland.

Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50)

expelledfled or were expelledexpulsion of Germans after World War II
In Germany the connotation was also sometimes linked to the pre-war German provinces east of the Oder-Neisse line which were lost as the result of World War II, annexed by People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union, and ethnically cleansed of Germans by communist authorities and forces (see expulsion of Germans after World War II) due to Yalta Conference and Potsdam Conference decisions.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.

West Slavs

West SlavicWestern SlavicSlavic
In this view Bohemia and Moravia, with its dual Western Slavic and Germanic heritage, combined with the historical element of the "Sudetenland", is a core region illustrating the problems and features of the entire Central European region.
They separated from the common Slavic group around the 7th century, and established independent polities in Central Europe by the 8th to 9th centuries.

Moravia

MoravaMoravianMähren
In this view Bohemia and Moravia, with its dual Western Slavic and Germanic heritage, combined with the historical element of the "Sudetenland", is a core region illustrating the problems and features of the entire Central European region.
Moravia occupies an exceptional position in Central Europe.

Prague

PrahaPrague, Czech RepublicPrag
German-speaking Jews from turn of the 20th century Vienna, Budapest and Prague became representatives of what many consider to be Central European culture at its best, though the Nazi version of "Mitteleuropa" destroyed this kind of culture instead.
Also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR Yugoslavia
Besides Austria, only the marginal Central European states of Finland and Yugoslavia preserved their political sovereignty to a certain degree, being left out of any military alliances in Europe.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a country located in central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.

Croatia

🇭🇷CroatianRepublic of Croatia
According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon, Central Europe is a part of Europe composed of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states – Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia), as well as northeastern France. Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later Austria-Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube River: Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, large parts of Romania and Serbia, and smaller parts of Poland and Ukraine
Croatia (, ; Hrvatska, ), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska, ) is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

Serbia

🇷🇸SRBSerbian
According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon, Central Europe is a part of Europe composed of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states – Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia), as well as northeastern France. Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later Austria-Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube River: Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, large parts of Romania and Serbia, and smaller parts of Poland and Ukraine
Serbia (Србија / Srbija ), officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија / Republika Srbija ), is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.

Slovenia

🇸🇮SlovenianSlovene
According to Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon, Central Europe is a part of Europe composed of Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Romania and Switzerland, and northern marginal regions of Italy and Yugoslavia (northern states – Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia), as well as northeastern France. Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later Austria-Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube River: Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, large parts of Romania and Serbia, and smaller parts of Poland and Ukraine
Slovenia ({{IPAc-en|audio= en-us-Slovenia.ogg|s|l|oʊ|ˈ|v|iː|n|i|ə|,_|s|l|ə|-}} {{respell|sloh|VEE|nee-ə}}; {{lang-sl|Slovenija}} {{IPA-sl|slɔˈʋèːnija|}}), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: {{Audio| Sl-Republika Slovenija.oga|Republika Slovenija}}, abbr.: RS ), is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes.

Vienna

VienneseVienna, AustriaWien
German-speaking Jews from turn of the 20th century Vienna, Budapest and Prague became representatives of what many consider to be Central European culture at its best, though the Nazi version of "Mitteleuropa" destroyed this kind of culture instead.
Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribeGermanic tribes
In this view Bohemia and Moravia, with its dual Western Slavic and Germanic heritage, combined with the historical element of the "Sudetenland", is a core region illustrating the problems and features of the entire Central European region.
[[File:Archeological cultures in Northern and Central Europe at the late pre-Roman Iron Age.png|thumb|upright=0.9|Archeological cultures of Northern and Central Europe in the late Pre-Roman Iron Age:

Eastern Europe

EasternEastern EuropeanEast European
It is said to occupy continuous territory that are otherwise conventionally Western Europe, Southern Europe, and Eastern Europe.
Croatia (can variously be included in Southeastern or Central Europe)

Czech Republic

🇨🇿CzechCZE
Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later Austria-Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube River: Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, large parts of Romania and Serbia, and smaller parts of Poland and Ukraine
The Czech Republic (Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

Slovakia

🇸🇰SlovakSVK
Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later Austria-Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube River: Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, large parts of Romania and Serbia, and smaller parts of Poland and Ukraine
Slovakia ( Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika, ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.