Central Europe

CentralMiddle EuropeCentral EuropeanCentral and Eastern Europecentral European countriesCentral-EuropeanHistory of Central EuropeMid-Europeancentral and southern EuropeCentral Europe region
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.wikipedia
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Visegrád Group

Visegrad GroupVisegrád FourV4
Central Europe is going through a "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the Central European Initiative (CEI), Centrope, and the Visegrád Four Group.
The Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four, or V4, is a cultural and political alliance of four Central European states – the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, that are members of the European Union (EU) and NATO – for the purposes of advancing military, cultural, economic and energy cooperation with one another along with furthering their integration in the EU.

Centrope

Central Europe is going through a "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the Central European Initiative (CEI), Centrope, and the Visegrád Four Group.
Centrope is an Interreg IIIA project to establish a multinational region in four Central European states: Slovakia, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

Switzerland

SwissSwiss ConfederationSWI
On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein (Central European Economic Association) was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany and Austria–Hungary (with eventual extension to Switzerland, Belgium and the Netherlands) as its main aim. Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania and Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state situated in the confluence of western, central, and southern Europe.

Magdeburg rights

Magdeburg Lawcity rightsMagdeburg city rights
In the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights.
Named after the German city of Magdeburg, these town charters were perhaps the most important set of medieval laws in Central Europe.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechCzechoslovakian
The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have (re)appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. Hungarian scholar Magda Ádám wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe (2006): "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia, Romania and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), created in 1921 not for Central Europe's cooperation nor to fight German expansion, but in a wrong perceived notion that a completely powerless Hungary must be kept down". The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, and Poland from 1910 to 1930.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia ( Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko ), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

Poland

PolishPOLRepublic of Poland
The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have (re)appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, and Poland from 1910 to 1930. Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania and Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Poland (Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska ), is a country located in Central Europe.

Austria

AUTAustrianRepublic of Austria
Before World War I, it embraced mainly German states (Germany, Austria), non-German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination – German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance. The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, and Poland from 1910 to 1930. Besides Austria, only the marginal Central European states of Finland and Yugoslavia preserved their political sovereignty to a certain degree, being left out of any military alliances in Europe. Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania and Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Austria (, ; Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich, ), is a land-locked country in Central Europe composed of nine federated states (Bundesländer), one of which is Vienna, Austria's capital and its largest city.

Romania

ROURomanianRomânia
Hungarian scholar Magda Ádám wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe (2006): "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia, Romania and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), created in 1921 not for Central Europe's cooperation nor to fight German expansion, but in a wrong perceived notion that a completely powerless Hungary must be kept down". Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania and Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Romania (România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant-gardes in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, and Poland from 1910 to 1930. Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania and Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Germany (Deutschland, ), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland, ), is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance, and the High Rhine to the south.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and SlovenesYugoslaviaYugoslav
Hungarian scholar Magda Ádám wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe (2006): "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia, Romania and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), created in 1921 not for Central Europe's cooperation nor to fight German expansion, but in a wrong perceived notion that a completely powerless Hungary must be kept down".
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Краљевина Југославија / Kraljevina Jugoslavija; Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.

Mitteleuropa

MitteleuropeanCentral EuropeanGerman dominated
Mitteleuropa may refer to an historical concept, or to a contemporary German definition of Central Europe.
Mitteleuropa, meaning Middle Europe, is one of the German terms for Central Europe.

Prague

Prague, Czech RepublicPrague, CzechoslovakiaPraha
German-speaking Jews from turn of the 20th century Vienna, Budapest and Prague became representatives of what many consider to be Central European culture at its best, though the Nazi version of "Mitteleuropa" destroyed this kind of culture instead.
It is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR Yugoslavia
Besides Austria, only the marginal Central European states of Finland and Yugoslavia preserved their political sovereignty to a certain degree, being left out of any military alliances in Europe.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), also known as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.

Vienna

Vienna, AustriaWienViennese
German-speaking Jews from turn of the 20th century Vienna, Budapest and Prague became representatives of what many consider to be Central European culture at its best, though the Nazi version of "Mitteleuropa" destroyed this kind of culture instead.
Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands.

Eastern Europe

Eastern EuropeanEasternEast European
Central Europe occupies continuous territories that are otherwise sometimes considered parts of Western Europe, Southern Europe, and Eastern Europe.
Some of them can sometimes, albeit rarely, be characterized as belonging to Southern Europe, and some may also be included in Central Europe.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Imperium Romanum; Heiliges Römisches Reich), also known as Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarian Kingdom
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).

Lands of the Bohemian Crown

Bohemian CrownCrown of BohemiaBohemia
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.

Austria-Hungary

Austro-Hungarian EmpireAustro-HungarianAustria–Hungary
The "bible" of the concept was Friedrich Naumann's book Mitteleuropa in which he called for an economic federation to be established after World War I. Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its centre Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire but would also include all European nations outside the Triple Entente.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918.

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania and Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east, and Poland to the northeast.

Slovakia

SlovakSVKSlovak Republic
Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania and Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Slovakia ( Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika, ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

Slovenia

SloveneSlovenianRepublic of Slovenia
Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania and Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Slovenia (Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS ), is a country located in Central and Southeastern Europe, at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

Croatia

Republic of CroatiaCroatianCRO
Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania and Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Croatia (, ; Hrvatska, ), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska, ), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

Serbia

SRBRepublic of SerbiaSerbian
Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania and Serbia too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.

Western world

WesternWestthe West
Later, they expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea to include Western, Central, and Southeastern Europe.