Central nervous system

CNScentralcentral nervous system (CNS)centrallybraincentral nervouscentrally activethe nervous systemcentral nervous system diseasescentrally-penetrant
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.wikipedia
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Nervous system

neuralnervousneurogenic
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Spinal cord

medulla spinalisspinethoracic segment
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS).

Retina

retinal diseasesretinalretinal disease
Many consider the retina and the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), as well as the olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I) and olfactory epithelium as parts of the CNS, synapsing directly on brain tissue without intermediate ganglia.
In vertebrate embryonic development, the retina and the optic nerve originate as outgrowths of the developing brain, specifically the embryonic diencephalon; thus, the retina is considered part of the central nervous system (CNS) and is actually brain tissue.

White matter

whitewhite brain matterwhite matter tracts
The CNS is composed of white and gray matter.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

Grey matter

gray mattergraygrey
The CNS is composed of white and gray matter.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

Peripheral nervous system

peripheralperipheral nervesPNS
Microscopically, there are differences between the neurons and tissue of the CNS and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals, with the other part being the central nervous system (CNS).

Ganglion

gangliaganglion cellspreganglionic neurons
Many consider the retina and the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), as well as the olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I) and olfactory epithelium as parts of the CNS, synapsing directly on brain tissue without intermediate ganglia.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system, mostly outside the central nervous system except certain nuclei.

Optic nerve

optic nervesoptical nerveoptic
Many consider the retina and the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), as well as the olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I) and olfactory epithelium as parts of the CNS, synapsing directly on brain tissue without intermediate ganglia.
The optic nerve has been classified as the second of twelve paired cranial nerves but it is technically part of the central nervous system, rather than the peripheral nervous system because it is derived from an out-pouching of the diencephalon (optic stalks) during embryonic development.

Glia

glial cellsglial cellglial
Both tissues include a number of glial cells (although the white matter contains more), which are often referred to as supporting cells of the CNS.
Glia, also called glial cells or neuroglia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system that do not produce electrical impulses.

Oligodendrocyte

oligodendrocytesoligodendrogliaoligodendroglia cells
The white matter consists of axons and oligodendrocytes, while the gray matter consists of neurons and unmyelinated fibers.
Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia, are a type of neuroglia whose main functions are to provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, equivalent to the function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.

Human brain

brainbrain tissuebrains
Different forms of glial cells have different functions, some acting almost as scaffolding for neuroblasts to climb during neurogenesis such as bergmann glia, while others such as microglia are a specialized form of macrophage, involved in the immune system of the brain as well as the clearance of various metabolites from the brain tissue.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

Jellyfish

medusamedusaejelly fish
The CNS is so named because it integrates the received information and coordinates and influences the activity of all parts of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric animals—that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish—and it contains the majority of the nervous system.
Most jellyfish do not have specialized systems for osmoregulation, respiration and circulation, and do not have a central nervous system.

Microglia

microglial cellsmicroglialmicroglial cell
Different forms of glial cells have different functions, some acting almost as scaffolding for neuroblasts to climb during neurogenesis such as bergmann glia, while others such as microglia are a specialized form of macrophage, involved in the immune system of the brain as well as the clearance of various metabolites from the brain tissue.
As the resident macrophage cells, they act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS).

Gliosis

microgliosis
Upon CNS injury astrocytes will proliferate, causing gliosis, a form of neuronal scar tissue, lacking in functional neurons.
Gliosis is a nonspecific reactive change of glial cells in response to damage to the central nervous system (CNS).

Axon

axonsnerve fiberaxonal
The white matter consists of axons and oligodendrocytes, while the gray matter consists of neurons and unmyelinated fibers.
A bundle of axons make a nerve tract in the central nervous system, and a fascicle in the peripheral nervous system.

Neuron

neuronsnerve cellsnerve cell
The white matter consists of axons and oligodendrocytes, while the gray matter consists of neurons and unmyelinated fibers.
The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which includes the autonomic and somatic nervous systems.

Astrocyte

astrocytesastrogliaastrocytic
Astrocytes may be involved with both clearance of metabolites as well as transport of fuel and various beneficial substances to neurons from the capillaries of the brain.
Astrocytes are a sub-type of glial cells in the central nervous system.

Cerebral cortex

cortexcorticalsubcortical
The brain (cerebrum as well as midbrain and hindbrain) consists of a cortex, composed of neuron-bodies constituting gray matter, while internally there is more white matter that form tracts and commissures.
The cerebral cortex is the largest site of neural integration in the central nervous system.

Nerve tract

tractstractneural tract
The brain (cerebrum as well as midbrain and hindbrain) consists of a cortex, composed of neuron-bodies constituting gray matter, while internally there is more white matter that form tracts and commissures.
A nerve tract is a bundle of nerve fibers (axons) connecting nuclei of the central nervous system.

Nucleus (neuroanatomy)

nucleinucleusbrain nuclei
Apart from cortical gray matter there is also subcortical gray matter making up a large number of different nuclei.
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.

Nerve

nervesinnervationinnervated
From and to the spinal cord are projections of the peripheral nervous system in the form of spinal nerves (sometimes segmental nerves ).
A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses called action potentials that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs or, in the case of sensory nerves, from the periphery back to the central nervous system.

Neurogenesis

neurogenicneural stem cellneural stem cells
Different forms of glial cells have different functions, some acting almost as scaffolding for neuroblasts to climb during neurogenesis such as bergmann glia, while others such as microglia are a specialized form of macrophage, involved in the immune system of the brain as well as the clearance of various metabolites from the brain tissue.
During embryonic development, the mammalian central nervous system (CNS; brain and spinal cord) is derived from the neural tube, which contains NSCs that will later generate neurons.

Meninges

subarachnoid spacemeningealleptomeninges
The brain and spinal cord are both enclosed in the meninges.
It cushions the central nervous system.

Cranial nerves

cranial nervecranialCN
Many consider the retina and the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), as well as the olfactory nerves (cranial nerve I) and olfactory epithelium as parts of the CNS, synapsing directly on brain tissue without intermediate ganglia.
The cranial nerves, however, emerge from the central nervous system above this level.

Afferent nerve fiber

afferentafferent fibersafferent nerve
The nerves connect the spinal cord to skin, joints, muscles etc. and allow for the transmission of efferent motor as well as afferent sensory signals and stimuli.
These terms have a slightly different meaning in the context of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS).