Ceramic

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A ceramic ( —, "potter's", from κέραμος —, "potter's clay") is a solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.wikipedia
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Porcelain

chinafine chinaEuropean porcelain
Common examples are earthenware, porcelain, and brick.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1200 and 1400 °C.

Ceramic engineering

ceramicsceramicceramic engineer
Varying crystallinity and electron composition in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators (extensively researched in ceramic engineering).
Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, with long-range order on atomic scale.

Stoneware

blackwarestonepaste ceramicsblack
Most often, fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain.
Stoneware is a rather broad term for pottery or other ceramics fired at a relatively high temperature.

Solid

solidsssolid state
A ceramic ( —, "potter's", from κέραμος —, "potter's clay") is a solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Almost all common metals, and many ceramics, are polycrystalline.

Piezoelectricity

piezoelectricpiezoelectric effectpiezo-electric
General properties such as high melting temperature, high hardness, poor conductivity, high moduli of elasticity, chemical resistance and low ductility are the norm, with known exceptions to each of these rules (e.g. piezoelectric ceramics, glass transition temperature, superconductive ceramics, etc.).
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.

Pottery

potterceramicspotters
The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects (i.e. pots or vessels) or figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials like silica, hardened and sintered in fire.
Pottery is the process of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard, durable form.

Vitrification

vitrifiedvitreousvitrifies
The crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from highly oriented to semi-crystalline, vitrified, and often completely amorphous (e.g., glasses).
In the production of ceramics, vitrification is responsible for its impermeability to water.

Sintering

sinteredsinterPressureless sintering
The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects (i.e. pots or vessels) or figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials like silica, hardened and sintered in fire.
Sintering happens naturally in mineral deposits or as a manufacturing process used with metals, ceramics, plastics, and other materials.

Ceramic art

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Ceramics now include domestic, industrial and building products, as well as a wide range of ceramic art.
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.

Ceramic glaze

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Later ceramics were glazed and fired to create smooth, colored surfaces, decreasing porosity through the use of glassy, amorphous ceramic coatings on top of the crystalline ceramic substrates.
Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.

Superconductivity

superconductingsuperconductorsuperconductors
General properties such as high melting temperature, high hardness, poor conductivity, high moduli of elasticity, chemical resistance and low ductility are the norm, with known exceptions to each of these rules (e.g. piezoelectric ceramics, glass transition temperature, superconductive ceramics, etc.).
In 1986, it was discovered that some cuprate-perovskite ceramic materials have a critical temperature above 90 K. Such a high transition temperature is theoretically impossible for a conventional superconductor, leading the materials to be termed high-temperature superconductors.

Silicon carbide

carborundumSiCSiC-MOSFET
The modern ceramic materials, which are classified as advanced ceramics, include silicon carbide and tungsten carbide.
Grains of silicon carbide can be bonded together by sintering to form very hard ceramics that are widely used in applications requiring high endurance, such as car brakes, car clutches and ceramic plates in bulletproof vests.

Ceramic forming techniques

ceramic powdersformation of ceramicsforming technique for ceramics
Ceramic forming techniques include shaping by hand (sometimes including a rotation process called "throwing"), slip casting, tape casting (used for making very thin ceramic capacitors), injection molding, dry pressing, and other variations.
Ceramic forming techniques are ways of forming ceramics, which are used to make everyday tableware from teapots, to engineering ceramics such as computer parts.

Silicon

Sisilicon revolutionsilicium
Some elements, such as carbon or silicon, may be considered ceramics.
They are also used in whiteware ceramics such as porcelain, and in traditional quartz-based soda-lime glass and many other specialty glasses.

Hardness

hardhardersoft
With such a large range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic (e.g. nearly all of the elements, nearly all types of bonding, and all levels of crystallinity), the breadth of the subject is vast, and identifiable attributes (e.g. hardness, toughness, electrical conductivity, etc.) are difficult to specify for the group as a whole. Solid-state chemistry reveals the fundamental connection between microstructure and properties such as localized density variations, grain size distribution, type of porosity and second-phase content, which can all be correlated with ceramic properties such as mechanical strength σ by the Hall-Petch equation, hardness, toughness, dielectric constant, and the optical properties exhibited by transparent materials.
Common examples of hard matter are ceramics, concrete, certain metals, and superhard materials, which can be contrasted with soft matter.

Ceramography

ceramic microstructureCeramic petrographyceramics
Ceramography is the art and science of preparation, examination and evaluation of ceramic microstructures.
Ceramography is the art and science of preparation, examination and evaluation of ceramic microstructures.

Materials science

material sciencematerials engineeringmaterials scientist
Physical properties which constitute the field of materials science and engineering include the following:
Originally deriving from the manufacture of ceramics and its putative derivative metallurgy, materials science is one of the oldest forms of engineering and applied science.

Electrical resistivity and conductivity

electrical conductivityresistivityconductivity
With such a large range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic (e.g. nearly all of the elements, nearly all types of bonding, and all levels of crystallinity), the breadth of the subject is vast, and identifiable attributes (e.g. hardness, toughness, electrical conductivity, etc.) are difficult to specify for the group as a whole.
In 1986, researchers discovered that some cuprate-perovskite ceramic materials have much higher critical temperatures, and in 1987 one was produced with a critical temperature above 90 K. Such a high transition temperature is theoretically impossible for a conventional superconductor, so the researchers named these conductors high-temperature superconductors.

Solid-state chemistry

solid state chemistrysolid statesolid-state
Solid-state chemistry reveals the fundamental connection between microstructure and properties such as localized density variations, grain size distribution, type of porosity and second-phase content, which can all be correlated with ceramic properties such as mechanical strength σ by the Hall-Petch equation, hardness, toughness, dielectric constant, and the optical properties exhibited by transparent materials.
It therefore has a strong overlap with solid-state physics, mineralogy, crystallography, ceramics, metallurgy, thermodynamics, materials science and electronics with a focus on the synthesis of novel materials and their characterisation.

Ceramic matrix composite

carbon ceramicCeramic matrix compositesCMC
To overcome the brittle behaviour, ceramic material development has introduced the class of ceramic matrix composite materials, in which ceramic fibers are embedded and with specific coatings are forming fiber bridges across any crack.
Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a subgroup of composite materials as well as a subgroup of ceramics.

Slipcasting

slip castingslip-castslip cast
Ceramic forming techniques include shaping by hand (sometimes including a rotation process called "throwing"), slip casting, tape casting (used for making very thin ceramic capacitors), injection molding, dry pressing, and other variations.
Slipcasting or slip casting is a ceramic forming technique for the mass-production of pottery and other ceramics, especially for shapes not easily made on a wheel.

Figurine

statuettefigurinesstatuettes
The earliest ceramics made by humans were pottery objects (i.e. pots or vessels) or figurines made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials like silica, hardened and sintered in fire.
Many made of fired clay have been found in Europe that date to 25-30,000 BC, and are the oldest ceramics known.

Freeze-casting

Freeze castingIce-templating
Often times if a ceramic will be subjected to substantial mechanical loading it will undergo a process called Ice-templating.
Freeze-casting, also frequently referred to as ice-templating, is a technique that exploits the highly anisotropic solidification behavior of a solvent (generally water) in a well-dispersed slurry to template controllably a directionally porous ceramic.

Tape casting

Ceramic forming techniques include shaping by hand (sometimes including a rotation process called "throwing"), slip casting, tape casting (used for making very thin ceramic capacitors), injection molding, dry pressing, and other variations.
Tape casting (also called doctor blading and knife coating) is a casting process used in the manufacture of thin ceramic tapes and sheets from ceramic slurry.

Yttria-stabilized zirconia

YSZceramicpartially stabilised zirconia ceramic
First an aqueous colloidal suspension must be prepared containing the dissolved ceramic powder, say Yttria Stablized Zirconia (YSZ).
Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a ceramic in which the cubic crystal structure of zirconium dioxide is made stable at room temperature by an addition of yttrium oxide.