Ceramide

ceramidesN-acylsphingosineCerPhytoceramide
Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules.wikipedia
165 Related Articles

Lipid signaling

signalingsignaling moleculesinositol phospholipid
Contrary to previous assumptions that ceramides and other sphingolipids found in cell membrane were purely supporting structural elements, ceramide can participate in a variety of cellular signaling: examples include regulating differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death (PCD) of cells.
Ceramide (Cer) can be generated by the breakdown of sphingomyelin (SM) by sphingomyelinases (SMases), which are enzymes that hydrolyze the phosphocholine group from the sphingosine backbone.

Sphingomyelin

sphingomyelin apoptotic pathwaysphingomyelinssphingophospholipid
Ceramides are found in high concentrations within the cell membrane of eukaryotic cells, since they are component lipids that make up sphingomyelin, one of the major lipids in the lipid bilayer. Hydrolysis of sphingomyelin is catalyzed by the enzyme sphingomyelinase. Once in the Golgi apparatus, ceramide can be further metabolized to other sphingolipids, such as sphingomyelin and the complex glycosphingolipids.
It usually consists of phosphocholine and ceramide, or a phosphoethanolamine head group; therefore, sphingomyelins can also be classified as sphingophospholipids.

Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfat
Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules.
Sphingolipids are a complicated family of compounds that share a common structural feature, a sphingoid base backbone that is synthesized de novo from the amino acid serine and a long-chain fatty acyl CoA, then converted into ceramides, phosphosphingolipids, glycosphingolipids and other compounds.

Vernix caseosa

vernixwhite stickiness
Ceramide is a component of vernix caseosa, the waxy or cheese-like white substance found coating the skin of newborn human infants.
12% of the dry weight of vernix is composed of branched chain fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramide.

Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase

sphingomyelinaseacid sphingomyelinaseSphingomyelinase D
Hydrolysis of sphingomyelin is catalyzed by the enzyme sphingomyelinase.
SMase is a member of the DNase I superfamily of enzymes and is responsible for breaking sphingomyelin (SM) down into phosphocholine and ceramide.

Sphingosine

A ceramide is composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid.
Sphingolipid metabolites, such as ceramides, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate, are lipid signaling molecules involved in diverse cellular processes.

Sphingolipid

sphingolipidssphingolipid metabolismsphingoid base
Contrary to previous assumptions that ceramides and other sphingolipids found in cell membrane were purely supporting structural elements, ceramide can participate in a variety of cellular signaling: examples include regulating differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death (PCD) of cells. Once in the Golgi apparatus, ceramide can be further metabolized to other sphingolipids, such as sphingomyelin and the complex glycosphingolipids.
A sphingolipid with an R group consisting of a hydrogen atom only is a ceramide.

Sphingosine-1-phosphate

sphingosine 1-phosphateS1PSonepcizumab
The long-chain sphingoid bases released from the lysosome may then re-enter pathways for synthesis of ceramide and/or sphingosine-1-phosphate.
Sphingosine can be released from ceramides, a process catalyzed by the enzyme ceramidase.

Ceramide synthase

Thus, ceramide synthase family members probably trap free sphingosine released from the lysosome at the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum or in endoplasmic reticulum-associated membranes.
Ceramide synthases (CerS) are integral membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum that catalyze the synthesis of ceramide.

Dihydroceramide desaturase

The final reaction to produce ceramide is catalyzed by dihydroceramide desaturase.
Dihydroceramide desaturase is the enzyme involved in the conversion of dihydroceramide into ceramide by inserting the 4,5-trans-double bond to the sphingolipid backbone of dihydroceramide.

Glycosphingolipid

glycosphingolipids
Once in the Golgi apparatus, ceramide can be further metabolized to other sphingolipids, such as sphingomyelin and the complex glycosphingolipids.
They consist of a hydrophobic ceramide part and a glycosidically bound carbohydrate part.

Stratum corneum

horny layercornified layerepidermal permeability barrier
Ceramide is the main component of the stratum corneum of the epidermis layer of human skin.
These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides, cholesterol, and fatty acids.

Safingol

sphinganinedihydrosphingosine
In turn, 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine is reduced to dihydrosphingosine, which is then followed by acylation by the enzyme (dihydro)ceramide synthase to produce dihydroceramide.
It can also affect the balance of other endogenous sphingolipids, particularly ceramide and dihydroceramide, which have been implicated in autophagic induction and ROS production.

Epidermis

epidermalepidermal cellsepidermal layer
Ceramide is the main component of the stratum corneum of the epidermis layer of human skin.

SOCS3

SOCS-3Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3)
Increased ceramide synthesis leads to both leptin resistance and insulin resistance by increasing SOCS-3 expression.
SOCS3 contributes to both leptin resistance and insulin resistance as a result of increased ceramide synthesis.

Nicotinamide

niacinamide3-pyridinecarboxamidenicotinic acid amide
Nicotinamide increases the biosynthesis of ceramides in human keratinocytes in vitro and improves the epidermal permeability barrier in vivo.

Anandamide

ArachidonoylethanolamideArachidonoylethanolamineAEA
It is found that anandamide prefer cholesterol and ceramide more than other membrane lipids, and cholesterol can behave as a binding partner for it, and following an initial interaction mediated by the establishment of a hydrogen bond, the endocannabinoid is attracted towards the membrane interior, where it forms a molecular complex with cholesterol after a functional conformation adaptation to the apolar membrane milieu, and from there, the complex is further directed to the cannabinoid receptor (CB1) and out.

Dermatitis

eczemaallergic dermatitischronic eczema
Ceramides may be found as ingredients of some topical skin medications used to complement treatment for skin conditions such as eczema.
It is unclear if moisturizers that contain ceramides are more or less effective than others.

Wax

waxeswax candlecuticle wax
Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules.

Fatty acid

fatty acidsfree fatty acidsfree fatty acid
A ceramide is composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid.

Lipid bilayer

phospholipid bilayerlipid membranelipid bilayers
Ceramides are found in high concentrations within the cell membrane of eukaryotic cells, since they are component lipids that make up sphingomyelin, one of the major lipids in the lipid bilayer.

Cellular differentiation

differentiationcell differentiationdifferentiate
Contrary to previous assumptions that ceramides and other sphingolipids found in cell membrane were purely supporting structural elements, ceramide can participate in a variety of cellular signaling: examples include regulating differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death (PCD) of cells.

Cell growth

proliferationcell proliferationgrowth
Contrary to previous assumptions that ceramides and other sphingolipids found in cell membrane were purely supporting structural elements, ceramide can participate in a variety of cellular signaling: examples include regulating differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death (PCD) of cells.

Programmed cell death

cell deathcellular agingdeath
Contrary to previous assumptions that ceramides and other sphingolipids found in cell membrane were purely supporting structural elements, ceramide can participate in a variety of cellular signaling: examples include regulating differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death (PCD) of cells.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Contrary to previous assumptions that ceramides and other sphingolipids found in cell membrane were purely supporting structural elements, ceramide can participate in a variety of cellular signaling: examples include regulating differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death (PCD) of cells.