Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

cerebral amyloid angiopathy, familialamyloid angiopathyCongophilic angiopathybeta amyloid angiopathyCAACerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is a form of angiopathy in which amyloid beta peptide deposits in the walls of small to medium blood vessels of the central nervous system and meninges.wikipedia
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Amyloid

amyloid plaquesamyloid plaqueamyloids
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is a form of angiopathy in which amyloid beta peptide deposits in the walls of small to medium blood vessels of the central nervous system and meninges. The term congophilic is used because the presence of the abnormal aggregations of amyloid can be demonstrated by microscopic examination of brain tissue after application of a special stain called Congo red.

Intracerebral hemorrhage

cerebral hemorrhagebrain hemorrhagecerebral haemorrhage
The bleeding within the brain is usually confined to a particular lobe and this is slightly different compared to brain bleeds which occur as a consequence of high blood pressure (hypertension) - a more common cause of a hemorrhagic stroke (or bleeding in the brain).
Amyloid angiopathy is a not uncommon cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients over the age of 55.

Angiopathy

damaged
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is a form of angiopathy in which amyloid beta peptide deposits in the walls of small to medium blood vessels of the central nervous system and meninges.

Amyloidosis

amyloid degenerationamyloidosesfamilial amyloidosis
The amyloid material is only found in the brain and as such the disease is not related to other forms of amyloidosis.

Amyloid beta

beta amyloidbeta-amyloidβ-amyloid
It is usually associated with amyloid beta.
Similar plaques appear in some variants of Lewy body dementia and in inclusion body myositis (a muscle disease), while Aβ can also form the aggregates that coat cerebral blood vessels in cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Cystatin C

CST3Cystatin 3
Mutations in the cystatin 3 gene are responsible for the Icelandic type of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, a condition predisposing to intracerebral haemorrhage, stroke and dementia.

Susceptibility weighted imaging

SWI
Susceptibility weighted imaging has been proposed as a tool for identifying CAA-related microhemorrhages.
Gradient recalled echo (GRE) imaging is the conventional way to detect hemorrhage in CAA, however SWI is a much more sensitive technique that can reveal many micro-hemorrhages that are missed on GRE images.

Central nervous system

CNScentralcentral nervous system (CNS)
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is a form of angiopathy in which amyloid beta peptide deposits in the walls of small to medium blood vessels of the central nervous system and meninges.

Tissue (biology)

tissuetissuesbiological tissue
The term congophilic is used because the presence of the abnormal aggregations of amyloid can be demonstrated by microscopic examination of brain tissue after application of a special stain called Congo red.

Congo red

Congo red dyeCongo red stain
The term congophilic is used because the presence of the abnormal aggregations of amyloid can be demonstrated by microscopic examination of brain tissue after application of a special stain called Congo red.

Dementia

senilesenilitysenile dementia
However, they can also occur in those who have no history of dementia.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
The bleeding within the brain is usually confined to a particular lobe and this is slightly different compared to brain bleeds which occur as a consequence of high blood pressure (hypertension) - a more common cause of a hemorrhagic stroke (or bleeding in the brain).

Meninges

subarachnoid spacemeningealleptomeninges
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is a form of angiopathy in which amyloid beta peptide deposits in the walls of small to medium blood vessels of the central nervous system and meninges. In all cases, it is defined by the deposition of Aβ in the leptomeningal and cerebral vessel walls.

Cerebrum

cerebraltelencephalontelencephalic
In all cases, it is defined by the deposition of Aβ in the leptomeningal and cerebral vessel walls.

Endocytosis

endocytosedendocyticinternalization
Under normal physiology Aβ is cleared from the brain by four pathways: (1) endocytosis by astrocytes and microglial cells, (2) enzymatic degradation by neprilysin or insulysin (3) cleared by way of the blood brain barrier or (4) drained along periarterial spaces.

Astrocyte

astrocytesastrogliaastrocytic
Under normal physiology Aβ is cleared from the brain by four pathways: (1) endocytosis by astrocytes and microglial cells, (2) enzymatic degradation by neprilysin or insulysin (3) cleared by way of the blood brain barrier or (4) drained along periarterial spaces.

Microglia

microglial cellsmicroglialmicroglial cell
Under normal physiology Aβ is cleared from the brain by four pathways: (1) endocytosis by astrocytes and microglial cells, (2) enzymatic degradation by neprilysin or insulysin (3) cleared by way of the blood brain barrier or (4) drained along periarterial spaces.

Neprilysin

CD10neutral endopeptidasemembrane metallo-endopeptidase
Under normal physiology Aβ is cleared from the brain by four pathways: (1) endocytosis by astrocytes and microglial cells, (2) enzymatic degradation by neprilysin or insulysin (3) cleared by way of the blood brain barrier or (4) drained along periarterial spaces.

Insulin-degrading enzyme

IDEinsulin degrading enzymeinsulysin
Under normal physiology Aβ is cleared from the brain by four pathways: (1) endocytosis by astrocytes and microglial cells, (2) enzymatic degradation by neprilysin or insulysin (3) cleared by way of the blood brain barrier or (4) drained along periarterial spaces.

Blood–brain barrier

blood-brain barrierblood brain barrierblood-brain-barrier
Under normal physiology Aβ is cleared from the brain by four pathways: (1) endocytosis by astrocytes and microglial cells, (2) enzymatic degradation by neprilysin or insulysin (3) cleared by way of the blood brain barrier or (4) drained along periarterial spaces.

Amyloid precursor protein

APP(APPamyloid beta (A4) precursor protein
Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), Presenilin (PS) 1 and PS2 genes can result in increased rates of cleavage of the APP into Aβ.

Presenilin

presenilin-1presenilinspresenilins 1 and 2
Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), Presenilin (PS) 1 and PS2 genes can result in increased rates of cleavage of the APP into Aβ.

Biopsy

biopsiestissue biopsybiopsied
Biopsies also play a role in diagnosing the condition.

Aluminium

aluminumAlall-metal
Research is currently being conducted to determine if there is a link between cerebral amyloid angiopathy and ingestion of excessive quantities of aluminium.