Cerebrospinal fluid

cerebral spinal fluidCSFspinal fluidcerebro-spinal fluidcerebrospinal fluid (CSF)cerebral fluidcerebrospinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)brainbrain fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.wikipedia
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Spinal cord

medulla spinalisspinethoracic segment
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
It encloses the central canal of the spinal cord, which contains cerebrospinal fluid.

Ventricular system

ventriclesventricleventricular
It is produced by specialised ependymal cells in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations. It fills the ventricles of the brain, cisterns, and sulci, as well as the central canal of the spinal cord. CSF occupies the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater) and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord.
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.

Human brain

brainbrain tissuebrains
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Within the cerebrum is the ventricular system, consisting of four interconnected ventricles in which cerebrospinal fluid is produced and circulated.

Choroid plexus

blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrierchoroid plexusesvelum interpositum
It is produced by specialised ependymal cells in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations.
The choroid plexus is a plexus of cells that produces the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.

Central canal

terminal ventriclecentral canal of spinal cordfifth ventricle
It fills the ventricles of the brain, cisterns, and sulci, as well as the central canal of the spinal cord. From the fourth ventricle, the fluid passes into the subarachnoid space through four openings – the central canal of the spinal cord, the median aperture, and the two lateral apertures.
The central canal, also known as ependymal canal, is the cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs along the length of the entire spinal cord.

Lumbar puncture

spinal tapspinal tapsspinal puncture
A sample of CSF can be taken via lumbar puncture.
Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.

Meninges

subarachnoid spacemeningealleptomeninges
CSF occupies the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater) and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord. From the fourth ventricle, the fluid passes into the subarachnoid space through four openings – the central canal of the spinal cord, the median aperture, and the two lateral apertures.
Cerebrospinal fluid is located in the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater.

Intracranial pressure

increased intracranial pressureintracranial hypertensionpressure inside the skull
This can reveal the intracranial pressure, as well as indicate diseases including infections of the brain or its surrounding meninges.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Meningitis

spinal meningitisbacterial meningitiscerebral meningitis
This can reveal the intracranial pressure, as well as indicate diseases including infections of the brain or its surrounding meninges.
A lumbar puncture, in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), can diagnose or exclude meningitis.

Subarachnoid cisterns

lumbar cisterncisternsubarachnoid cistern
It fills the ventricles of the brain, cisterns, and sulci, as well as the central canal of the spinal cord.
These cisterns are filled with cerebrospinal fluid.

Lateral ventricles

lateral ventricleanterior hornoccipital horn
The majority of CSF is produced from within the two lateral ventricles.
The lateral ventricles are the two largest cavities of the ventricular system of the human brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Third ventricle

3rd ventriclethirdthird ventricles
From here, CSF passes through the interventricular foramina to the third ventricle, then the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle.
It is a median cleft in the diencephalon between the two thalami, and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Arachnoid granulation

arachnoid granulationsarachnoid villiarachnoidal granulations
It is produced by specialised ependymal cells in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations.
They protrude into the dural venous sinuses of the brain, and allow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to exit the subarachnoid space and enter the blood stream.

Interventricular foramina (neuroanatomy)

interventricular foraminaforamina of Monroforamen of Monro
From here, CSF passes through the interventricular foramina to the third ventricle, then the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle.
As channels, they allow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) produced in the lateral ventricles to reach the third ventricle and then the rest of the brain's ventricular system.

Cerebral aqueduct

aqueduct of SylviusSylvian aqueductMesencephalic duct
From here, CSF passes through the interventricular foramina to the third ventricle, then the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle.
It contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle, located dorsal to the pons and ventral to the cerebellum.

Median aperture

foramen of Magendieforamen of MajendieApertures
From the fourth ventricle, the fluid passes into the subarachnoid space through four openings – the central canal of the spinal cord, the median aperture, and the two lateral apertures.
The median aperture (also known as the medial aperture, and foramen of Magendie) drains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the fourth ventricle into the cisterna magna.

Encephalitis

brain inflammationAcute encephalitis syndromeinflammation of the brain
This can reveal the intracranial pressure, as well as indicate diseases including infections of the brain or its surrounding meninges.
Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and supported by blood tests, medical imaging, and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid.

Fourth ventricle

fastigiumventricle
From here, CSF passes through the interventricular foramina to the third ventricle, then the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle.
The fourth ventricle extends from the cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius) to the obex, and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Perilymph

perilymphatic spacefluid in the earlabyrinthine fluid
There is also a connection from the subarachnoid space to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear via the perilymphatic duct where the perilymph is continuous with the cerebrospinal fluid.
The ionic composition of perilymph is comparable to that of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

Emanuel Swedenborg

SwedenborgEmmanuel SwedenborgSwedenborg's Angels
Although noted by Hippocrates, it was only in the 18th century that Emanuel Swedenborg is credited with its rediscovery, and as late as 1914 that Harvey W. Cushing demonstrated CSF was secreted by the choroid plexus.
He also had prescient ideas about the cerebral cortex, the hierarchical organization of the nervous system, the localization of the cerebrospinal fluid, the functions of the pituitary gland, the perivascular spaces, the foramen of Magendie, the idea of somatotopic organization, and the association of frontal brain regions with the intellect.

Arachnoid mater

arachnoidarachnoid membranearachnoidal
CSF occupies the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater) and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows under the arachnoid in the subarachnoid space.

Pia mater

piapialsubpial
CSF occupies the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater) and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord.
The cranial pia mater joins with the ependyma, which lines the cerebral ventricles to form choroid plexuses that produce cerebrospinal fluid.

Subcommissural organ

The subcommissural organ secretes SCO-spondin, which forms Reissner's fiber within CSF assisting movement through the cerebral aqueduct.
Functions of the SCO are unknown; some evidence indicates it may participate in clearance of certain compounds from the cerebrospinal fluid, and possibly in morphogenetic mechanisms, such as development of the posterior commissure.

Lateral aperture

foramina of Luschkalateral aperturesforamen of Luschka
From the fourth ventricle, the fluid passes into the subarachnoid space through four openings – the central canal of the spinal cord, the median aperture, and the two lateral apertures.
The two lateral apertures provide a conduit for cerebrospinal fluid to flow from the brain's ventricular system into the subarachnoid space; specifically into the pontocerebellar cistern at the cerebellopontine angle.

Perilymphatic duct

There is also a connection from the subarachnoid space to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear via the perilymphatic duct where the perilymph is continuous with the cerebrospinal fluid.
Perilymph is continuous with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space.