Cesare Lombroso

LombrosoLombroso, CLombroso’s theory
Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist, scientific racist, physician, and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology.wikipedia
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Italian school of criminology

Italian SchoolItalian School of Positivist CriminologyLombrosian school in criminology
Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist, scientific racist, physician, and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology.
The Italian school of criminology was founded at the end of the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909) and two of his Italian disciples, Enrico Ferri (1856–1929) and Raffaele Garofalo (1851–1934).

Racism in Italy

anti-Roma sentiment in Italyscientific racist
Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist, scientific racist, physician, and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology.
Scientific racism was popularized in Italy by criminologist Cesare Lombroso.

Criminology

criminologistcriminologistscriminological
Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist, scientific racist, physician, and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology.
Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909), an Italian sociologist working in the late 19th century, is often called "the father of criminology."

Degeneration theory

degenerationdegeneratedeterioration
Instead, using concepts drawn from physiognomy, degeneration theory, psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical (congenital) defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage or atavistic.
From the 1850s, it became influential in psychiatry through the writings of Bénédict Morel, and in criminology with Cesare Lombroso.

Anthropological criminology

criminal anthropologyborn criminalcriminal anthropologist
Instead, using concepts drawn from physiognomy, degeneration theory, psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical (congenital) defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage or atavistic.
Although similar to physiognomy and phrenology, the term "criminal anthropology" is generally reserved for the works of the Italian school of criminology of the late 19th century (Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, Raffaele Garofalo).

University of Turin

TurinUniversityUniversity of Torino
He became professor of forensic medicine and hygiene at Turin in 1878.
Notable scholars of this period include Cesare Lombroso, Carlo Forlanini and Arturo Graf.

Alexandre Lacassagne

Lacassagne, A
Lombroso's theories were disapproved throughout Europe, especially in schools of medicine, with Alexandre Lacassagne in France, but not in the United States, where sociological studies of crime and the criminal predominated.
He was the founder of the Lacassagne school of criminology, based in Lyon and influential from 1885 to 1914, and the main rival to Lombroso's Italian school.

Guglielmo Ferrero

Ferrero
They had five children together, one of whom—Gina—would go on to edit Lombroso's work after his death.Later in life Lombroso came to be influenced by his son-in-law, Guglielmo Ferrero, who led him to believe that not all criminality comes from one's inborn factors and that social factors also played a significant role in the process of shaping a criminal.He studied literature, linguistics, and archæology at the universities of Padua, Vienna, and Paris, but changed his plans and became an army surgeon in 1859.
Soon afterward he married Gina Lombroso, a daughter of Cesare Lombroso, the criminologist and psychiatrist with whom he wrote The Female Offender, The Prostitute and The Normal Woman.

Genius

high intelligencegenius-level intellectgeniuses
Lombroso published The Man of Genius in 1889, a book which argued that artistic genius was a form of hereditary insanity.
Usually, genius is associated with talent, but many authors (for example Cesare Lombroso) systematically distinguish these terms.

Physiognomy

physiognomicphysiognomistphysiognomical
Instead, using concepts drawn from physiognomy, degeneration theory, psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical (congenital) defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage or atavistic.
Physiognomy also became of use in the field of Criminology through efforts made by Italian army doctor and scientist, Cesare Lombroso.

Verona

VeroneseVerona, ItalyFlower Gloves Verona
Lombroso was born in Verona, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, on 6 November 1835 to a wealthy Jewish family.
Cesare Lombroso, criminologist

Max Nordau

Max Simon NordauNordauNordaunian
Lombroso's The Man of Genius provided inspiration for Max Nordau's work, as evidenced by his dedication of Degeneration to Lombroso, whom he considered to be his "dear and honored master".
He was a disciple of Cesare Lombroso.

Atavism

atavisticevolutionary reversalsthrowback
Instead, using concepts drawn from physiognomy, degeneration theory, psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical (congenital) defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage or atavistic.
In addition, the concept of atavism as part of an individualistic explanation of the causes of criminal deviance was popularised by the Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso in the 1870s.

Nicole Hahn Rafter

In Criminal Woman, as introduced in an English translation by Nicole Hahn Rafter and Mary Gibson, Lombroso used his theory of atavism to explain women's criminal offending.
She also wrote an introduction for Cesare Lombroso’s Criminal Women in 2004.

Pellagra

pelagraNiacinniacin deficiency
Towards the end of his life, Lombroso began to study pellagra, a disease which Joseph Goldberger simultaneously was researching, in rural Italy.
Because pellagra outbreaks occurred in regions where maize was a dominant food crop, the most convincing hypothesis during the late nineteenth century, as espoused by Cesare Lombroso, was that the maize either carried a toxic substance or was a carrier of disease.

Charles Buckman Goring

Charles GoringCharles B. Goring
His notions of physical differentiation between criminals and non-criminals were seriously challenged by Charles Goring (The English Convict, 1913), who made elaborate comparisons and found insignificant statistical differences.
It was first published in 1913, and set out to establish whether there were any significant physical or mental abnormalities among the criminal classes that set them apart from ordinary men, as suggested by Cesare Lombroso.

Giuseppe Sergi

In a review of The Man of Genius they stated, "here we have hypothesis claiming to be the result of strict scientific investigation and reluctant conviction, bolstered up by half-told truths, misrepresentations and assumptions. Lombroso's work was also criticized by Italian anthropologist Giuseppe Sergi who, in his review of Lombroso's The Man of Genius--and specifically his classifications and definitions of "the genius"—stated "by creating a genius according to his own fancy, an ideal and abstract being, and not by examining the personality of a real living genius, he naturally arrives at the conclusion that all theories by which the origin of genius is sought to be explained on a basis of observation, and especially that particular one which finds in degeneration the cause or one of the causes of genius, are erroneous." Sergi continued by stating that such theorists are "like the worshippers of the saints or of fetishes, who do not recognize the material from which the fetish is made, or the human origin from which the saint has sprung".
He later took courses in physics and anatomy, finally specializing in racial anthropology as a student of Cesare Lombroso.

Phrenology

phrenologistphrenologicalcraniology
Lombroso's approach in using skull measurements was inspired by the work and research in the field of phrenology by German doctor Franz Joseph Gall.
During the early 20th century, a revival of interest in phrenology occurred, partly because of studies of evolution, criminology and anthropology (as pursued by Cesare Lombroso).

Eusapia Palladino

Palladino, Eusapia
As an atheist Lombroso discusses his views on the paranormal and spiritualism in his book After Death – What? (1909) which he believed the existence of spirits and claimed the medium Eusapia Palladino was genuine.
In the late 19th century Cesare Lombroso attended séances with Palladino and was convinced that she had supernatural powers.

Franz Joseph Gall

GallF. GallGall, Franz Joseph
Lombroso's approach in using skull measurements was inspired by the work and research in the field of phrenology by German doctor Franz Joseph Gall.
Gall's theories had an influence both on the Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso and on his French rival, Alexandre Lacassagne.

The Secret Agent

eponymous novelJoseph Conrad's 1907 novelnovel of the same name
The anarchist Karl Yundt in Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent, delivers a speech denouncing Lombroso.
Comrade Alexander Ossipon: an ex-medical student, anarchist and member of Verloc's group. He survives on the savings of women he seduces, mostly working-class women. He is influenced by the theories on degeneracy of Cesare Lombroso. After Verloc's murder he initially helps, but afterwards abandons Winnie, leaving her penniless on a train. He is later disturbed when he reads of her suicide and wonders if he will be able to seduce a woman again.

Joseph McCabe

McCabe, Joseph
The skeptic Joseph McCabe wrote that because of this it was not surprising that Palladino managed to fool Lombroso into believing spiritualism by her tricks.
His article Scientific Men and Spiritualism is a skeptical analysis of the subject and a look at how various scientists such as William Crookes and Cesare Lombroso had been duped into believing Spiritualism by mediumship tricks.

Giovanni Passannante

Passannante
1879 Considerazioni al processo Passannante
After his death, his corpse was beheaded, and his head and brain became subject of the study of criminologists, under the theories of anthropologist Cesare Lombroso.

Physician

doctormedical doctorphysicians
Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist, scientific racist, physician, and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology.

Classical school (criminology)

Classical Schoolclassical school of criminologyClassical
Lombroso rejected the established classical school, which held that crime was a characteristic trait of human nature.