Chaco Culture National Historical Park

Chaco CanyonChacoanChacoChaco CultureChaco Canyon National MonumentChacoan civilizationPueblo AltoChaco Canyon National ParkChaco Canyon National Park, NMChaco Canyon, New Mexico
Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park in the American Southwest hosting a concentration of pueblos.wikipedia
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Fajada Butte

3-Slab Site
Evidence of archaeoastronomy at Chaco has been proposed, with the "Sun Dagger" petroglyph at Fajada Butte a popular example.
Fajada Butte is a butte in Chaco Culture National Historical Park, in northwest New Mexico.

San Juan Basin

San JuanSan Juan RiverSan Juan River Basin
Chaco Canyon lies within the San Juan Basin, atop the vast Colorado Plateau, surrounded by the Chuska Mountains to the west, the San Juan Mountains to the north, and the San Pedro Mountains to the east.
Its most striking features include Chaco Canyon (northwestern New Mexico, between Farmington and Santa Fe) and Chacra Mesa.

Pueblo Bonito

The principal Chacoan complexes, such as Pueblo Bonito, Nuevo Alto, and Kin Kletso, have elevations of 6200 to 6440 ft.
Pueblo Bonito (Spanish for beautiful town) is the largest and best-known great house in Chaco Culture National Historical Park, northern New Mexico.

Chaco Wash

Chaco
The park is located in northwestern New Mexico, between Albuquerque and Farmington, in a remote canyon cut by the Chaco Wash.
The Chaco Wash is an arroyo (a periodic stream) cutting through Chaco Canyon, which is located in northwestern New Mexico on the Colorado Plateau.

Kin Kletso

The principal Chacoan complexes, such as Pueblo Bonito, Nuevo Alto, and Kin Kletso, have elevations of 6200 to 6440 ft.
Kin Kletso is a Chacoan Ancestral Pueblo great house and notable archaeological site located in Chaco Culture National Historical Park, 25 mi southwest of Nageezi, New Mexico, United States.

Colorado Plateau

Colorado Plateau ProvinceHistory of the Colorado PlateauColorado Plateaus
Chaco Canyon lies within the San Juan Basin, atop the vast Colorado Plateau, surrounded by the Chuska Mountains to the west, the San Juan Mountains to the north, and the San Pedro Mountains to the east.
Among its 18 National Monuments are Bears Ears, Rainbow Bridge, Dinosaur, Hovenweep, Wupatki, Sunset Crater Volcano, Grand Staircase-Escalante, Natural Bridges, Canyons of the Ancients, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and the Colorado National Monument.

Trail of the Ancients Scenic Byway (New Mexico)

Trails of the Ancients BywayTrail of the Ancients Scenic BywayTrail of Ancients Scenic Byway
The park is on the Trails of the Ancients Byway, one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways.
A key site on the byway are the ruins at Chaco Canyon, which was the "ceremonial center" for puebloan people at that and outlying pueblos between 850 and 1250 A.D. Other key sites are the El Morro National Monument and El Malpais National Monument.

Farmington, New Mexico

FarmingtonFarmington, NMCity of Farmington
The park is located in northwestern New Mexico, between Albuquerque and Farmington, in a remote canyon cut by the Chaco Wash.
Mesa Verde National Park lies about 40 mi to the northwest, and Chaco Culture National Historical Park is about 50 mi to the southeast.

Archaeoastronomy

archaeoastronomicalarchaeoastronomerarcheoastronomy
Evidence of archaeoastronomy at Chaco has been proposed, with the "Sun Dagger" petroglyph at Fajada Butte a popular example.
At a site in Chaco Canyon can be found a pictograph with a star, crescent and hand.

Puebloans

PuebloPueblo peoplePueblo Indians
The sites are considered sacred ancestral homelands by the Hopi and Pueblo people, who maintain oral accounts of their historical migration from Chaco and their spiritual relationship to the land.
The best-preserved examples of the stone dwellings are now protected within United States' national parks, such as Navajo National Monument, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Aztec Ruins National Monument, Bandelier National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, and Canyon de Chelly National Monument.

Southwestern United States

American SouthwestSouthwestSouthwestern
Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park in the American Southwest hosting a concentration of pueblos.
New Mexico monuments and forests include White Sands and Aztec Ruins National Monuments, Bandelier National Monument, El Malpais National Monument, El Morro National Monument, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument, Organ Mountains-Desert Peaks National Monument, Petroglyph National Monument, Rio Grande del Norte National Monument, Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Pecos National Historical Park, Carson National Forest, Gila National Forest, Lincoln National Forest, Santa Fe National Forest, and Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge.

Chacra Mesa

The Chaco Wash flowed across the upper strata of what is now the 400 ft Chacra Mesa, cutting into it and gouging out a broad canyon over the course of millions of years.
The Chacra Mesa is a high mesa massif composing the southwestern flank of Chaco Canyon, a region that is notable for its rich collection of Ancestral Puebloan archaeological sites.

Gobernador Slope

As the Continental Divide is only 15.5 mi east of the canyon, geological characteristics and different patterns of drainage differentiate these two regions both from each other and from the nearby Chaco Slope, the Gobernador Slope, and the Chuska Valley.
It is near both Chacra Mesa and Chaco Canyon, which are noted for their Chacoan Anasazi ruins.

Nuevo Alto

The principal Chacoan complexes, such as Pueblo Bonito, Nuevo Alto, and Kin Kletso, have elevations of 6200 to 6440 ft.
Nuevo Alto is an Ancestral Puebloan great house and archaeological site located in Chaco Canyon, in the US state of New Mexico.

Ancestral Puebloans

AnasaziAncestral PuebloanAncestral Pueblo
Between AD 900 and 1150, Chaco Canyon was a major center of culture for the Ancestral Puebloans.
Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and Taos Pueblo.

Chuska Valley

As the Continental Divide is only 15.5 mi east of the canyon, geological characteristics and different patterns of drainage differentiate these two regions both from each other and from the nearby Chaco Slope, the Gobernador Slope, and the Chuska Valley.
Sitting atop the Colorado Plateau in the Four Corners region of the desert Southwest, it is near both Chacra Mesa and Chaco Canyon, which are noted for their Chacoan Anasazi ruins.

José Antonio Vizcarra

The first documented trip through Chaco Canyon was an 1823 expedition led by New Mexican governor José Antonio Vizcarra when the area was under Mexican rule.
While conducting an expedition against the Navajos in 1823, he was to first to record the ruins of Chaco Canyon.

Chetro Ketl

In 1901 Richard Wetherill, who had worked for the Hyde expedition, claimed a homestead of 161 acre that included Pueblo Bonito, Pueblo del Arroyo, and Chetro Ketl.
Chetro Ketl is an Ancestral Puebloan great house and archeological site located in Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico, United States.

Menefee Shale

The canyon bottomlands were further eroded, exposing Menefee Shale bedrock; this was subsequently buried under roughly 125 ft of sediment.
The Menefee Shale is a geological stratum underlying the Chaco Wash, which is located in the northwestern portion of the U.S. state of New Mexico, in what is now Chaco Culture National Historical Park.

Chuska Mountains

ChuskaChuska Mountain
Chaco Canyon lies within the San Juan Basin, atop the vast Colorado Plateau, surrounded by the Chuska Mountains to the west, the San Juan Mountains to the north, and the San Pedro Mountains to the east.
Trees there were cut and transported more than 75 km (about 50 miles) to the east to construct pueblos in Chaco Culture National Historical Park in the San Juan Basin as early as 974 A.D. Following a period of contentious debate, logging in the Chuskas was suspended in 1994.

Atlatl Cave

More than 70 campsites from this period, carbon-dated to the period 7000–1500 BC and mostly consisting of stone chips and other leavings, were found in Atlatl Cave and elsewhere within Chaco Canyon, with at least one of the sites located on the canyon floor near an exposed arroyo.
It is located at the west end of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.

Chaco Slope

As the Continental Divide is only 15.5 mi east of the canyon, geological characteristics and different patterns of drainage differentiate these two regions both from each other and from the nearby Chaco Slope, the Gobernador Slope, and the Chuska Valley.
It borders the Chaco Core, which contains both Chacra Mesa and Chaco Canyon.

Edgar Lee Hewett

Edgar L. HewettEdgar Hewett
The next year, Edgar Lee Hewett, president of New Mexico Normal University (later renamed New Mexico Highlands University), mapped many Chacoan sites.
Hewett also had a significant role in the formation of Bandelier National Monument and Chaco Culture National Historical Park, established to preserve extensive prehistoric ruins of the Pueblo people whom he studied.

Pueblo I Period

Pueblo I EraPueblo Ibegin constructing and occupying pueblos
The broad arc of their cultural elaboration culminated around 800, during the Pueblo I Era, when they were building crescent-shaped stone complexes, each comprising four to five residential suites abutting subterranean kivas, large enclosed areas reserved for rites.

Antiquities Act

Antiquities Act of 1906American Antiquities Actpresidential proclamation
Hewett and others helped enact the Federal Antiquities Act of 1906, the first U.S. law to protect relics; it was, in effect, a direct consequence of Wetherill's controversial activities at Chaco.
The act resulted from concerns about protecting mostly prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts--collectively termed "antiquities"--on federal lands in the West, such as at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.