A report on Chad

Group of Kanem-Bu warriors. The Kanem–Bornu Empire controlled almost all of what is today Chad.
A Chadian soldier fighting for Free France during World War II. The Free French Forces included 15,000 soldiers from Chad.
Despite internal political opposition, coup attempts, and a civil war, Idriss Déby continuously ruled Chad from 1990 until his death in 2021.
Chad is divided into three distinct zones, the Sudanian Savanna in the south, the Sahara Desert in the north, and the Sahelian belt in the center.
An African bush elephant
Toubou nomads in the Ennedi Mountains
Mboum girls dancing in Chad
Chadian woman voting during the 2016 presidential election
Embassy of Chad in Washington, D.C.
A proportional representation of Chad exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Chad, since 1950
Women in Mao, where water is provided by a water tower. Access to clean water is often a problem in Chad.
A Chadian tailor sells traditional dresses.
Criquets grillés ou fris

Landlocked country at the crossroads of North and Central Africa.

- Chad

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Landlocked country in West Africa.

Landlocked country in West Africa.

Ancient rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit, Niger
Map of the Songhai Empire, overlaid over modern boundaries
The Grand Mosque of Agadez
Overlooking the town of Zinder and the Sultan's Palace from the French fort (1906). The arrival of the French spelled a sudden end for precolonial states like the Sultanate of Damagaram, which carried on only as ceremonial "chiefs" appointed by the colonial government.
President Hamani Diori and visiting German President Heinrich Lübke greet crowds on a state visit to Niamey, 1969. Diori's single party rule was characterised by good relations with the West and a preoccupation with foreign affairs.
Ali Saibou, President 1987–93, helped oversee the transition from military to civilian rule
A Tuareg rebel fighter in northern Niger during the Second Tuareg Rebellion, 2008
A map of Niger
Niger map of Köppen climate classification
An elephant in the W National Park
Niger's flag waving at the embassy in Paris
Administrative divisions of Niger
A proportional representation of Niger exports, 2019
Niamey, Niger's capital and economic hub
Niamey at night
Dolé Market
Fulani women with traditional facial tattoos
Small mosque in Filingue
A primary classroom in Niger
Maradi Reference Hospital
Horsemen at the traditional Ramadan festival at the Sultan's Palace in the Hausa city of Zinder
A traditional home in Zinder
Participants in the Guérewol perform the Guérewol dance, 1997.

It is a unitary state bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin and Burkina Faso to the southwest, Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest.

Déby in 2014

Idriss Déby

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Chadian politician and military officer who was the president of Chad from 1990 until his death in 2021.

Chadian politician and military officer who was the president of Chad from 1990 until his death in 2021.

Déby in 2014
Déby in 2012
Idriss Déby giving an interview in his office, 2004
Idriss Deby with Obamas in August 2014
Idriss Déby Itno and Chadian First Lady waiting to vote, April 2016
Marshal Idriss Déby Itno in 2020

From there he was sent to France for training, returning to Chad in 1976 with a professional pilot certificate.


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Country in West Africa.

Country in West Africa.

Ceremonial Igbo pot from 9th-century Igbo-Ukwu
Yoruba copper mask of Obalufon from the city of Ife c. 1300
Royal Benin ivory mask, one of Nigeria's most recognized artifacts. Benin Empire, 16th century.
Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard who as Governor-General of Nigeria led the amalgamation of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914.
Emir of Kano with cavalry, 1911
1953 postage stamp with portrait of Queen ElizabethII
Nnamdi Azikiwe, first president of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966
The Republic of Biafra in June 1967, when it declared its independence from the rest of Nigeria
Shehu Shagari was the first democratically elected President of Nigeria from 1979 to 1983.
Olusegun Obasanjo was civilian President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007.
Muhammadu Buhari is currently serving as President of Nigeria, since 2015.
Nigerian National Assembly, Abuja
Nigerian Army self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Nigerian Air Force Mil Mi-35P
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abuja
Former Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan (centre) with United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in August 2014
Map of Nigeria with administrative divisions
Climate map of Nigeria
Palm plantation in Delta State
Rainforest range of Obudu Mountains
Clouds kissing the mountains of Obudu
A proportional representation of Nigeria exports, 2019
Farm ploughing in Kwara State
Oil facility at Bonny Island, Rivers State
PTDF – Petroleum Technology Development Fund
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014). Nigeria has the largest reserves in Africa.
Innoson vehicles
Steel factory in Ajaokuta
Meridien Akwa Ibom golf course park
Lekki Beach in Lagos
Substation in Abuja
Railway system in Nigeria, 2022
Second Niger bridge at Onitsha, artistic impression
SpaceX launch of CRS-11 with Nigeria EduSat-1 on board in 2017
Population density (persons per square kilometer) in Nigeria
Map of Nigeria's linguistic groups
The Abuja National Mosque
National Church of Nigeria, Abuja
Nigerian states that implement some form of sharia law (in green)
A hospital in Abuja
The University of Lagos
A Nigerian police officer at the Eyo festival in Lagos
End SARS is a decentralised social movement and series of mass protests against police brutality in Nigeria.
Nigerian women in tech
Lisa Folawiyo, Fashion Designer From Nigeria
An Eyo Iga Olowe Salaye masquerade jumping
Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart, Africa's most popular and best selling literary piece ever, has been translated into more than forty languages.
Wizkid is a popular musician in Nigeria, Africa and worldwide.
Nigeria at the 2018 FIFA World Cup
Nigerian football supporters at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
Imota Rice Mill, close to Lagos
Oil and gas fields in the Niger delta
Oil and gas fields in the Niger delta
The world's biggest distilling column at the Dangote refinery in comparison
The world's biggest distilling column at the Dangote refinery in comparison
Pharmacy in Epe
Ituen Basi, Lagos based Nigerian fashion designer

Nigeria borders Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west.


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Country in west-central Africa.

Country in west-central Africa.

Bamum script is a writing system developed by King Njoya in the late 19th century.
Former president Ahmadou Ahidjo ruled from 1960 until 1982.
Paul Biya has ruled the country since 1982.
Unity Palace – Cameroon Presidency
A statue of a chief in Bana, West Region
President Paul Biya with U.S. President Barack Obama in 2014
Military vehicles during a parade
Cameroon is divided into 10 regions.
Volcanic plugs dot the landscape near Rhumsiki, Far North Region.
Elephants in Waza National Park
School children in Cameroon
Life expectancy in Cameroon
Dutch bulls and cows at Wallya community during the rainy season in Cameroon
Douala seaport
Cameroonian women on Women's Day Celebration
The homes of the Musgum, in the Far North Region, are made of earth and grass.
Map of the region's indigenous languages
Dancers greet visitors to the East Region.
Plantains and "Bobolo" (made from cassava) served with Ndolè (meat and shrimp)
Cameroonian fashion is varied and often mixes modern and traditional elements. Note the wearing of sun glasses, Monk shoes, sandals, and a Smartwatch.
A woman weaves a basket near Lake Ossa, Littoral Region. Cameroonians practise such handicrafts throughout the country.
Cameroon faces Germany at Zentralstadion in Leipzig, 17 November 2004.
Our Lady of Victories Cathedral, catholic church in Yaoundé

It is bordered by Nigeria to the west and north; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo to the south.


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Country in Northeast Africa.

Country in Northeast Africa.

The large mud brick temple, known as the Western Deffufa, in the ancient city of Kerma
Fortress of Buhen, of the Middle Kingdom, reconstructed under the New Kingdom (about 1200 B.C.)
Nubian pyramids in Meroë
Kušiya soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The three Christian Nubian kingdoms. The northern border of Alodia is unclear, but it also might have been located further north, between the fourth and fifth Nile cataract.
Moses George, king of Makuria and Alodia
The great mosque of Sennar, built in the 17th century.
Southern Sudan in c. undefined 1800. Modern boundaries are shown.
Ismail Pasha, the Ottoman Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879.
Muhammad Ahmad, ruler of Sudan (1881–1885).
The flight of the Khalifa after his defeat at the Battle of Omdurman.
The Mahdist War was fought between a group of Muslim dervishes, called Mahdists, who had over-run much of Sudan, and the British forces.
A camel soldier of the native forces of the British army, early 20th century.
Sudan's flag raised at independence ceremony on 1 January 1956 by the Prime Minister Ismail al-Azhari and in presence of opposition leader Mohamed Ahmed Almahjoub
1971 Sudanese coup d'état
Omar al-Bashir in 2017
Government militia in Darfur
Southern Sudanese wait to vote during the 2011 South Sudanese independence referendum
Sudanese protestors celebrate the 17 August 2019 signing of the Draft Constitutional Declaration between military and civilian representatives.
Sudanese leader Abdel Fattah al-Burhan with Israel's Minister of Intelligence, Eli Cohen, in January 2021
A map of Sudan. The Hala'ib Triangle has been under contested Egyptian administration since 2000.
A Köppen climate classification map of Sudan.
Bashir (right) and U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellick, 2005
The chairman of Sudan's sovereign council, General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 2020
Darfur refugee camp in Chad, 2005
A proportional representation of Sudan exports, 2019
Oil and gas concessions in Sudan – 2004
GDP per capita development in Sudan
Sudan 2010 estimated population density.
Sudanese Arab of Al-Manasir
Masjid Al-Nilin, mosque in the capital city of Sudan, Khartoum
University of Khartoum, established as Gordon Memorial College in 1902
A Sufi dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman.
Bejia men wearing galabiyas
Central and northern states
Eastern Front
Abyei Area
South Kurdufan and Blue Nile states

It shares borders with the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, Egypt to the north, Eritrea to the northeast, Ethiopia to the southeast, Libya to the northwest, South Sudan to the south and the Red Sea.

Central African Republic

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Landlocked country in Central Africa.

Landlocked country in Central Africa.

The Bouar Megaliths, pictured here on a 1967 Central African stamp, date back to the very late Neolithic Era (c. 3500–2700 BCE).
The Sultan of Bangassou and his wives, 1906
Charles de Gaulle in Bangui, 1940.
Jean-Bédel Bokassa, self-crowned Emperor of Central Africa
Rebel militia in the northern countryside, 2007.
Refugees of the fighting in the Central African Republic, January 2014
Current military situation in Central African Republic
Falls of Boali on the Mbali River
A village in the Central African Republic
Dzanga-Sangha Reserve
Central African Republic map of Köppen climate classification.
Central African Republic President Faustin Touadera with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 11 April 2019
President Faustin Touadera with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 23 May 2018
The Aka Pygmies living in the Dzanga-Sangha Special Reserve
Fula women in Paoua
A Christian church in the Central African Republic.
A proportional representation of Central African Republic exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in the Central African Republic
Bangui shopping district
Trucks in Bangui
Classroom in Sam Ouandja
Mothers and babies aged between 0 and 5 years are lining up in a Health Post at Begoua, a district of Bangui, waiting for the two drops of the oral polio vaccine.
A Central African woman

It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the southeast, the DR Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest, and Cameroon to the west.


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Country in the Maghreb region in North Africa.

Country in the Maghreb region in North Africa.

Archaeological site of Sabratha, Libya
Leptis Magna
The Atiq Mosque in Awjila is the oldest mosque in the Sahara.
The Siege of Tripoli in 1551 allowed the Ottomans to capture the city from the Knights of St. John.
The USS Enterprise of the Mediterranean Squadron capturing a Tripolitan Corsair during the First Barbary War, 1801
A US Navy expedition under Commodore Edward Preble engaging gunboats and fortifications in Tripoli, 1804
Omar Mukhtar was a prominent leader of Libyan resistance in Cyrenaica against Italian colonization.
Italian propaganda postcard depicting the Italian invasion of Libya in 1911.
King Idris I of the Senussi order became the first head of state of Libya in 1951.
Gaddafi (left) with Egyptian President Nasser in 1969
Versions of the Libyan flag in modern history
The no-fly zone over Libya as well as bases and warships which were involved in the 2011 military intervention
Areas of control in the Civil War, updated 11 June 2020:
Location dot red.svg Tobruk-led Government Location dot lime.svg Government of National Accord Location dot blue.svg Petroleum Facilities Guard Location dot yellow.svg Tuareg tribes Location dot orange.svg Local forces
Libya has emerged as a major transit point for people trying to reach Europe
Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar, the head of the Libyan National Army, one of the main factions in the 2014 civil war.
A map of Libya
Libya map of Köppen climate classification
Libya is a predominantly desert country. Up to 90% of the land area is covered in desert.
UK Foreign Secretary William Hague with Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, November 2013
Districts of Libya since 2007
Change in per capita GDP of Libya, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
A proportional representation of Libya exports, 2019
Pivot irrigation in Kufra, southeast Cyrenaica
Oil is the major natural resource of Libya, with estimated reserves of 43.6 billion barrels.
Libyan men in Bayda.
Al Manar Royal Palace in central Benghazi – the location of the University of Libya's first campus, founded by royal decree in 1955
A map indicating the ethnic composition of Libya in 1974
Mosque in Ghadames, close to the Tunisian and Algerian border.
Ancient Roman mosaic in Sabratha

It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest.

Kanem–Bornu Empire

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Bornu Empire extent c.1750
Bornu territory by 1500
Influence of Kanem Empire around 1200 AD
Borno in 1810
Influence of Kanem Empire around 1200 AD
Young woman from Bornu, mid-19th century
Kanembu warriors and their mounted chief in an illustration from Heinrich Barth's Travels and Discoveries, Vol. III, 1857

The Kanem–Bornu Empire existed in areas which are now part of Niger, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad and Nigeria.

The Sahara desert taken in space by Apollo 17 crew


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Desert on the African continent.

Desert on the African continent.

The Sahara desert taken in space by Apollo 17 crew
A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the Saharan area
The main biomes in Africa
An oasis in the Ahaggar Mountains. Oases support some life forms in extremely arid deserts.
Sand dunes in the Algerian Sahara
Sunset in Sahara
Vegetation and water bodies in the Eemian (bottom) and Holocene (top)
Sahel region of Mali
The Great Green Wall, participating countries and Sahel. In September 2020, it was reported that the GGW had only covered 4% of the planned area.
The major topographic features of the Saharan region
Camels in the Guelta d'Archei, in north-eastern Chad
An Idehan Ubari oasis lake, with native grasses and date palms
Saharan rock art in the Fezzan
Oued Zouzfana and village of Taghit
Beni Isguen, a holy city surrounded by thick walls in the Algerian Sahara
Azalai salt caravan. The French reported that the 1906 caravan numbered 20,000 camels.
Market on the main square of Ghardaïa (1971)
Zawiya at the entrance of Taghit, Algeria
The Tuareg once controlled the central Sahara and its trade.
The French colonial empire (blue) was the dominant presence in the Sahara
A natural rock arch in south western Libya
The Sahara today
A 19th-century engraving of an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara

The Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and Tunisia.

Photograph taken by Apollo 7, October 1968

Lake Chad

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Historically large, shallow, endorheic lake in Central Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries.

Historically large, shallow, endorheic lake in Central Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries.

Photograph taken by Apollo 7, October 1968
Shrinking of Lake Chad from 1972 to 2007
Kanuri tribal fishermen in 1970s
Shore of Lake Chad
The Transaqua scheme (in red) to replenish the lake
A town on the shores of Lake Chad

Lake Chad is economically important, providing water to more than 30 million people living in the four countries surrounding it (Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria) on the central part of the Sahel.