Chad

Republic of ChadTchadChadianCulture of ChadChadeChad RepublicTCDTD Chad Chadian Financial Institutions
Chad (تشاد, ; Tchad, ), officially known as the Republic of Chad (جمهورية تشاد ; République du Tchad lit. "Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in north-central Africa.wikipedia
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Sudan

SudaneseRepublic of SudanRepublic of the Sudan
It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.
It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, the Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east, and the Red Sea to the northeast.

Libya

State of LibyaLibyanLBY
It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.
Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest.

Central African Republic

Central AfricanCARCentral Africa Republic
It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.
It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west.

Nigeria

Federal Republic of NigeriaNigerianNGA
It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west.

Cameroon

Republic of CameroonCameroonianCMR
It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.
It is bordered by Nigeria to the west and north; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Republic of the Congo to the south.

Niger

Republic of NigerNiger RepublicThe Republic of Niger
It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west.
Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the south, Benin to the southwest, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest.

Central Africa

CentralMiddle AfricaMiddle
Chad (تشاد, ; Tchad, ), officially known as the Republic of Chad (جمهورية تشاد ; République du Tchad lit. "Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in north-central Africa.
Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, and São Tomé and Príncipe are members of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS).

N'Djamena

Fort LamyNdjamenaFort-Lamy
The capital N'Djamena is the largest city.
N’Djamena ( N'Djaména, ; انجمينا Injamīnā) is the capital and largest city of Chad.

List of cities in Chad

Cities of Chadcity
The capital N'Djamena is the largest city.
This is a list of cities and towns in Chad.

Languages of Chad

linguistic groupsits two official languageslanguages spoken in Chad
Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups.
Chad has two official languages, French and Modern Standard Arabic, and over 120 indigenous languages.

Lake Chad

Lake Chad flooded savannaChadLake Mega Chad
Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second-largest in Africa.
Lake Chad is economically important, providing water to more than 30 million people living in the four countries surrounding it (Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria) on the central part of the Sahel.

François Tombalbaye

François (Ngarta) TombalbayeN'Garta TombalbayeTombalbaye
In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye.
François Tombalbaye (فرنسوا تومبالباي '; June 15, 1918 – April 13, 1975), also known as N'Garta Tombalbaye''', was a Chadian teacher and a trade union activist who served as the first president of Chad.

Tombalbaye government

the Tombalbaye RegimerebelsTombalbaye Regime
Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965.
President François Tombalbaye faced a task of considerable magnitude when Chad became a sovereign state in 1960.

Transitional Government of National Unity

GUNTChadian Civil WarCivil war in Chad
In 1979 the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the South's hegemony. In 1965, Muslims in the north, led by the National Liberation Front of Chad (FROLINAT), began a civil war.
The Transitional Government of National Unity (Gouvernement d'Union Nationale de Transition or GUNT) was the coalition government of armed groups that nominally ruled Chad from 1979 to 1982, during the most chaotic phase of the long-running civil war that began in 1965.

Hissène Habré

HabréHissein HabréHissene Habre
But, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals.
Hissène Habré (Arabic: حسين حبري Ḥusaīn Ḥabrī, Chadian Arabic: ; ; born 13 September 1942), also spelled Hissen Habré, is a Chadian politician who served as the President of Chad from 1982 until he was deposed in 1990.

Islam in Chad

Islam
The most popular religion of Chad is Islam (at 55%), followed by Christianity (at 40%).
The earliest presence of Islam in Chad can be traced back to the legendary Uqba ibn Nafi, whose descendants can be found settled in the Lake Chad region to this day.

Sahel

SahelianSahelian Acacia savannaSahel region
Chad has several regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanian Savanna zone in the south.
The Sahel part of Africa includes from west to east parts of northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, the extreme south of Algeria, Niger, the extreme north of Nigeria, parts of Cameroon and Central African Republic, central Chad, central and southern Sudan, the extreme north of South Sudan, Eritrea, and the extreme north of Ethiopia.

Agriculture in Chad

agricultural exportssubsistence herders and farmers
Chad is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world; most inhabitants live in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers.
In 2006 approximately 80% of Chad's labor force was employed in the agricultural sector.

Christianity in Chad

ChristianityChadChristian
The most popular religion of Chad is Islam (at 55%), followed by Christianity (at 40%).
Christianity arrived in Chad much more recently with the arrival of Europeans.

French Equatorial Africa

Equatorial AfricaCentral AfricaFrench Central Africa
France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa.
French Equatorial Africa (Afrique équatoriale française), or the AEF, was the federation of French colonial possessions in Equatorial Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River into the Sahel, and comprising what are today the countries of Chad, the Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon.

French Chad

ChadColonial ChadDecolonization in Chad
French rule in Chad was characterised by an absence of policies to unify the territory and sluggish modernisation compared to other French colonies.
Chad was a part of the French colonial empire from 1900 to 1960.

Patriotic Salvation Movement

MPSMouvement Patriotique de Salut
While many political parties are active, power lies firmly in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement.
The Patriotic Salvation Movement (الحركة الوطنية للإنقاذ, Mouvement patriotique du salut, MPS) is the ruling political party in Chad.

Wadai Empire

OuaddaiWadaiOuaddai Empire
Two other states in the region, Sultanate of Bagirmi and Wadai Empire emerged in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Wadai Sultanate (سلطنة وداي Saltanat Waday 1501–1912) was an African sultanate located to the east of Lake Chad in present-day Chad and the Central African Republic.

Sara people

SaraNgambaiSara ethnicity
Only the Sara of the south was governed effectively; French presence in the Islamic north and east was nominal.
They predominantly reside in southern Chad, the northwestern areas of the Central African Republic, and the southern border of North Sudan.

FROLINAT

National Liberation Front of ChadNational Liberation Front of Chad (FROLINAT)Front de Libération Nationale du Tchad
In 1965, Muslims in the north, led by the National Liberation Front of Chad (FROLINAT), began a civil war.
FROLINAT (Front de libération nationale du Tchad; National Liberation Front of Chad) was an insurgent rebel group that was active in Chad between 1966 and 1993.