Chaim Yosef David Azulai

Mausoleum in Jerusalem

Jerusalem born rabbinical scholar, a noted bibliophile, and a pioneer in the publication of Jewish religious writings.

- Chaim Yosef David Azulai

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Chaim ibn Attar

Talmudist and Kabbalist.

Grave of ibn Attar on the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem
Ohr ha-Chaim Synagogue, Jerusalem

One of his disciples there was Chaim Yosef David Azulai, who wrote of his master's greatness: "Attar's heart pulsated with Talmud; he uprooted mountains like a resistless torrent; his holiness was that of an angel of the Lord,... having severed all connection with the affairs of this world."

Shulchan Aruch

Most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.

A wealth of later works include commentary and exposition by such halachic authorities as the Ketzoth ha-Choshen and Avnei Millu'im, Netivoth ha-Mishpat, the Vilna Gaon, Rabbi Yechezkel Landau (Dagul Mervavah), Rabbis Akiva Eger, Moses Sofer, and Chaim Joseph David Azulai (Birkei Yosef) whose works are widely recognized and cited extensively in later halachic literature.

Shalom Sharabi

Yemenite Rabbi, Halachist, Chazzan and Kabbalist.

Sar Shalom Sharabi's tomb on the Mount of Olives

At Bet El Yeshiva, he belonged to a group of 12 mekubalim along with Hida, Torat Hakham, Rabbi Yom-Tov Algazi and other sages of Sephardic and Yemenite congregations.

Rabbinic literature

Entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.

Rabbi instructing children in 2004

Historical works, e.g. Shem ha-Gedolim by Chaim Joseph David Azulai.

Kabbalah

Esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought in Jewish mysticism.

Jewish Kabbalists portrayed in 1641; woodcut on paper. Saxon University Library, Dresden.
Kabbalistic prayer book from Italy, 1803. Jewish Museum of Switzerland, Basel.
Latin translation of Gikatilla's Shaarei Ora
The Ark of the Covenant in Solomon's Temple was the seat for God's presence. Ezekiel and Isaiah had prophetic visions of the angelic heavenly Chariot and Divine Throne
Grave of Rabbi Akiva in Tiberias. He features in Hekhalot mystical literature, and as one of the four who entered the Pardes
The grave of Shimon bar Yochai in Meron before 1899. A Talmudic Tanna, he is the mystical teacher in the central Kabbalistic work, the Zohar
The 13th-century eminence of Nachmanides, a classic rabbinic figure, gave Kabbalah mainstream acceptance through his Torah commentary
The leading scholars of Safed in 16th-century invigorated mainstream Judaism through new legal, liturgical, exegetical and Lurianic-mythological developments.
Synagogue Beit El Jerusalem. Oriental Judaism has its own chain of Kabbalah
The 16th-century Maharal of Prague articulated a mystical exegesis in philosophical language
Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, a leading Italian kabbalist, also wrote secular works, which the Haskalah see as the start of modern Hebrew literature
The Vilna Gaon, 18th-century leader of rabbinic opposition to Hasidism—a Kabbalist who opposed Hasidic doctrinal and practical innovations
Synagogue of the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism, in Medzhybizh (Ukraine). It gave a new phase to Jewish mysticism, seeking its popularisation through internal correspondence.
The Kabbalist (c. 1910–1920), portrait of an Hasidic man in Jewish religious clothing performed by the Austro-Hungarian Jewish painter Isidor Kaufmann (Jewish Museum, New York)
Metaphorical scheme of emanated spiritual worlds within the Ein Sof
Scheme of descending Sephirot in three columns, as a tree with roots above and branches below
In the 16–17th centuries Kabbalah was popularised through a new genre of ethical literature, related to Kabbalistic meditation
Amulet from the 15th century. Theosophical kabbalists, especially Luria, censored contemporary Practical Kabbalah, but allowed amulets by Sages
Joseph Karo's role as both legalist and mystic underscores Kabbalah's spiritualisation of normative Jewish observance
Building on Kabbalah's conception of the soul, Abraham Abulafia's meditations included the "inner illumination of" the human form
16th-century graves of Safed, Galilee. The messianic focus of its mystical renaissance culminated in Lurianic thought.
Title page of first printed edition of the Zohar, main sourcebook of Kabbalah, from Mantua, Italy in 1558
Golden age of Spanish Judaism on the Knesset Menorah, Maimonides holding Aristotle's work
Kabbalah mysticism on the Knesset Menorah, which shared some similarities of theory with Jewish Neoplatonists
Tikkun for reading through the night of Shavuot, a popular Jewish custom from the Safed Kabbalists
A version of Lekhah Dodi song to welcome the Shabbat, a cross denomination Jewish custom from Kabbalah

Among leading figures were the Yemenite Shalom Sharabi (1720–1777) of the Beit El Synagogue, the Jerusalemite Hida (1724–1806), the Baghdad leader Ben Ish Chai (1832–1909), and the Abuhatzeira dynasty.

Isaac ben Jacob Benjacob

Lithuanian Jewish Maskil, best known as a bibliographer, author, and publisher.

When this work was done he brought out his corrected and amended edition of Chaim Joseph David Azulai's Shem ha-Gedolim (Vilnius, 1853; Vienna, 1862), which is still the standard edition of that important work.

Ohel (grave)

Structure built around a Jewish grave as a sign of prominence of the deceased.

The ohel of the "Seer of Lublin" on the Old Jewish Cemetery in Lublin
Wooden ohel in Horodyszcze (now Haradzishcha, Baranovichy District, Belarus)
Rachel's Tomb, covered by a distinctive, dome-shaped ohel, as it appeared circa 1910
The graves of Avraham Mordechai Alter (right) and his son, Pinchas Menachem Alter (left) in an ohel adjacent to the Sfas Emes Yeshiva in downtown Jerusalem
Ohel of the Baal Shem Tov in Medzhybizh, Ukraine
Ohel of the Lubavitcher Rebbes in Queens, New York
Tomb of the Baba Sali in Netivot, Israel
Ohel of Rabbi Jonathan ben Uzziel in Amuka, Israel
Ohel of the Vizhnitzer Rebbes in Bnei Brak
Interior of ohel of Esther and Mordechai in Hamadan, Iran

Chida, Har HaMenuchot, Jerusalem

Abraham Azulai

Abraham ben Mordecai Azulai (c.

Title page of Chesed Le'Avraham by Abraham Azulai, published in Vilna, 1877
Grave of Rabbi Abraham Azulai in the Old Jewish cemetery, Hebron.

Azoulay, Shem ha-Gedolim, s.v.;

Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg

Leader of the Chassidei Ashkenaz, a movement of Jewish mysticism in Germany considered different from the 18th-century Hasidic movement founded by the Baal Shem Tov.

His most prominent students were Elazar Rokeach, Isaac ben Moses of Vienna author of Or Zarua and perhaps also Moses ben Jacob of Coucy (according to the Hida).

Har HaMenuchot

Largest cemetery in Jerusalem.

Aerial view of Har HaMenuchot
The names of family members killed in the Holocaust are engraved on the side of the grave of Chava Esther Wachtfogel (right), wife of Rabbi Nosson Meir Wachtfogel (grave at left).
A man prays at the grave of the Belzer Rebbe.
The burial place of Rabbi Aryeh Leib Malin on Har HaMenuchot
Grave of Rabbi Moshe Feinstein.
Grave of Rabbi Shlomo Carlebach, with Hebrew and English inscriptions.

Chaim Joseph David Azulai, the Chida