A report on StupaChaitya and Sanchi

The Piprahwa stupa is one of the earliest surviving stupas.
An early chaitya at Bhaja Caves; wooden architecture imitated in stone, with decorative roof timbers in wood. 2nd century BCE.
Buddha's ashes Stupa built by the Licchavis, Vaishali and one of the earliest stupas
Outside the chaitya at Cave 19, Ajanta Caves, also with four zones using small repeated "chaitya arch" motifs.
Plan of the monuments of the hill of Sanchi, numbered 1 to 50.
An early stupa, 6 m in diameter, with fallen umbrella on side at Chakpat, near Chakdara; probably Maurya, 3rd century BCE
Development of the chaitya arch from the Lomas Rishi Cave on, from a book by Percy Brown.
The Ashoka pillar at Sanchi.
an inscribed dedication
Drawing of the "Great Chaitya" at the Karla Caves, when built, in about 120 CE
The capital of the Sanchi pillar of Ashoka, as discovered (left), and simulation of original appearance (right). It is very similar to the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, except for the abacus, here adorned with flame palmettes and facing geese, 250 BCE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
The chaitya Cave 26 at Ajanta; the stupa incorporates a large Buddha statue and there are aisles behind the columns, their walls adorned with relief sculptures. A smaller adaption of the Karli model.
by later illustrations among the Sanchi reliefs
The Ahin Posh stupa was dedicated in the 2nd century CE under the Kushans, and contained coins of Kaniska I.
Chaitya hall in Trivikrama Temple, 1st century BCE; the lower mandapa at left was a later Hindu addition.
The Great Stupa under the Sungas. The Sungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
The Chinese Songyue Pagoda
Row of stupas on roadside east of Leh, Ladakh.jpg (523 CE) is thought to derive from the Gandharan tower-stupa model.
Durga temple, Aihole, 7th or 8th century.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE, Stupa No2.
Borobudur bell-shaped stupas
A Toda temple or milk store hut in Nilgiri Hills. Only the priest may enter through the tiny door.
Sunga period railings were initially blank (left: Great Stupa), and only started to be decorated circa 115 BCE with Stupa No.2 (right).
A Jain stupa, Mathura, 1st century CE
numerous rock-cut equivalents
Sunga pillar No25 with own capital on the side.
Boudhanath Stupa, Kathmandu, Nepal
Nepalese form of chaitya
Siri-Satakani inscription
View of the Wat Phra Kaew complex from the northeast, temple complex of the Emerald Buddha with stupas
Rock-cut hall, Sudama, Barabar Caves, dedicated in 257 BCE by Ashoka.
Cave No.19
The sharing of the relics of the Buddha. Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, 2-3rd century CE. ZenYouMitsu Temple Museum, Tokyo.
Rock-cut circular Chaitya hall with pillars, Tulja Caves, 1st century BCE
The Worship of the Bodhisattva's hair
Buddha relics from Kanishka's stupa in Peshawar, Pakistan. These surviving relics are now housed in Mandalay, Myanmar.
Chaitya arch around the window, and repeated as a gavaksha motif with railings, Cave 9, Ajanta.
Vedisakehi damtakārehi rupakammam katam
The Eight Great Stupas
The window at the chaitya Cave 10, Ellora, c. 650
The Great Stupa at the time of the Satavahanas.
Row of chortens at roadside near Leh, Ladakh
Timber ribs on the roof at the Karla Caves; the umbrella over the stupa is also wood
Temptation of the Buddha, with the Buddha on the left (symbolized by his throne only) surrounded by rejoicing devotees, Mara and his daughters (center), and the demons of Mara fleeing (right).
Enlightenment Stupa at Ogoy Island, Russia
Decorative chaitya arches and lattice railings, Bedse Caves, 1st century BCE
War over the Buddha's Relics, kept by the city of Kushinagar, South Gate, Stupa no.1, Sanchi.
Sanchi Stupa No.2, the earliest known stupa with important displays of decorative reliefs, circa 125 BCE<ref name="Bell 15">Didactic Narration: Jataka Iconography in Dunhuang with a Catalogue of Jataka Representations in China, Alexander Peter Bell, LIT Verlag Münster, 2000 p.15ff</ref>
Stupa inside Cave 10, Ellora, the last chaitya hall built, the Buddha image now dominating the stupa.
King Ashoka visits Ramagrama, to take relics of the Buddha from the Nagas, but he failed, the Nagas being too powerful. Southern gateway, Stupa 1, Southern Gateway, Sanchi.
East Gateway and Railings of Bharhut Stupa. Sculptured railings: 115 BCE, toranas: 75 BCE.
Remains of the circular Chaitya hall in Bairat Temple, 3rd century BCE.
Ashoka in grief, supported by his two queens, in a relief at Sanchi. Stupa 1, Southern gateway. The identification with Ashoka is confirm by a similar relief from Kanaganahalli inscribed "Raya Asoko".
The Great Stupa at Sanchi<ref name="Alī Jāvīd p.50">World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India, Volume 1 p.50 by Alī Jāvīd, Tabassum Javeed, Algora Publishing, New York </ref> Decorated toranas built from the 1st c. BCE to the 1st c. CE.
Relief of a circular chaitya hall, Bharhut, circa 100 BCE.
Bodhi tree temple depicted in Sanchi, Stupa 1, Southern gateway.
Amaravati stupa, 1st-2nd century CE
Sanchi Temple 40 was a 3rd-century BCE apsidal temple, one of the first known in India.
Temple for the Bodhi Tree (Eastern Gateway).
A model resembling the Saidu Sharif Stupa, with square base and four columns (1st century CE).<ref>Le Huu Phuoc, Buddhist Architecture, Grafikol 2009, p.174-176</ref>
Reconstruction of Sanchi Temple 40 (3rd century BCE).
foreigners illustrated at Sanchi worshiping the Great Stupa
Loriyan Tangai decorated stupa, in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara (2nd century CE).
Trivikrama Temple with its chaitya arch.
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
A tower-shaped stupa, thought to be the design of the second (rebuilt) Kanishka stupa, Jaulian monastery
The ancient Buddhist chaitya house at Ter.
Greek travelling costume
Stupa-shaped reliquary, Kushan period, about 2nd century CE
Remains of the chaitya hall in Chejarla Kapoteswara temple.
Another one
Chilas petroglyphs, Buddhist stupa, circa 300-350 CE based on paleography<ref>Dated "between A.D. 300-350 based on Kharosthi, Brahmi, and Sodian inscriptions written before and after the drawing was completed (fig.3) In the center of the triptych, a spectacular stupa with a relatively small dome [anda], a chattravali with seven disks, columns, banners, and multiple bells illustrates a trend towards decorative profusion." {{cite journal |journal=Bulletin of the Asia Institute |date=2002 |title=Chital petroglyphs|page=152 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RuhtAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA152 |publisher=Wayne State University Press |language=en}}</ref>
Sanchi, Temple 18, from the apse end. Partly reconstructed.
Miracle at Kapilavastu
The Great Stupa at Sanchi, which contained the relics of Buddha, the oldest known stupa
Conjectural reconstruction of Temple 18 by Percy Brown (now dated earlier)
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the river Nairanjana
An early stupa at Guntupalle, probably Maurya Empire, third century BCE
Excavated remains of a structural chaitya at Lalitgiri, Odisha, India
Procession of king Suddhodana from Kapilavastu
Buddha statue inside a votive stupa, Sarnath
Cambodian sanctuary marker chaitya, Khleang style, c. 975–1010
"The promenade of the Buddha", or Chankrama, used to depict the Buddha in motion in Buddhist aniconism.
Abayagiri Dageba, Sri Lanka
Bimbisara with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha to visit the Buddha
Chorten near Potala Palace, Lhasa, Tibet
Foreigners making a dedication at the Southern Gateway of Stupa No 1
The white stupa in Miaoying Temple, China
Stupas and monasteries at Sanchi in the early centuries of the current era. Reconstruction, 1900
The Kalachakra stupa in Karma Guen, Spain
Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II.
Stupa of Kantha Bopha
Temple 17: a Gupta period tetrastyle prostyle temple of Classical appearance. 5th century CE
Stupa of King Norodom Suramarit
Statue of Padmapani (5th c.or 9th c.) Victoria and Albert Museum.
Main stupa at Wat Phnom
Pillar 26: one of the two four-lions stambha capitals at Sanchi, with lions, central flame palmette and Wheel of Law (axis, stubs of the spokes and part of the circumference only), initially located at the Northern Gateway of the Great Stupa. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Stupa at Wat Botum
Pillar 26: lion pillar capital at time of discovery, with Dharmachakra wheel (reconstitution). Northern Gateway.
Stupa at Oudong
this image
Golden stupa at Wat Ounalom
Pillar 35 column stump (right), and bell capital with abacus, positioned upside down.
thumb|Roadside stupa. Kathmandu 1979
Vajrapani statue of pillar 35, 5th c. CE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Temple 18 at Sanchi, an apsidal hall with Maurya foundations, rebuilt at the time of Harsha (7th century CE).
Boudhanath Stupa
Temple 45
Kaathe Swyambhu
The Great Stupa as breached by Sir Herbert Maddock in 1822. Watercolor by Frederick Charles Maisey, in 1851.
Ruins of the Southern Gateway, Sanchi in 1875.
A Gate to the Stupa of Sanchi 1932
Tahiti stupa
Chetiyagiri Vihara
Yetkha Stupa
Inscribed panel from Sanchi in Brahmi script in the British Museum
thumb|Small stupa in Kathmandu street
The last two letters to the right of this inscription in Brahmi form the word "dǎnam" (donation). This hypothesis permitted the decipherment of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1837.
General view of the Stupas at Sanchi by F.C. Maisey, 1851 (The Great Stupa on top of the hill, and Stupa 2 at the forefront)
The Great Stupa (Stupa No.1), started in the 3rd century BCE
Stupa No.2
Stupa No.3
Buddhist Temple, No.17
Remains of the Ashokan Pillar in polished stone (right of the Southern Gateway), with its Edict.
Sanchi Minor Pillar Edict of Ashoka, in-situ (detail of the previous image).
Remains of the shaft of the pillar of Ashoka, under a shed near the Southern Gateway.
Side view of the capital. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.<ref name="p.25-28 Ashoka pillar"/>
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Flame palmette.
Flame palmette and lotus.
Woman riding a Centaur.
Half lotus.
Elephant with branch.
Floral motif.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin with Brahmi script inscription.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within beads and reels motif.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p. 82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Detail of the foreigners, in Greek dress and playing carnyxes and aolus flute. Northern Gateway of Stupa I (detail).
Foreigners holding grapes and riding winged lions, Sanchi Stupa 1, Eastern Gateway.<ref>"The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, John Boardman, 1993, p. 112 Note 91</ref>
Foreigners riding horses.
Foreign heroe fighting a Makara
Foreigners on horses, wearing headbands, caps and boots. Western gate of Stupa 1.
Hero with headband wrestling a Makara.
Indians riding horses.
Indians riding bulls.
Indians riding bulls.
Queen Maya lustrated by Elephants.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Bodhi Tree.
Winged lion.
Winged lions.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Stupa representing a Buddha.
Lakshmi lustrated by Elephants.
Men on lions.
Men on lions.
2nd panel
3rd panel
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
Second panel
Possibly demons, or the attack of Mara.
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
2nd panel
3rd panel
A Seated Buddha statue (Gupta temple).
Buddha Statue (Great Stupa).
Seated Buddha (Great Stupa).
Pillar 34 with lion.<ref>Marshall p. 52 Pillar 34</ref>
The winged lion capital of pillar 34 (lost).
Great Stupa, Eastern Gateway, in 1875.
West Gateway in 1882.
South Gateway in 1882.
Great Stupa, Northern Gateway in 1861.
Temple 18 in 1861.
A vision of ancient Indian court life, using motifs from Sanchi (wood engraving, 1878).

A related architectural term is a chaitya, which is a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa.

- Stupa

The term is most common in Buddhism, where it refers to a space with a stupa and a rounded apse at the end opposite the entrance, and a high roof with a rounded profile.

- Chaitya

The Great Stupa at Sanchi is one of the oldest stone structures in India, and an important monument of Indian Architecture.

- Sanchi

In effect, many stupas are thought to date originally from the time of Ashoka, such as Sanchi or Kesariya, where he also erected pillars with his inscriptions, and possibly Bharhut, Amaravati or Dharmarajika in Gandhara.

- Stupa

An apsidal structure in Sanchi has also been dated, at least partially, to the 3rd century BCE: the so-called Temple 40, one of the first instances of a free-standing temple in India.

- Chaitya

Next to Temple 17 stands Temple 18, the framework of a mostly 7th-century apsidal chaitya-hall temple, again perhaps Buddhist or Hindu, that was rebuilt over an earlier hall.

- Sanchi
The Piprahwa stupa is one of the earliest surviving stupas.

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