A report on SrivijayaMajapahit and Champa

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
The main Champa kingdom before 1306 (yellow) lay along the coast of present-day southern Vietnam. To the north (blue) lay Đại Việt; to the west (red), the Khmer Empire.
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
This Cham head of Shiva was made of electrum around 800. It decorated a kosa, or metal sleeve fitted to a liṅgam. One can recognise Shiva by the tall chignon hairstyle and by the third eye in the middle of his forehead.
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
The main Champa kingdom before 1306 (yellow) lay along the coast of present-day southern Vietnam. To the north (blue) lay Đại Việt; to the west (red), the Khmer Empire.
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Crown of Champa in 7th and 8th century. (Museum of Vietnamese History)
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Epigraph of king Jaya Paramesvaravarman II (r. 1220–1254), the liberator of Champa from Khmer rule.
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Depiction of a couple of highland man and Cham lady in the Boxer Codex from 1590
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Supposedly zenith of Champa territorial expansion during the reign of Che Bong Nga (r. 1360-1390)
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
1801 map of Southeast Asia by John Cary showing Panduranga Champa (Tsiompa)
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
11th-century sculpture depicting the court of Champa with king, court officials, and servants. Museum of Cham Sculpture.
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
1770s map of Panduranga Champa (Ciampa)
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Champa (ca. 11th century) at its greatest extent
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
Closeup of the inscription in Cham script on the Po Nagar stele, 965. The stele describes feats by the Champa kings.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
9th-century Dong Duong (Indrapura) sculpture describes the early life of Prince Siddhārtha Gautama (who is sitting on a mule).
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Mỹ Sơn is the site of the largest collection of Cham ruins.
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Duong Long ruins in Bình Định province.
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Champa ladies dance at Poklong Garai stupa in Phan Rang.
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
A Vietnamese Shiva figure made by sandstone in Vong La temple, Hanoi, dated 12th century
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Sculpture of Cham mounted archers on chariots. {{circa}} 11th–13th century.
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Depiction of a Cham–Khmer naval battle, stone relief at the Bayon.
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
12th-century Champa marines wore various types of armor.
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Bas reliefs from the Bayon Temple depicting battle scene between Cham (wearing helmets) and Khmer troops
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Remain of My Son E1 temples which was constructed by King Prakāśadharma (r. 653–687). The complex barely survived the Vietnam War.
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
Đồng Dương (Indrapura) Buddha statue, 9th century AD. Museum of Vietnamese History
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
Phu Loc tower, a Cham kalan archetype, Binh Dinh, constructed in late 13th century. A remain of Vijaya.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Bas relief of animals and beasties from Tra Kieu, c. 900-1100. Museum of Cham Sculpture.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Statue of Lady Po Nagar
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

It was involved in close interactions, often rivalries, with the neighbouring Mataram, Khmer and Champa.

- Srivijaya

The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the competitor Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.

- Srivijaya

Champa also had close trade and cultural relations with the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya and later with the Majapahit of the Malay Archipelago, its easternmost trade relations being with the kingdoms of Butuan and Sulu in the Philippines.

- Champa

He invited China to resume the tributary system, just like Srivijaya did several centuries earlier.

- Majapahit

It also claimed relationships with Champa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even sent missions to China.

- Majapahit
The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Khmer Empire

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Term used by historians to refer to Cambodia from the 9th to the 15th centuries, when the nation was a Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.

Term used by historians to refer to Cambodia from the 9th to the 15th centuries, when the nation was a Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.

Expansion of the Khmer Empire, 802-1203
Archers mounted on elephants
The Khmer Empire around 900 CE
The pyramid of Koh Ker. Koh Ker was briefly the capital of the Khmer Empire
The Khmer Empire at its height of territorial expansion in 1203 CE after the conquest of Champa
11th-century Cambodian sculpture of the Buddha
Seated Buddha from the 12th century
A satellite image of Angkor, the dried East Baray suggests the environmental changes in the region
Reconstruction of Prasat Bayon, the center of Angkor Thom.
Khmer market on Bayon
Women of the royal court
A naval battle against Cham, Bayon
Bas-relief depicting home life, Bayon
Bas-relief depicting childbirth, Bayon
A bas-relief depicting Khmer naval soldiers using bow and arrows. Located at the Bayon(12th/13th century)
Helmets, weapons and armory of the Khmer Empire's military as depicted at Angkor Wat. Depicted from French explorer Henri Mouhot's book.
Cockfighting on Bayon
A bas-relief depicting people playing a chess-like game
Vishnu, Baphuon style
The Khmer Empire's bridge of Spean Praptos, a corbel bridge in Siem Reap Province, Cambodia.
Phimai, the site of an ancient Khmer city of Vimayapura
Khmer soldier on the left fights against his Cham rival on the right. The Cham of Champa were the main rivals of the Khmer Empire. At the bas-reliefs in the Bayon temple, the Cham are always seen wearing helmets in the shape of Magnolia champaca flower.
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{{center|Ta Keo}}
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{{center|Chau Say Tevoda}}
{{center|Banteay Samré}}
{{center|Terrace of the Elephants}}
{{center|Phanom Rung}}
{{center|Prasat Phimai}}
{{center|Prang Sam Yot}}
{{center|Prasat Sikhoraphum}}
{{center|Prasat Muang Tam}}
{{center|Prasat Muang Singh}}
{{center|Sdok Kok Thom}}
{{center|Vat Phou}}

Historians debate whether "Java" means the Indonesian island of Java, Champa or a different location.

After learning of Suryavarman's alliance with Rajendra Chola, the Tambralinga kingdom requested aid from the Srivijaya King Sangrama Vijayatungavarman.

A Javanese source, the Nagarakretagama canto 15, composed in 1365 in the Majapahit Empire, claimed Java had established diplomatic relations with Kambuja (Cambodia) together with Syangkayodhyapura (Ayutthaya), Dharmmanagari (Negara Sri Dharmaraja), Rajapura (Ratchaburi) and Singhanagari (Songkla), Marutma (Martaban or Mottama, Southern Myanmar), Champa and Yawana (Annam).

Southeast Asia

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Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia
The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: 
Central Asia
Eastern Asia
Northern Asia
South-eastern Asia
Southern Asia
Western Asia
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries), with a high density of volcanoes situated in Indonesia and the Philippines.
The Mayon Volcano, Phillipines
Bái Đính Temple in Ninh Bình Province – the largest complex of Buddhist temples in Vietnam

This change resulted in the decline of Funan, while new maritime powers such as Srivijaya, Tarumanagara, and Medang emerged.

The Champa civilisation was located in what is today central Vietnam, and was a highly Indianised Hindu Kingdom.

After the departure of the Mongols, Wijaya established the Majapahit Empire in eastern Java in 1293.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods

Mataram Kingdom

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Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
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The Plaosan temple with Mount Merapi in the background.
Canggal inscription (732), created by King Sanjaya.
The 9th century Central Javanese gold and silver image of the Mahayana Buddhist goddess Tara
The construction of Kalasan temple was mentioned in Kalasan inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran.
The construction of Manjusrigrha temple was mentioned in Manjusrigrha inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran and completed during Dharanindra reign.
The construction of Mendut temple was initiated and completed during the reign of King Indra (r. 780–800), a valiant king of Shailendra dynasty.
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (circa 900 CE) from the Laguna de Bay area in Luzon, the Philippines. The inscription invokes the "chief" (pamegat) of "Mdang" as one of the authorities in the clearing of a debt owed to the "chief and commander" (pamegat senapati) of "Tundun".
The massive stone stupa-mandala of Borobudur was completed in 825 during the reign of King Samaratungga.
Ratu Boko, a fortified hill, probably referred in Shivagrha inscription as the location of a battle.
Shivagrha inscription dated 778 Saka (856 CE), one of the historical source dated from the Mataram Kingdom.
Ijo, a 10th-century Hindu temple located on Ijo Hill Southeast from Prambanan
A battle scene depicted on a bas-relief in Prambanan.
Bubrah temple
Sajiwan Buddhist temple, linked to Nini Haji Rakryan Sanjiwana or Sri Kahulunnan
Borobudur ship, a ship used by Javanese people for sailing as far as Ghana.
Towering Merapi volcano overlooking Prambanan prasad tower. It was suggested that Merapi volcanic eruption had devastated Mataram capital, forcing them to relocate in the east.
Sambisari temple buried five metres under volcanic debris of Mount Merapi.
Barong Hindu temple, constructed on large terraces.
Badut temple near Malang, East Java circa 8th century
Anjukladang inscription (937), issued by King Sindok during his power consolidation in East Java.
Bodhisattva Manjushri from Goa Gajah cave, Bali, demonstrated the influence of Javanese Mataram Sailendran art.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra, the hostility between two kingdoms has led to the collapse of Mataram kingdom.
Buddhist bronze figure depicting Boddhisattva Padmapani, 10th-century dated from late period of Mataram Kingdom
Plaosan twin temples
The scene of the Javanese court depicted in Borobudur bas relief
Prambanan prāsāda (towers) viewed from Ratu Boko hill, the area in Prambanan Plain was the location of the Mataram capital.
The bas relief of 8th century Borobudur depicts the scene in royal court.
Image of Boddhisattva on Plaosan temple.
The bas-relief in 8th century Borobudur depicting rice agriculture in ancient Java
Earliest evidence of a currency system in Java — Javanese gold mas or tahil ingots, circa the 9th century
A nobleman accompanied by his entourage and servants, a bas-relief of Borobudur.
A Buddhist hermit meditating in secluded forest, Borobudur bas-relief
The statue of Dhyani Buddha Vairocana, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani inside the Mendut temple
Shiva statue in main chamber of Prambanan.
The Wonoboyo hoard displays the immense wealth and artistic achievement of the Mataram kingdom.
The magnificent 9th-century Hindu temple of Prambanan, Yogyakarta, was a major Hindu monument in the kingdom of Mataram.
Bas relief in Prambanan depicting a scene taken from Ramayana. The translation of Indian epic into Javanese Kakawin Ramayana took place during Mataram kingdom.
National Vesak ceremony in Borobudur, the Hindu-Buddhist temples dated from Mataram Kingdom are especially important for pilgrimage and ceremony for Indonesian Buddhist and Hindus.
The Javanese Ramayana Ballet perform in Prambanan open air stage. The Mataram Kingdom era has left a profound impact in Javanese culture.

At its peak, the kingdom had become a dominant empire—not only in Java, but also in Sumatra, Bali, southern Thailand, Indianized kingdoms of the Philippines, and the Khmer in Cambodia.

There are some reports that naval Javanese raiders invaded Tran-nam in 767, Champa in 774, and Champa again in 787.

The proper urban development as a city took place later in 13th-century Majapahit's Trowulan.

Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade networks in the Indian Ocean

Thalassocracy

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State with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea, or a seaborne empire.

State with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea, or a seaborne empire.

Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade networks in the Indian Ocean
Territories of the Genoese Republic (economic influence areas shown in pink) around the Mediterranean & Black Sea coasts.
Main trade routes of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires.
Fresco from the Minoan town at Akrotiri showing the port town, the harbor, and ships. Minoan civilization is an example of an ancient thalassocracy. Their fleets dominated the Aegean, colonizing many locations, but not moving inland. This topic is covered under Political economy, which falls under Political science

Examples of this were the Phoenician states of Tyre, Sidon and Carthage, and the Italian maritime republics of Venice and Genoa of the Mediterranean; the Chola dynasty of India and the Austronesian states of Srivijaya, the Omani Empire and Majapahit of Maritime Southeast Asia.

Champa