Champagne

blanc de blancsblanc de noirschampagne wineblanc de noirChampagne (wine)champagne bottleChampagne bottlesChampagnesChampaignePrestige Cuvée
Champagne is a French sparkling wine.wikipedia
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Pinot noir

SpätburgunderPinot neroBlauburgunder
The grapes Pinot noir, Pinot meunier, and Chardonnay are primarily used to produce almost all Champagne, but small amounts of Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Arbane, and Petit Meslier are vinified as well.
Pinot noir is now used to make red wines around the world, as well as Champagne, and such sparkling white wines as the Italian Franciacorta, and English sparkling wines.

Chardonnay

ObaidehaubainBeaunois
The grapes Pinot noir, Pinot meunier, and Chardonnay are primarily used to produce almost all Champagne, but small amounts of Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Arbane, and Petit Meslier are vinified as well.
Chardonnay is an important component of many sparkling wines around the world, including Champagne and Franciacorta in Italy.

Petit Meslier

The grapes Pinot noir, Pinot meunier, and Chardonnay are primarily used to produce almost all Champagne, but small amounts of Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Arbane, and Petit Meslier are vinified as well.
Petit Meslier is a rare white wine grape that is a minor component of some Champagne blends.

Arbane

AlbaneArbanne
The grapes Pinot noir, Pinot meunier, and Chardonnay are primarily used to produce almost all Champagne, but small amounts of Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Arbane, and Petit Meslier are vinified as well.
Despite its rarity, it is still permitted grape variety to be blended with Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier and other varieties in the Champagne cuvée.

Appellation

appellationsAustralian Geographical Indicationcontrolled appellation
Many people use the term Champagne as a generic term for sparkling wine but in the EU and some other countries it is illegal to label any product Champagne unless it comes from the region Champagne and is produced under the rules of the appellation. Blanc de noirs is often encountered in Champagne, where a number of houses have followed the lead of Bollinger's prestige cuvée Vieilles Vignes Françaises in introducing a cuvée made from either pinot noir, pinot meunier or a blend of the two (these being the only two black grapes permitted within the Champagne AOC appellation).
Before 1935, despite the fact that the INAO was yet to be created, champagne enjoyed an appellation control by virtue of legal protection as part of the Treaty of Madrid.

Alcoholic drink

alcoholic beveragealcoholalcoholic beverages
. This alcoholic drink is produced from specific types of grapes grown in the Champagne region of France following rules that demand, among other things, specific vineyard practices, sourcing of grapes exclusively from designated places within in the Champagne region, specific grape-pressing methods and secondary fermentation of the wine in the bottle to cause carbonation.
Sparkling wine like French Champagne, Catalan Cava or Italian Prosecco can be made by means of a secondary fermentation.

Secondary fermentation (wine)

secondary fermentationsecond fermentationrefermentation
. This alcoholic drink is produced from specific types of grapes grown in the Champagne region of France following rules that demand, among other things, specific vineyard practices, sourcing of grapes exclusively from designated places within in the Champagne region, specific grape-pressing methods and secondary fermentation of the wine in the bottle to cause carbonation.
This is most commonly known as the méthode champenoise or "Champagne method" after the region most noted for sparkling wine production.

Pinot blanc

Pinot biancoWeißer BurgunderWeißburgunder
The grapes Pinot noir, Pinot meunier, and Chardonnay are primarily used to produce almost all Champagne, but small amounts of Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Arbane, and Petit Meslier are vinified as well.
Historically, Pinot blanc was used both in Burgundy and Champagne.

Dom Pérignon (monk)

Dom PérignonDom PerignonDom Pierre Pérignon
Contrary to legend and popular belief, Dom Pérignon did not invent sparkling wine, though he did make important contributions to the production and quality of both still and sparkling Champagne wines.
Dom Pierre Pérignon, O.S.B., (December 1639 – 14 September 1715) was a French Benedictine monk who made important contributions to the production and quality of champagne wine in an era when the region's wines were predominantly still red.

Perrier-Jouët

The trend towards drier champagne began when Perrier-Jouët decided not to sweeten his 1846 vintage before exporting it to London.
Perrier-Jouët is a Champagne producer based in the Épernay region of Champagne.

Sparkling wine

sparklingfrizzantesparkling wines
Champagne is a French sparkling wine.
While the phrase commonly refers to champagne, EU countries legally reserve that term for products exclusively produced in the Champagne region of France.

Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union

Protected Designation of OriginProtected Geographical IndicationPDO
In the European Union and many other countries the name Champagne is legally protected by the Madrid system under an 1891 treaty, which reserved it for the sparkling wine produced in the eponymous region and adhering to the standards defined for it as an appellation d'origine contrôlée; the protection was reaffirmed in the Treaty of Versailles after World War I. Similar legal protection has been adopted by over 70 countries.
Foods such as Gorgonzola, Parmigiano-Reggiano, feta, the Waterford blaas, Herve cheese, Melton Mowbray pork pies, Piave cheese, Asiago cheese, camembert, Herefordshire cider, cognac, armagnac and champagne can only be labelled as such if they come from the designated region.

Muselet

cagecork and caged
In 1844 Adolphe Jaquesson invented the muselet to prevent the corks from blowing out.
A muselet is a wire cage that fits over the cork of a bottle of champagne, sparkling wine or beer to prevent the cork from emerging under the pressure of the carbonated contents.

Grower Champagne

growerGrower Champagnes
Grower Champagnes are Champagnes produced by the estate that owns the vineyards where the grapes are grown.

Limoux wine

Blanquette de LimouxLimouxAOC Limoux
The oldest recorded sparkling wine is Blanquette de Limoux, which was apparently invented by Benedictine monks in the Abbey of Saint-Hilaire, near Carcassonne in 1531.
Blanquette de Limoux is considered to be the first sparkling white wine produced in France, created long before the Champagne region became world-renowned for the sparkling wine Champagne.

Laurent-Perrier

Champagne Laurent-Perrier
Laurent-Perrier's advertisements in late 1890 boasted their Champagne was the favourite of Leopold II of Belgium, George I of Greece, Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Margaret Cambridge, Marchioness of Cambridge, and John Lambton, 3rd Earl of Durham, among other nobles, knights, and military officers.
Laurent-Perrier is a Champagne house founded in 1812.

Ceremonial ship launching

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It is also used to launch ships when a bottle is smashed over the hull during the ship's launch.
The process also involves many traditions intended to invite good luck, such as christening by breaking a sacrificial bottle of champagne over the bow as the ship is named aloud and launched.

Pinot Meunier

SchwarzrieslingMeunierMüllerebe
The grapes Pinot noir, Pinot meunier, and Chardonnay are primarily used to produce almost all Champagne, but small amounts of Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Arbane, and Petit Meslier are vinified as well.
Pinot Meunier, also known as Meunier or Schwarzriesling, is a variety of black wine grape most noted for being one of the three main varieties used in the production of Champagne (the other two are the black variety Pinot noir and the white Chardonnay).

Lees (fermentation)

leessur liewine lees
This includes pruning, vineyard yield, the degree of pressing, and the time that wine must remain on its lees before bottling.
Some wines (notably Chardonnay, Champagne, and Muscadet) are sometimes aged for a time on the lees (a process known as sur lie), leading to a distinctive yeasty aroma and taste.

Duval-Leroy

Famous examples include Louis Roederer's Cristal, Laurent-Perrier's Grand Siècle, Moët & Chandon's Dom Pérignon, Duval-Leroy's Cuvée Femme, Armand de Brignac Gold Brut, and Pol Roger's Cuvée Sir Winston Churchill.
Duval-Leroy is a Champagne producer based in Vertus, a village in the Côte des Blancs region of Champagne.

Hautvillers

Hautvilliersmonastery of Hautvilliers
Over a century later, the English scientist and physician Christopher Merret documented the addition of sugar to a finished wine to create a second fermentation, six years before Dom Pérignon set foot in the Abbey of Hautvillers.
The Abbey of St. Peter which existed here until the French Revolution was the home of the famous Dom Perignon, a Benedictine monk whose work in wine-making helped to develop champagne.

Armand de Brignac

Famous examples include Louis Roederer's Cristal, Laurent-Perrier's Grand Siècle, Moët & Chandon's Dom Pérignon, Duval-Leroy's Cuvée Femme, Armand de Brignac Gold Brut, and Pol Roger's Cuvée Sir Winston Churchill.
Armand de Brignac, colloquially known as the "Ace of Spades" after its logo, is the name of the tête de cuvée Champagne brand produced by Champagne Cattier and sold in opaque metallic bottles.

Bollinger

Bollinger ChampagneChampagne BollingerChampagne Bollinger S.A.
Blanc de noirs is often encountered in Champagne, where a number of houses have followed the lead of Bollinger's prestige cuvée Vieilles Vignes Françaises in introducing a cuvée made from either pinot noir, pinot meunier or a blend of the two (these being the only two black grapes permitted within the Champagne AOC appellation).
They produce several labels of Champagne under the Bollinger name, including the vintage Vieilles Vignes Françaises, Grande Année and R.D. as well as the non-vintage Special Cuvée.

Taittinger

Taittinger familyTaittinger GroupChampagne Taittinger
Then came Taittinger's Comtes de Champagne (first vintage 1952), and Laurent-Perrier's Grand Siècle 'La Cuvée' in 1960, a blend of three vintages (1952, 1953, and 1955) and Perrier Jouët's La Belle Époque.
Taittinger is a French wine family who are famous producers of Champagne.

Cristal (wine)

CristalCristal champagnespecial
Famous examples include Louis Roederer's Cristal, Laurent-Perrier's Grand Siècle, Moët & Chandon's Dom Pérignon, Duval-Leroy's Cuvée Femme, Armand de Brignac Gold Brut, and Pol Roger's Cuvée Sir Winston Churchill.
Champagne increased in popularity with the Russian nobility from 1855 onwards.