A report on Erie Canal and Champlain Canal

Perspective map of Mechanicville from the late 19th century by L.R. Burleigh showing the Champlain Canal and Hudson River
Erie Canal map c. 1840
Tug and barge on the Champlain Canal during the 1980s
Aqueduct over the Mohawk River at Rexford, one of 32 navigable aqueducts on the Erie Canal
Second-generation water supply locks (the five combines), built to supply water from the Hudson River to the Champlain canal, Glens Falls Feeder, Fort Edward, NY. Also utilized as secondary locks to navigate from Glen's Falls to Champlain canal. Not in use.
The Mohawk Valley, running east and west, cuts a natural pathway (water gap) between the Catskill Mountains to the south and the Adirondack Mountains to the north.
Profile of the original canal
Operations at Lockport, New York, in 1839
Stonework of lock abandoned because of route change, at Durhamville, New York
An original five-step lock structure crossing the Niagara Escarpment at Lockport, now without gates and used as a cascade for excess water
Erie Canal lock in Lockport, New York
1853 map of New York canals emboldened, center: the Erie Canal; other lines: railroads, rivers and county borders
Lithograph of the Erie Canal at Lockport, New York c. 1855. Published for Herrman J. Meyer, 164 William Street, New York City.
Aqueduct over Nine Mile Creek north of Camillus, New York, built in 1841 and abandoned c. 1918; one of 32 navigable aqueducts on the Erie Canal, it has since been restored.
Upstream view of the downstream lock at Lock 32, Pittsford, New York
Map of the "Water Level Routes" of the New York Central Railroad (purple), West Shore Railroad (red) and Erie Canal (blue)
Rochester, New York, aqueduct c. 1890
Two "low" lift bridges in Lockport, New York, July 2010
The modern Erie Canal has 34 locks, which are painted with the blue and gold colors of the New York State Canal System.
Gateway Harbor in North Tonawanda, about 1000 ft from the present-day western terminus of the Erie Canal where it connects to the Niagara River
The Old Erie Canal and its towpath at Kirkville, New York, within Old Erie Canal State Historic Park
Buffalo's Erie Canal Commercial Slip in Spring 2008
Erie Canal Lock 18, Cohoes, New York
Old Erie Canal State Historic Park, DeWitt, New York
The modern single lock at the Niagara Escarpment

It was simultaneously constructed with the Erie Canal for use by commercial vessels, fully opening in 1823.

- Champlain Canal

It connects the three other canals in the New York State Canal System: the Champlain, Oswego, and Cayuga–Seneca.

- Erie Canal

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Hudson River

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315 mi river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.

315 mi river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.

The Hudson River Watershed, including the Hudson and Mohawk rivers
The mouth of the Hudson (yellow), located between Jersey City and New York City
The Hudson River flowing out of Henderson Lake in Tahawus
The river from Poughkeepsie, looking north.
The river between Hudson Waterfront in New Jersey (left) and Manhattan (right)
The bulk carrier Nord Angel breaking ice on the Hudson
Robert Havell, Jr., View of the Hudson River from Tarrytown, c. 1866
The Erie Canal in Amsterdam, New York
The George Washington Bridge links Upper Manhattan and Fort Lee, New Jersey
The Hudson Valley Hot-Air Balloon Festival, 2009
US Airways Flight 1549 after landing on the waters of the Hudson River in January 2009
North River by George Bellows, 1908, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts
The Norrie Point Environmental Center in Staatsburg, headquarters of the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve
Debris floating on the river near the World Trade Center, 1973
A juvenile house sparrow by the Hudson River

The Hudson was also the eastern outlet for the Erie Canal, which, when completed in 1825, became an important transportation artery for the early 19th century United States.

Here the river has an elevation of 200 ft. Just south in Fort Edward, the river reaches its confluence with the Champlain Canal, which historically provided boat traffic between New York City and Montreal and the rest of Eastern Canada via the Hudson, Lake Champlain and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.

Lock 30 at Macedon, 2006

New York State Canal System

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Lock 30 at Macedon, 2006
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Present-day Erie Canal near Bushnell's Basin, southeast of Rochester, New York
Lock 27 in Lyons, New York

The New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal) is a successor to the Erie Canal and other canals within New York.

Currently, the 525 mi system is composed of the Erie Canal, the Oswego Canal, the Cayuga–Seneca Canal, and the Champlain Canal.

Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed

Lake Champlain

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Natural freshwater lake in North America mainly within the borders of the United States (in the states of Vermont and New York) but also across the Canada–U.S. border into the Canadian province of Quebec.

Natural freshwater lake in North America mainly within the borders of the United States (in the states of Vermont and New York) but also across the Canada–U.S. border into the Canadian province of Quebec.

Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed
Sentinel-2 satellite photo
Lake Champlain in Burlington Harbor during sunset on May 27, 2012
Brooklyn Museum – Green Mountains, Lake Champlain – Winckworth Allan Gay – overall
Map of Lac Champlain, from Fort de Chambly up to Fort St-Fréderic in Nouvelle France. Cadastral map showing concessions and seigneuries on the coasts of the lake according to 1739 surveying.
Charlotte Ferry, Lake Champlain
The Champlain Valley as seen from Camel's Hump
Lake Champlain, Charlotte, Vermont
Dutton House, Shelburne Museum
Stagecoach Inn, Shelburne Museum
Sawmill, Shelburne Museum
A 1902 photograph of Fort Henry at Lake Champlain
The Champlain Bridge between New York and Vermont, demolished in December 2009
The LCTC ferry slip at Grand Isle, Vermont
The Swanton-Alburgh trestle spans Lake Champlain between the two Vermont towns: a distance of about 0.8 mi.
At sunset, looking west from Grand Isle to Plattsburgh and Crab Island
The lighthouse in Lake Champlain at dusk, as seen from Burlington, VT
USCG, Burlington, Vermont – main installation
Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife boat docked near ECHO Aquarium

Because of both Lake Champlain's connection to the St. Lawrence Seaway via the Richelieu River and the existence of the Champlain Canal, Lake Champlain is sometimes referred to as "The Sixth Great Lake."

Lake Champlain has been connected to the Erie Canal via the Champlain Canal since the canal's official opening on September 9, 1823: the same day as the opening of the Erie Canal from Rochester on Lake Ontario to Albany.

Richelieu River

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River of Quebec, Canada, and a major right tributary of the St. Lawrence River.

River of Quebec, Canada, and a major right tributary of the St. Lawrence River.

Map showing the Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed
Part of the Richelieu River as seen from Mont Saint-Hilaire
The sturgeon
Map of Fort Saint-Jean and other forts on the Richelieu River circa 1666 for the campagne of the Regiment of Carignan-Salières
Fort Saint-Jean on Richelieu River in Canada during the 1750s
Map of 1695 with a plan of Fort Richelieu
Fort Saint-Jean circa 1775 siege of the fort
Passage of the Richelieu by night
Fort Sainte-Thérèse on Richelieu River

With 19th-century construction of the Champlain Canal (1823) south of the Lake Champlain and the Chambly Canal (1843) to the north, the Richelieu provided a direct route from the Saint Lawrence River to New York via Lake Champlain, the canals, and the Hudson River.

The Champlain Canal and Lake Champlain form the U.S. portion of the Lakes to Locks Passage, linking with the Hudson River and allowing navigation using the Richelieu between the St. Lawrence River and New York City and the Erie Canal.

New York State Canal Corporation

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The New York State Canal Corporation is a New York State public-benefit corporation responsible for the oversight, administration and maintenance of the New York State Canal System, which consists of the Erie Canal, Cayuga–Seneca Canal, Oswego Canal and Champlain Canal.