Chandrasekhar limit

Chandrasekhar masslimit(Chandrasekhar) limitChandrasekhar's work on limitsChandrashekar LimitChandrashekhar limiteponymous limitmass limitmaximum massprocess that is believed to occur
The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star.wikipedia
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White dwarf

white dwarfswhite dwarf starcentral star
The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star. Type Ia supernovae derive their energy from runaway fusion of the nuclei in the interior of a white dwarf.
The physics of degeneracy yields a maximum mass for a non-rotating white dwarf, the Chandrasekhar limit—approximately 1.44 times —beyond which it cannot be supported by electron degeneracy pressure.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

S. ChandrasekharChandrasekhar, SubrahmanyanSubramanyan Chandrasekhar
The limit was named after Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, an Indian astrophysicist who improved upon the accuracy of the calculation in 1930, at the age of 20, in India by calculating the limit for a polytrope model of a star in hydrostatic equilibrium, and comparing his limit to the earlier limit found by E. C. Stoner for a uniform density star.
The Chandrasekhar limit is named after him.

Neutron star

neutron starsStellar spin-downdying star
Consequently, a white dwarf with a mass greater than the limit is subject to further gravitational collapse, evolving into a different type of stellar remnant, such as a neutron star or black hole.
Further deposits of mass from shell burning cause the core to exceed the Chandrasekhar limit.

Black hole

black holesblack-holeblack hole physics
Consequently, a white dwarf with a mass greater than the limit is subject to further gravitational collapse, evolving into a different type of stellar remnant, such as a neutron star or black hole.
In 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar calculated, using special relativity, that a non-rotating body of electron-degenerate matter above a certain limiting mass (now called the Chandrasekhar limit at ) has no stable solutions.

Compact star

compact objectstellar remnantcompact objects
Consequently, a white dwarf with a mass greater than the limit is subject to further gravitational collapse, evolving into a different type of stellar remnant, such as a neutron star or black hole.
The star's radius has now shrunk to only a few thousand kilometers, and the mass is approaching the theoretical upper limit of the mass of a white dwarf, the Chandrasekhar limit, about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun.

Gravitational collapse

collapsecollapsedcollapsed star
White dwarfs resist gravitational collapse primarily through electron degeneracy pressure (compare main sequence stars, which resist collapse through thermal pressure).
Before it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit (about one and a half times the mass of our Sun, at which point gravitational collapse would start again), the increasing density and temperature within a carbon-oxygen white dwarf initiates a new round of nuclear fusion, which is not regulated because the star's weight is supported by degeneracy rather than thermal pressure, allowing temperature to rise exponentially.

Edmund Clifton Stoner

E. C. StonerEdmund C. StonerStoner
The limit was named after Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, an Indian astrophysicist who improved upon the accuracy of the calculation in 1930, at the age of 20, in India by calculating the limit for a polytrope model of a star in hydrostatic equilibrium, and comparing his limit to the earlier limit found by E. C. Stoner for a uniform density star. This Fermi gas model was then used by the British physicist Edmund Clifton Stoner in 1929 to calculate the relationship among the mass, radius, and density of white dwarfs, assuming they were homogeneous spheres.
He did some early work in astrophysics and independently computed the (Chandrasekhar) limit for the mass of a white dwarf one year before Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in 1931.

Stellar evolution

evolvedevolvingevolution
Consequently, a white dwarf with a mass greater than the limit is subject to further gravitational collapse, evolving into a different type of stellar remnant, such as a neutron star or black hole.
The iron core grows until it reaches an effective Chandrasekhar mass, higher than the formal Chandrasekhar mass due to various corrections for the relativistic effects, entropy, charge, and the surrounding envelope.

Electron degeneracy pressure

electronelectron degeneracythe atomic forces
White dwarfs resist gravitational collapse primarily through electron degeneracy pressure (compare main sequence stars, which resist collapse through thermal pressure).
Electron degeneracy pressure will halt the gravitational collapse of a star if its mass is below the Chandrasekhar limit (1.44 solar masses ).

Wilhelm Anderson

Importantly, the existence of a limit, based on the conceptual breakthrough of combining relativity with Fermi degeneracy, was indeed first established in separate papers published by Wilhelm Anderson and E. C. Stoner in 1929.
The white dwarf mass limit was further refined by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and is now known as the Chandrasekhar limit.

Fermi gas

electron gasfree electron gasFermi systems
This Fermi gas model was then used by the British physicist Edmund Clifton Stoner in 1929 to calculate the relationship among the mass, radius, and density of white dwarfs, assuming they were homogeneous spheres.
Using the Fermi gas as a model, it is possible to calculate the Chandrasekhar limit, i.e. the maximum mass any star may acquire (without significant thermally generated pressure) before collapsing into a black hole or a neutron star.

Type Ia supernova

type IaType Ia supernovaetype 1a supernova
Type Ia supernovae derive their energy from runaway fusion of the nuclei in the interior of a white dwarf.
Somewhat confusingly, this limit is often referred to as the Chandrasekhar mass, despite being marginally different from the absolute Chandrasekhar limit where electron degeneracy pressure is unable to prevent catastrophic collapse.

Lev Landau

LandauLev Davidovich LandauL. D. Landau
This value was also computed in 1932 by the Soviet physicist Lev Davidovich Landau, who, however, did not apply it to white dwarfs and concluded that quantum laws might be invalid for stars heavier than 1.5 solar mass.
In 1932, Landau computed the Chandrashekhar limit; however, he did not apply it to white dwarf stars.

Degenerate matter

degeneratedegeneracy pressureelectron-degenerate matter
These equations of state were also previously published by the Soviet physicist Yakov Frenkel in 1928, together with some other remarks on the physics of degenerate matter.
There is an upper limit to the mass of an electron-degenerate object, the Chandrasekhar limit, beyond which electron degeneracy pressure cannot support the object against collapse.

Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit

Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limitmost massive knownOppenheimer-Volkoff limit
The limiting value for neutron star mass, analogous to the Chandrasekhar limit, is known as the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit.
The Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit (or TOV limit) is an upper bound to the mass of cold, nonrotating neutron stars, analogous to the Chandrasekhar limit for white dwarf stars.

Carbon detonation

runaway carbon fusionigniteignition of carbon fusion
This eventually ignites nuclear fusion reactions, leading to an immediate carbon detonation, which disrupts the star and causes the supernova.
Carbon detonation generally occurs at the point when the accreted matter pushes the white dwarf's mass close to the Chandrasekhar limit of roughly 1.4 solar masses.

Arthur Eddington

Arthur Stanley EddingtonSir Arthur EddingtonEddington
Chandrasekhar's work on the limit aroused controversy, owing to the opposition of the British astrophysicist Arthur Eddington.

Solar mass

mass of the SunSun's masssolar masses
If a main-sequence star is not too massive (less than approximately 8 solar masses), it eventually sheds enough mass to form a white dwarf having mass below the Chandrasekhar limit, which consists of the former core of the star.

Supernova

supernovaecore-collapse supernovasupernovas
This process is believed responsible for supernovae of types Ib, Ic, and II.
If a carbon-oxygen white dwarf accreted enough matter to reach the Chandrasekhar limit of about 1.44 solar masses (for a non-rotating star), it would no longer be able to support the bulk of its mass through electron degeneracy pressure and would begin to collapse.

SN 2003fg

Champagne SupernovaSNLS-03D3bb
In April 2003, the Supernova Legacy Survey observed a type Ia supernova, designated SNLS-03D3bb, in a galaxy approximately 4 billion light years away.
According to the current understanding, white dwarf stars explode as Type Ia supernovas when their mass approaches 1.4 solar masses, termed the Chandrasekhar limit.

Cosmic distance ladder

standard candlestandard candlesdistance
Nevertheless, they point out that this observation poses a challenge to the use of type Ia supernovae as standard candles.
As the white dwarf gains matter, eventually it reaches its Chandrasekhar limit of.

Hydrostatic equilibrium

hydrostatic balanceequilibriumhydrostatic
The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star.

Star

starsstellarmassive star
The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star.

Main sequence

main-sequencemain-sequence starmain sequence dwarf
White dwarfs resist gravitational collapse primarily through electron degeneracy pressure (compare main sequence stars, which resist collapse through thermal pressure).