Punched tape with the word "Wikipedia" encoded in ASCII. Presence and absence of a hole represents 1 and 0, respectively; for example, "W" is encoded as "1010111".
ISO/IEC 8859-1 code page layout
Hollerith 80-column punch card with EBCDIC character set
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ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987.

- ISO/IEC 8859-1

Multiple coded character sets may share the same repertoire; for example ISO/IEC 8859-1 and IBM code pages 037 and 500 all cover the same repertoire but map them to different code points.

- Character encoding
Punched tape with the word "Wikipedia" encoded in ASCII. Presence and absence of a hole represents 1 and 0, respectively; for example, "W" is encoded as "1010111".

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Logo of the Unicode Consortium

Unicode

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Logo of the Unicode Consortium
Many modern applications can render a substantial subset of the many scripts in Unicode, as demonstrated by this screenshot from the OpenOffice.org application.
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Various Cyrillic characters shown with upright, oblique and italic alternate forms

Unicode, formally The Unicode Standard is an information technology standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

The first 256 code points were made identical to the content of ISO/IEC 8859-1 so as to make it trivial to convert existing western text.

ISO/IEC 8859

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ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings.

The series of standards consists of numbered parts, such as ISO/IEC 8859-1, ISO/IEC 8859-2, etc. There are 15 parts, excluding the abandoned ISO/IEC 8859-12.

ASCII chart from a pre-1972 printer manual

ASCII

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ASCII chart from a pre-1972 printer manual
ASCII (1963). Control pictures of equivalent controls are shown where they exist, or a grey dot otherwise.

ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

A popular further extension designed by Microsoft, Windows-1252 (often mislabeled as ISO-8859-1), added the typographic punctuation marks needed for traditional text printing.

Windows-1252

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Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page 1252) is a single-byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows for English and many European languages including Spanish, French, and German.

, 0.3% of all websites declared use of Windows-1252, but at the same time 1.2% used ISO 8859-1 (while only 4 of the top 1000 websites ), which by HTML5 standards should be considered the same encoding, so that 1.5% of websites effectively use Windows-1252.

Declared character set for 10million most popular websites since 2010

UTF-8

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Declared character set for 10million most popular websites since 2010
Use of the main encodings on the web from 2001 to 2012 as recorded by Google, with UTF-8 overtaking all others in 2008 and over 60% of the web in 2012 (since then approaching 100%). The ASCII-only figure includes all web pages that only contain ASCII characters, regardless of the declared header. Other encodings of Unicode such as GB2312 are added to "others".

UTF-8 is a variable-width character encoding used for electronic communication.

This led to its adoption by X/Open as its specification for FSS-UTF, which would first be officially presented at USENIX in January 1993 and subsequently adopted by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in RFC 2277 (BCP 18) for future internet standards work, replacing Single Byte Character Sets such as Latin-1 in older RFCs.

ISO/IEC 8859-15

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ISO/IEC 8859-15:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 15: Latin alphabet No. 9, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1999.

It is similar to ISO 8859-1, and thus also intended for “Western European” languages, but replaces some less common symbols with the euro sign and some letters that were deemed necessary:

ISO/IEC 8859-2

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ISO/IEC 8859-2:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 2: Latin alphabet No. 2, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987.

However a few of them are rearranged (unlike Windows-1252, which keeps all printable characters from ISO-8859-1 in the same place).

ISO/IEC 8859-4

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ISO/IEC 8859-4:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 4: Latin alphabet No. 4, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988.

Differences from ISO-8859-1 have the Unicode code point below them.

ISO/IEC 8859-3

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ISO/IEC 8859-3:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 3: Latin alphabet No. 3, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988.

Differences from ISO-8859-1 are shown with their Unicode code point below.