Charcoal

collierscolliercharcoal burnersWood charcoalburned woodcharburnerscharcoal briquettescharcoal burningcharcoal makercharcoal-making
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.wikipedia
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Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
It is present as a powder, and is the main constituent of substances such as charcoal, lampblack (soot) and activated carbon.

Deforestation

deforestedland clearingforest clearing
The massive production of charcoal (at its height employing hundreds of thousands, mainly in Alpine and neighbouring forests) was a major cause of deforestation, especially in Central Europe.
Deforestation can occur for several reasons: trees can be cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal or timber), while cleared land can be used as pasture for livestock and plantation.

Charcoal burner

charcoal burningcharcoalcharcoal burners
This process is called charcoal burning.
A Charcoal burner is someone whose occupation is to manufacture charcoal.

Coppicing

coppicecoppicedcopse
In England, many woods were managed as coppices, which were cut and regrown cyclically, so that a steady supply of charcoal would be available (in principle) forever; complaints (as early as the Stuart period) about shortages may relate to the results of temporary over-exploitation or the impossibility of increasing production to match growing demand.
In the 16th and 17th centuries the technology of charcoal iron production became widely established in England, continuing in some areas until the late 19th century.

Kingsford (charcoal)

KingsfordKingsford Charcoalcharcoal
Ford Charcoal went on to become the Kingsford Company.
Kingsford is a brand of charcoal used for grilling, along with related products.

Smelting

smeltersmeltedsmelt
The residual charcoal was widely used as substitute for metallurgical coke in blast furnaces for smelting.
The reducing agent is commonly a source of carbon, such as coke—or, in earlier times, charcoal.

Coke (fuel)

cokecoking coalcoking
The residual charcoal was widely used as substitute for metallurgical coke in blast furnaces for smelting.
In 1603, Hugh Plat suggested that coal might be charred in a manner analogous to the way charcoal is produced from wood.

Blast furnace

blast furnacesiron furnacefurnace
The residual charcoal was widely used as substitute for metallurgical coke in blast furnaces for smelting. Historically, charcoal was used in great quantities for smelting iron in bloomeries and later blast furnaces and finery forges.
The fuel used in these was invariably charcoal.

Retort

retort-likeretortingretorts
The modern process of carbonizing wood, either in small pieces or as sawdust in cast iron retorts, is extensively practiced where wood is scarce, and also for the recovery of valuable byproducts (wood spirit, pyroligneous acid, wood tar), which the process permits.
Such industrial-scale retorts are used in shale oil extraction, the production of charcoal and in the recovery of mercury in gold mining processes and hazardous waste.

Binchōtan

binchotanBinchō-tan Shiawase GoyomiRen-tan
White charcoal (Binchōtan) is very hard and produces a metallic sound when struck.
Binchō-tan, also called white charcoal or binchō-zumi, is a type of charcoal traditionally used in Japanese cooking.

Biomass briquettes

Ogatan
Ogatan is a more recent type made from hardened sawdust.
Biomass briquettes are a biofuel substitute to coal and charcoal.

Gunpowder

black powderpowderblack-powder
The approximate composition of charcoal for gunpowders is sometimes empirically described as C 7 H 4 O. To obtain a coal with high purity, source material should be free of non-volatile compounds.
It consists of a mixture of sulfur (S), charcoal (C), and potassium nitrate (saltpeter, KNO 3 ).

Synthetic diamond

synthetic diamondspolycrystalline diamondartificial diamond
Sugar charcoal is obtained from the carbonization of sugar and is particularly pure. It is purified by boiling with acids to remove any mineral matter and is then burned for a long time in a current of chlorine in order to remove the last traces of hydrogen. It was used by Henri Moissan in his early attempt to create synthetic diamonds.
Procès-verbaux des séances de l'Académie (Académie des sciences), December 1, 1828, volume 9, page 151: "M. Thenard donne lecture du procès verbal des expériences faites le 26 Novembre 1828 sur la Poudre présentée comme diamant artificiel, par M. Cagniard de Latour." (Mr. Thenard gave a reading of the minutes of experiments made on November 26, 1828 on the powder presented as artificial diamond by Mr. Cagniard de Latour.) The earliest successes were reported by James Ballantyne Hannay in 1879 and by Ferdinand Frédéric Henri Moissan in 1893. Their method involved heating charcoal at up to 3500 °C with iron inside a carbon crucible in a furnace. Whereas Hannay used a flame-heated tube, Moissan applied his newly developed electric arc furnace, in which an electric arc was struck between carbon rods inside blocks of lime. The molten iron was then rapidly cooled by immersion in water. The contraction generated by the cooling supposedly produced the high pressure required to transform graphite into diamond. Moissan published his work in a series of articles in the 1890s.

Carbonization

carbonizedcarbonisationcarbonizing
The question of the temperature of the carbonization is important; according to J. Percy, wood becomes brown at 220 °C (428 °F), a deep brown-black after some time at 280 °C (536 °F), and an easily powdered mass at 310 °C (590 °F).
This carbonization, which can also be seen as a spontaneous breakdown of the wood, continues until only the carbonised residue called charcoal remains.

Wood gas generator

wood gasifiergas producergazogène
In times of scarce petroleum, automobiles and even buses have been converted to burn wood gas (a gas mixture consisting primarily of diluting atmospheric nitrogen, but also containing combustible gasses, mostly carbon monoxide) released by burning charcoal or wood in a wood gas generator.
A wood gas generator is a gasification unit which converts timber or charcoal into wood gas, a syngas consisting of atmospheric nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, traces of methane, and other gases, which - after cooling and filtering - can then be used to power an internal combustion engine or for other purposes.

Tar

wood tartar kilnTars
The modern process of carbonizing wood, either in small pieces or as sawdust in cast iron retorts, is extensively practiced where wood is scarce, and also for the recovery of valuable byproducts (wood spirit, pyroligneous acid, wood tar), which the process permits.
The by-products of wood tar are turpentine and charcoal.

Pyrolysis

pyrolyticpyrolyzedvacuum pyrolysis
Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis — the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen.
Pyrolysis has been used for turning wood into charcoal since ancient times.

Activated carbon

activated charcoalactive carbonactive charcoal
Activated charcoal is similar to common charcoal but is made especially for medical use. To produce activated charcoal, manufacturers heat common charcoal in the presence of a gas that causes the charcoal to develop many internal spaces or "pores". These pores help activated charcoal trap chemicals.
Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal and is sometimes used as biochar.

Bloomery

iron furnacebloomeriesiron furnaces
Historically, charcoal was used in great quantities for smelting iron in bloomeries and later blast furnaces and finery forges.
The first step taken before the bloomery can be used is the preparation of the charcoal and the iron ore.

Steel

steel industrysteelworkersteels
Charcoal has been used for the production of iron since Roman times and steel in modern times where it also provided the necessary carbon.
This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at about 250 C, and copper, which melts at about 1100 C, and the combination, bronze, which has a melting point lower than 1083 C. In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1375 C. Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and then welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process squeezing out the impurities.

Briquette

briquettesbriquettingbriquets
Pillow shaped briquettes are made by compressing charcoal, typically made from sawdust and other wood by-products, with a binder and other additives. The binder is usually starch. Briquettes may also include brown coal (heat source), mineral carbon (heat source), borax, sodium nitrate (ignition aid), limestone (ash-whitening agent), raw sawdust (ignition aid), and other additives.
Wood charcoal (fuel)

Biochar

bio-charcharcharcoal
Although American gardeners have been using charcoal for a short while, research on Terra preta soils in the Amazon has found the widespread use of biochar by pre-Columbian natives to turn unproductive soil into carbon rich soil.
Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment.

Terra preta

black earthTerra Preta de Indioanthropic soil conditions
Although American gardeners have been using charcoal for a short while, research on Terra preta soils in the Amazon has found the widespread use of biochar by pre-Columbian natives to turn unproductive soil into carbon rich soil.
Terra preta owes its characteristic black color to its weathered charcoal content, and was made by adding a mixture of charcoal, bone, broken pottery, compost and manure to the otherwise relatively infertile Amazonian soil.

Sketch (drawing)

sketchsketchessketching
Charcoal is used in art for drawing, making rough sketches in painting and is one of the possible media for making a parsemage.
The term is most often applied to graphic work executed in a dry medium such as silverpoint, graphite, pencil, charcoal or pastel.

Hardwood

hardwoodshardwood treeshard wood
Lump charcoal is a traditional charcoal made directly from hardwood material. It usually produces far less ash than briquettes.
Hardwoods are employed in a large range of applications, including fuel, tools, construction, boat building, furniture making, musical instruments, flooring, cooking, barrels, and manufacture of charcoal.