Charlemagne

Charles the GreatEmperor CharlemagneCharlesCarolingianCharlemangeCarolus MagnusCharles IKarl der GroßeCharlamagneRegina
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (2 April 748 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was king of the Franks from 768, king of the Lombards from 774, and emperor of the Romans from 800.wikipedia
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Early Middle Ages

early medievalEarlyearly medieval period
During the Early Middle Ages, he united the majority of western and central Europe.
In 800 the title of "Emperor" was revived in Western Europe with Charlemagne, whose Carolingian Empire greatly affected later European social structure and history.

Carolingian Empire

CarolingianCarolingian eraFrankish Empire
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (2 April 748 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was king of the Franks from 768, king of the Lombards from 774, and emperor of the Romans from 800.
In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire in the west.

Massacre of Verden

Bloody Verdict of VerdenBlood court of Verdenmassacred 4,500 Saxon captives at Verden
He campaigned against the Saxons to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death and leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden.
The Massacre of Verden was an event during the Saxon Wars where the Frankish king Charlemagne ordered the death of 4,500 Saxons in October 782.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire considered themselves successors of Charlemagne, as did the French and German monarchs.
On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476.

Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor

coronationimperial coronationcrowned
He reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Rome's Old St. Peter's Basilica.
The Holy Roman Empire was established in the year 800 under Charlemagne.

Aachen

Aix-la-ChapelleAachen, GermanyAix
Charlemagne died in 814 and was laid to rest in his imperial capital city of Aachen. Orman portrays the Treaty of Verdun (843) between the warring grandsons of Charlemagne as the foundation event of an independent France under its first king Charles the Bald; an independent Germany under its first king Louis the German; and an independent intermediate state stretching from the Low Countries along the borderlands to south of Rome under Lothair I, who retained the title of emperor and the capitals Aachen and Rome without the jurisdiction.
Aachen developed from a Roman settlement and spa, subsequently becoming the preferred medieval Imperial residence of Charlemagne, and, from 936 to 1531, the place where 31 Holy Roman Emperors were crowned Kings of the Germans.

Saxons

SaxonSassenachSaxon people
He campaigned against the Saxons to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death and leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden.
While the English Saxons were no longer raiders, the political history of the continental Saxons is unclear until the time of the conflict between their semi-legendary hero Widukind and the Frankish emperor Charlemagne.

Lombards

LombardLongobardsLongobard
He continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain.
In 774, the Kingdom was conquered by the Frankish King Charlemagne and integrated into his Empire.

Louis the Pious

Louis ILouisLouis I the Pious
He married at least four times and had three legitimate sons who lived to adulthood, but only the youngest of them, Louis the Pious, survived to succeed him.
Louis the Pious (778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of the Franks and co-emperor with his father, Charlemagne, from 813.

Pope Leo III

Leo IIIIIILeo III, Pope of Rome
He reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Rome's Old St. Peter's Basilica.
Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor and "Augustus of the Romans".

Bertrada of Laon

BertradaBerthaBertha Broadfoot
Charlemagne was the eldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, born before their canonical marriage.
She was the wife of Pepin the Short and the mother of Charlemagne, Carloman and Gisela.

History of Germany

German historyGermanyMedieval Germany
Under the Carolingians, the Frankish kingdom spread to encompass an area including most of Western Europe; the east-west division of the kingdom formed the basis for modern France and Germany.
When the Frankish Empire was divided among Charles the Great's heirs in 843, the eastern part became East Francia.

History of France

French historyFranceFrench
Under the Carolingians, the Frankish kingdom spread to encompass an area including most of Western Europe; the east-west division of the kingdom formed the basis for modern France and Germany.
Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribesGermanic tribe
By the 6th century, the western Germanic tribe of the Franks had been Christianised, due in considerable measure to the Catholic conversion of Clovis I.
This kingdom formed the Holy Roman Empire under the leadership of Charlemagne, who was officially recognized by Pope Leo III in 800 CE.

Carolingian Renaissance

CarolingianCarolingian periodCarolingian Reforms
His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church.
The Carolingian Renaissance occurred mostly during the reigns of Carolingian rulers Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
He continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain.
The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century.

Louis the German

LouisLudwig the GermanKing Louis the German
Orman portrays the Treaty of Verdun (843) between the warring grandsons of Charlemagne as the foundation event of an independent France under its first king Charles the Bald; an independent Germany under its first king Louis the German; and an independent intermediate state stretching from the Low Countries along the borderlands to south of Rome under Lothair I, who retained the title of emperor and the capitals Aachen and Rome without the jurisdiction.
Grandson of emperor Charlemagne and the third son of Louis the Pious, emperor of Francia, and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, he received the appellation Germanicus shortly after his death in recognition of Magna Germania of the Roman Empire, reflecting the Carolingian's assertions that they were the rightful descendants of the Roman Empire.

Treaty of Verdun

Partition of VerdunTreaties of VerdunVerdun
Orman portrays the Treaty of Verdun (843) between the warring grandsons of Charlemagne as the foundation event of an independent France under its first king Charles the Bald; an independent Germany under its first king Louis the German; and an independent intermediate state stretching from the Low Countries along the borderlands to south of Rome under Lothair I, who retained the title of emperor and the capitals Aachen and Rome without the jurisdiction.
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
Francia, ruled by the Merovingians, was the most powerful of the kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire.
The papal coronation of the Frankish King Charlemagne as Roman Emperor in 800 marked a new imperial line that would evolve into the Holy Roman Empire, which presented a revival of the Imperial title in Western Europe but was in no meaningful sense an extension of Roman traditions or institutions.

Charles the Bald

Charles IICharlesCharles II the Bald
Orman portrays the Treaty of Verdun (843) between the warring grandsons of Charlemagne as the foundation event of an independent France under its first king Charles the Bald; an independent Germany under its first king Louis the German; and an independent intermediate state stretching from the Low Countries along the borderlands to south of Rome under Lothair I, who retained the title of emperor and the capitals Aachen and Rome without the jurisdiction.
He was a grandson of Charlemagne and the youngest son of Louis the Pious by his second wife, Judith.

Charles Martel

Karl MartellCharles the HammerFrankish Civil War
Pepin of Herstal was eventually succeeded by his son Charles, later known as Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer).
Charles' grandson, Charlemagne, extended the Frankish realms, and became the first emperor in the West since the fall of Rome.

List of German monarchs

King of GermanyGerman KingKing of East Francia
Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire considered themselves successors of Charlemagne, as did the French and German monarchs.

Einhard

EginhardEinhartEginhardus
The date of 742—calculated from Einhard's date of death of January 814 at age 72—predates the marriage of his parents in 744.
Einhard was a dedicated servant of Charlemagne and his son Louis the Pious; his main work is a biography of Charlemagne, the Vita Karoli Magni, "one of the most precious literary bequests of the early Middle Ages."

Clovis I

ClovisKing ClovisKing Clovis I
By the 6th century, the western Germanic tribe of the Franks had been Christianised, due in considerable measure to the Catholic conversion of Clovis I.
The adoption by Clovis of Catholicism (as opposed to the Arianism of most other Germanic tribes) led to widespread conversion among the Frankish peoples, to religious unification across what is now modern-day France, Belgium and Germany, and three centuries later to Charlemagne's alliance with the Bishop of Rome and in the middle of the 10th century under Otto I the Great to the consequent birth of the early Holy Roman Empire.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
Orman portrays the Treaty of Verdun (843) between the warring grandsons of Charlemagne as the foundation event of an independent France under its first king Charles the Bald; an independent Germany under its first king Louis the German; and an independent intermediate state stretching from the Low Countries along the borderlands to south of Rome under Lothair I, who retained the title of emperor and the capitals Aachen and Rome without the jurisdiction.
Pepin's son, Charlemagne, reunited the Frankish kingdoms and built a vast empire across Western and Central Europe.