Charles Bradlaugh

BradlaughBradlaugh, CharlesBradlaugh affairBradlaugh caseBradlaugh incidentBradlaugh's Hall of ScienceC Bradlaugh
Charles Bradlaugh (26 September 1833 – 30 January 1891) was an English political activist and atheist.wikipedia
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National Secular Society

NSS
He founded the National Secular Society in 1866. In 1860 he became editor of the secularist newspaper, the National Reformer, and in 1866 co-founded the National Secular Society, in which Annie Besant became his close associate.
It was founded by Charles Bradlaugh in 1866 and is now a member organisation of Humanists International (formerly the International Humanist and Ethical Union), endorsing the Amsterdam Declaration 2002.

Annie Besant

Annie BeasantDr. Annie BesantAnnie Wood Besant
In 1860 he became editor of the secularist newspaper, the National Reformer, and in 1866 co-founded the National Secular Society, in which Annie Besant became his close associate. The other speakers were George Jacob Holyoake, Annie Besant and Harriet Law.
She then became a prominent speaker for the National Secular Society (NSS), as well as a writer, and a close friend of Charles Bradlaugh.

Reform League

Hyde Park demonstrationHyde Park Riotsriot
He gradually attained prominence in a number of liberal or radical political groups or societies, including the Reform League, Land Law Reformers, and Secularists.
The radical MPs John Bright and Charles Bradlaugh were prominent in these public meetings which attracted crowds in the hundred thousands.

Eliza Sharples

He was thrown out of the family home and was taken in by Eliza Sharples Carlile, the widow of Richard Carlile, who had been imprisoned for printing Thomas Paine's The Age of Reason.
When the fifteen-year-old Charles Bradlaugh needed somewhere to stay, after being accused of atheism by his pastor, Sharples provided accommodation for him.

National Reformer

In 1860 he became editor of the secularist newspaper, the National Reformer, and in 1866 co-founded the National Secular Society, in which Annie Besant became his close associate.
Charles Bradlaugh was co-editor and periodically edited the journal through to 1890.

Malthusian League

Neo-Malthusian League of Holland
The Malthusian League was founded as a result of the trial to promote birth control.
The league was initially founded during the "Knowlton trial" of Annie Besant and Charles Bradlaugh in July 1877.

Hoxton

Hoxton, LondonHoxton Bar & GrillHoxton Baths
Born in Hoxton (an area in the East End of London), Bradlaugh was the son of a solicitor's clerk.

Thomas Paine

Tom PainePainePaine, Thomas
He was thrown out of the family home and was taken in by Eliza Sharples Carlile, the widow of Richard Carlile, who had been imprisoned for printing Thomas Paine's The Age of Reason.
Paine's critique of institutionalized religion and advocacy of rational thinking influenced many British freethinkers in the 19th and 20th centuries, such as William Cobbett, George Holyoake, Charles Bradlaugh, Christopher Hitchens and Bertrand Russell.

Northampton (UK Parliament constituency)

NorthamptonNorthampton (seat 1/2)Northampton constituency
In 1880, Bradlaugh was elected as the Liberal MP for Northampton.

The Age of Reason

Age of Reason
He was thrown out of the family home and was taken in by Eliza Sharples Carlile, the widow of Richard Carlile, who had been imprisoned for printing Thomas Paine's The Age of Reason.
Its legacy can be seen in Thomas Jonathan Wooler's radical periodical The Black Dwarf, Carlile's numerous newspapers and journals, the radical works of William Cobbett, Henry Hetherington's periodicals the Penny Papers and the Poor Man's Guardian, Chartist William Lovett's works, George Holyoake"s newspapers and books on Owenism, and freethinker Charles Bradlaugh's New Reformer. A century after the publication of The Age of Reason, Paine's rhetoric was still being used: George William Foote's "Bible Handbook (1888) ... systematically manhandles chapters and verses to bring out 'Contradictions,' 'Absurdities,' 'Atrocities,' and 'Obscenities,' exactly in the manner of Paine's Age of Reason." The periodical The Freethinker (founded in 1881 by George Foote) argued, like Paine, that the "absurdities of faith" could be "slain with laughter."

George Holyoake

George Jacob HolyoakeG. J. HolyoakeG.J. Holyoake
Soon Bradlaugh was introduced to George Holyoake, who organised Bradlaugh's first public lecture as an atheist. The other speakers were George Jacob Holyoake, Annie Besant and Harriet Law.
After an 1887 split with Charles Bradlaugh and Annie Besant, leaders of the National Secular Society (NSS), Holyoake, Charles Watts and Harriet Law founded the British Secular Union, which remained active until 1884.

Atheism

atheistatheistsatheistic
Charles Bradlaugh (26 September 1833 – 30 January 1891) was an English political activist and atheist.

Harriet Law

[Harriet] Law
The other speakers were George Jacob Holyoake, Annie Besant and Harriet Law.
This may have been due to difficulty working with its leader, Charles Bradlaugh.

Republicanism in the United Kingdom

republicanrepublicanismBritish republicanism
Bradlaugh was an advocate of trade unionism, republicanism, and universal suffrage, and he opposed socialism.
During the 1870s, calls for Britain to become a republic on the American or French model were made by the politicians Charles Dilke and Charles Bradlaugh, as well as journalist George W. M. Reynolds.

Charles Knowlton

Fruits of PhilosophyThe Fruits of Philosophy
A decade later (1876), Bradlaugh and Besant decided to republish the American Charles Knowlton's pamphlet advocating birth control, The Fruits of Philosophy, or the Private Companion of Young Married People, whose previous British publisher had already been successfully prosecuted for obscenity.
Twenty-seven years later, Charles Bradlaugh and Annie Besant were tried in London for publishing Knowlton's Fruits of Philosophy there.

Oath of Allegiance (United Kingdom)

Oath of Allegianceallegianceoath
To take his seat and become an active Parliamentarian, he needed to signify his allegiance to the Crown and on 3 May Bradlaugh came to the Table of the House of Commons, bearing a letter to the Speaker "begging respectfully to claim to be allowed to affirm" instead of taking the religious Oath of Allegiance, citing the Evidence Amendment Acts of 1869 and 1870.
The restrictions were lifted by the Oaths Act 1888 after the six-year effort (1880–1886) of the noted atheist Charles Bradlaugh to claim his seat.

Hypatia Bradlaugh Bonner

His daughter, Hypatia Bradlaugh Bonner (1858–1935), was a peace activist, author, atheist and freethinker.
Hypatia Bradlaugh Bonner (31 March 1858 – 25 August 1935) was a British peace activist, author, atheist and freethinker, and the daughter of Charles Bradlaugh.

Lord Randolph Churchill

Randolph ChurchillLord Randolph Henry Spencer-ChurchillRH Spencer-Churchill
Lord Randolph Churchill roused the Conservatives by leading resistance to Bradlaugh.
The "fourth party", as it was nicknamed, at first did little damage to the government, but awakened the opposition from its apathy; Churchill roused the Conservatives by leading resistance to Charles Bradlaugh, the member for Northampton, who, an avowed atheist or agnostic, was prepared to take the parliamentary oath under protest.

Henry Labouchère

Henry Labouchere[Henry] LabouchereDu Pré-Labouchère
When it was known that this was the likely outcome of the Select Committee, Bradlaugh's fellow Northampton MP Henry Labouchère initiated a debate on a motion to allow Bradlaugh to affirm.
Labouchère returned to Parliament in the 1880 election, when he and Charles Bradlaugh, both Liberals, won the two seats for Northampton.

Northampton

Northampton, EnglandNorthampton, NorthamptonshireNorthampton CB
A statue of Bradlaugh is located on a traffic island at Abington Square, Northampton.
In 1880, radical non-conformist Charles Bradlaugh was elected as second MP for the constituency.

University of Northampton

Northampton UniversityUniversity College NorthamptonThe University of Northampton
Other landmarks bearing his name include The Charles Bradlaugh pub, Charles Bradlaugh Hall at the University of Northampton and Bradlaugh Hall in Lahore, Pakistan.
The main halls are now located in the student village of the Waterside Campus, and include Francis Crick; Margaret Bondfield; John Clare; and Charles Bradlaugh.

Oaths Act 1888

Oaths Act1888 Parliament passed a lawnew Oaths Act
Two years later, in 1888, he secured passage of a new Oaths Act, which enshrined into law the right of affirmation for members of both Houses, as well as extending and clarifying the law as it related to witnesses in civil and criminal trials (the Evidence Amendment Acts of 1869 and 1870 had proved unsatisfactory, though they had given relief to many who would otherwise have been disadvantaged).
The Act was the culmination of a campaign by the noted atheist and secularist MP Charles Bradlaugh to take his seat.

Brookwood Cemetery

Brookwood MemorialBrookwood Military CemeteryBrookwood
He is buried in Brookwood Cemetery.

Matchgirls' strike

London matchgirls strike of 1888Bryant and May match factory strikeMatch Girls' strike
Bradlaugh spoke in Parliament about the London matchgirls strike of 1888.
Charles Bradlaugh MP spoke in parliament and a deputation of match women went there to meet three MPs on 11 July.

East End of London

East EndEast LondonLondon's East End
Born in Hoxton (an area in the East End of London), Bradlaugh was the son of a solicitor's clerk.