Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles Robert DarwinCharlesDarwin, CharlesCharles R. DarwinCharles Waring DarwinCharles Waring Darwin (infant)Charles '''Darwin Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.wikipedia
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Alfred Russel Wallace

WallaceAlfred WallaceA. R. Wallace
In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.
He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution through natural selection; his paper on the subject was jointly published with some of Charles Darwin's writings in 1858. This prompted Darwin to publish his own ideas in On the Origin of Species.

On the Origin of Species

The Origin of SpeciesOrigin of SpeciesOn the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species.
On the Origin of Species (or, more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life), published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.
Charles Darwin popularised the term "natural selection", contrasting it with artificial selection, which in his view is intentional, whereas natural selection is not.

Modern synthesis (20th century)

modern synthesismodern evolutionary synthesisevolutionary synthesis
However, many favoured competing explanations which gave only a minor role to natural selection, and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution.
The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was conceived independently by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in the mid-19th century and was set out in detail in Darwin's book On the Origin of Species (1859).

Second voyage of HMS Beagle

second voyage of HMS ''Beaglevoyage of the ''BeagleBeagle'' voyage
His five-year voyage on established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's conception of gradual geological change, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.
The young graduate Charles Darwin had hoped to see the tropics before becoming a parson, and accepted the opportunity.

Christ's College, Cambridge

Christ's CollegeChristChrist's College Cambridge
Studies at the University of Cambridge (Christ's College) encouraged his passion for natural science.
The college is renowned for educating some of Cambridge's most famous alumni, including Charles Darwin and John Milton.

Struggle for existence

Struggle for Survivalmutual strugglenatural law of selection by struggle
In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.
Charles Darwin used the phrase "struggle for existence" in a broader sense, and chose the term as the title to the third chapter of On the Origin of Species published in 1859.

The Voyage of the Beagle

Voyage of the BeagleJournal and Remarksjournal of the voyage
His five-year voyage on established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's conception of gradual geological change, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.
The Voyage of the Beagle is the title most commonly given to the book written by Charles Darwin and published in 1839 as his Journal and Remarks, bringing him considerable fame and respect.

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

The Expression of Emotions in Man and AnimalsEmotionsExpression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872).
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is Charles Darwin's third major work of evolutionary theory, following On the Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871).

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex

The Descent of ManDescent of ManThe Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex
In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872).
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection.

The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms

The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms
His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms (1881), he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.
The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, with Observations on their Habits (sometimes shortened to Worms) is an 1881 book by Charles Darwin on earthworms.

Shrewsbury

Shrewsbury, ShropshireShrewsbury, EnglandCastlefields
Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 12 February 1809, at his family's home, The Mount.
The town is the birthplace of Charles Darwin and is where he spent 27 years of his life.

Burials and memorials in Westminster Abbey

Westminster Abbeyburied20th-century Christian martyrs
Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey.
The practice spread to include generals, admirals, politicians, doctors and scientists such as Isaac Newton, buried on 4 April 1727 and Charles Darwin, buried 19 April 1882.

Sexual selection

sexually selectedmale-male competitionintrasexual selection
In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872).
The concept was first articulated by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace who described it as driving species adaptations and that many organisms had evolved features whose function was deleterious to their individual survival, and then developed by Ronald Fisher in the early 20th century.

Robert Darwin

Robert Waring DarwinRobertDr Robert Waring Darwin
He was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin (née Wedgwood).
Robert Waring Darwin (30 May 1766 – 13 November 1848) was an English medical doctor, who today is best known as the father of the naturalist Charles Darwin.

Erasmus Alvey Darwin

ErasmusRasUncle Ras
From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder.
Erasmus Alvey Darwin (29 December 1804 – 26 August 1881), nicknamed Eras or Ras, was the older brother of Charles Darwin, born five years earlier.

Evolution as fact and theory

Evolution as theory and factboth a theory and a factevidence for the theory
By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact.
In biology it refers to observed changes in organisms, to their descent from a common ancestor, and at a technical level to a change in gene frequency over time; it can also refer to explanatory theories (such as Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection) which explain the mechanisms of evolution.

Erasmus Darwin

Lichfield Botanical SocietyDarwin, ErasmusDr Erasmus Darwin
His grandfathers Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood were both prominent abolitionists.
He was a member of the Darwin–Wedgwood family, which includes his grandsons Charles Darwin and Francis Galton.

On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection

On the Tendency of Speciboth of their theoriesOn the Tendency of SpeciA joint presentationOn the Tendency of Specijoint presentation
He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of [[On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection|both of their theories]].
"On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection" is the title of a journal article, comprising and resulting from the joint presentation of two scientific papers to the Linnean Society of London on 1 July 1858: On The Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type by Alfred Russel Wallace and an Extract from an unpublished Work on Species from Charles Darwin's Essay of 1844.

Susannah Darwin

Susannah WedgwoodSusannah
He was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin and Susannah Darwin (née Wedgwood).
Susannah Darwin (née Wedgwood, 1765–1817) was the wife of Robert Darwin, a wealthy doctor, and mother of Charles Darwin, and part of the Wedgwood pottery family.

Charles Lyell

Sir Charles LyellLyellSir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet
His five-year voyage on established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's conception of gradual geological change, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.
He was a close friend of Charles Darwin, and contributed significantly to Darwin's thinking on the processes involved in evolution.

Plinian Society

Plinians
In Darwin's second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society, a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science.
Several of its members went on to have prominent careers, most notably Charles Darwin who announced his first scientific discoveries at the society.

Selective breeding

artificial selectionselectively bredbreeding
In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.
Charles Darwin discussed how selective breeding had been successful in producing change over time in his 1859 book, On the Origin of Species.

Lamarckism

Lamarckianinheritance of acquired characteristicsneo-Lamarckism
One day, Grant praised Lamarck's evolutionary ideas.
Further, in On the Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin supported the idea of "use and disuse inheritance", though rejecting other aspects of Lamarck's theory; and his pangenesis theory implied soft inheritance.