Charles I of Austria

Charles ICharles IVKarl ICharlesKarl I of AustriaKarlCharles IV of HungaryEmperor Charles IEmperor Karl IEmperor Charles
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922) was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary (as Charles IV, IV. Károly), the last King of Bohemia (as Charles III, Karel III.), and the last monarch belonging to the House of Habsburg-Lorraine before the dissolution of Austria-Hungary.wikipedia
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Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony (1867–1944)

Princess Maria Josepha of SaxonyMaria Josepha Luise Philippine Elisabeth Pia Angelica MargaretheMaria Josepha of Saxony
His parents were Archduke Otto Franz of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony.
Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony (31 May 1867 – 28 May 1944) was the mother of Emperor Charles I of Austria and the fifth child of George of Saxony and Infanta Maria Anna of Portugal.

Emperor of Austria

EmperorAustrian EmperorEmperors of Austria
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922) was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary (as Charles IV, IV.
A hereditary imperial title and office proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and continually held by him and his heirs until Charles I relinquished power in 1918.

Archduke Otto of Austria (1865–1906)

Archduke Otto Franz of AustriaArchduke Otto of AustriaArchduke Otto Francis
His parents were Archduke Otto Franz of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony.
He was the father of Charles I of Austria, the last Emperor of Austria.

Otto von Habsburg

OttoArchduke Otto of AustriaCrown Prince Otto of Austria
Archduchess Zita soon conceived a son, and Otto was born 20 November 1912.
The eldest son of Charles I and IV, the last Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, and his wife, Zita of Bourbon-Parma, Otto was born as third in line to the thrones, as Archduke Otto of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary, Bohemia, and Croatia.

Morganatic marriage

morganaticmorganaticallymorganatic wife
Due to Franz Ferdinand's morganatic marriage in 1900, his children were excluded from the succession.

Zita of Bourbon-Parma

ZitaEmpress ZitaPrincess Zita of Bourbon-Parma
In 1911, Charles married Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma.
Zita of Bourbon-Parma (Zita Maria delle Grazie Adelgonda Micaela Raffaela Gabriella Giuseppina Antonia Luisa Agnese; 9 May 1892 – 14 March 1989) was the wife of Charles, the last monarch of Austria-Hungary.

Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia

Croatia-SlavoniaCroatiaKingdom of Croatia and Slavonia
In his Croatian coronation oath in 1916, he recognized the union of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia with Rijeka and during his short reign supported trialist suggestions from the Croatian Sabor and Ban, but the suggestions were always vetoed by the Hungarian side which did not want to share power with other nations.
See; Charles IV. Coronation diploma inaugurale issued to the Parliament of Croatia-Slavonia pursuant to §.

Republic of German-Austria

German AustriaGerman-AustriaAustria
Nothing remained of Charles' realm except the predominantly German-speaking Danubian and Alpine provinces, and he was challenged even there by the German Austrian State Council. Instead, on 12 November, the day after he issued his proclamation, the independent Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed, followed by the proclamation of the First Hungarian Republic on 16 November.
On 12 October 1918, Emperor Charles I met with the leaders of the largest German parties.

Miklós Horthy

HorthyAdmiral HorthyMiklós Horthy de Nagybánya
Encouraged by Hungarian royalists ("legitimists"), Charles sought twice in 1921 to reclaim the throne of Hungary, but failed largely because Hungary's regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy (the last commander of the Imperial and Royal Navy), refused to support Charles' restoration.
He saw action in the Battle of the Strait of Otranto and became Commander-in-Chief of the Austro-Hungarian Navy in the last year of the First World War; he was promoted to Vice-Admiral and Commander of the Fleet when the previous Admiral was dismissed from his post by Emperor Karl following mutinies.

Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria

Crown Prince RudolfCrown Prince Rudolf of AustriaRudolf
Upon the death of Crown Prince Rudolph in 1889, the Emperor's brother, Archduke Karl Ludwig, was next in line to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Emperor Franz-Joseph died in November 1916 and was succeeded by his grandnephew, Karl.

Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma

SixtusPrince SixtusSixtus of Bourbon-Parma
He employed his brother-in-law, Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma, an officer in the Belgian Army, as intermediary.
The following year, Sixtus's sister, Princess Zita, married Archduke Charles, the heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, who had been Sixtus' childhood friend.

Eckartsau

KopfstettenWitzelsdorfPframa
On the same day, the Imperial Family left Schönbrunn Palace and moved to Castle Eckartsau, east of Vienna.
Schloss Eckartsau was the last residence of Charles I of Austria prior to his departure from the former Austria-Hungary in March, 1919.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
Charles became heir presumptive after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, the event which precipitated World War I.
In 1917, Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly attempted separate peace negotiations with Clemenceau, through his wife's brother Sixtus in Belgium as an intermediary, without the knowledge of Germany.

Františkovy Lázně

FranzensbadFrantiskovy Lazne
In 1909, his Dragoon regiment was stationed at Brandýs nad Labem in Bohemia, from where he visited his aunt at Franzensbad.
Other notable guests included Theodor Herzl (in 1904), Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria and Archduke Charles I of Austria.

Prangins

Prangins, SwitzerlandPromenthoux next Prangins
In Switzerland, Charles and his family briefly took residence at Castle Wartegg near Rorschach at Lake Constance, and later moved to Château de Prangins at Lake Geneva on 20 May.
Following the fall of the Second French Empire, Prince Napoléon Bonaparte and his wife, Princess Maria Clotilde of Savoy, resided in exile at Château de Prangins, where Charles I of Austria and his family would later take residence briefly, beginning 20 May 1919.

Reichenau an der Rax

ReichenauHirschwangReichenau, Austria-Hungary
He spent his early years wherever his father's regiment happened to be stationed; later on he lived in Vienna and Reichenau an der Rax.
He however did not spend much time in Reichenau and shortly afterwards donated the palais to a veterans foundation, while the Villa Wartholz remained a seat of the Habsburg family, especially of Charles and his wife Zita; their first son, Otto, was born and baptized there, and when Charles become Emperor of Austria, Villa Wartholz was his summer residence in the years 1917 and 1918.

Ottokar Czernin

Count Ottokar CzerninCount Ottokar von CzerninCount Czernin
Foreign minister Graf Czernin was only interested in negotiating a general peace which would include Germany, Charles himself went much further in suggesting his willingness to make a separate peace.
Following the accession of Karl I as the new emperor, Count von Czernin was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs on 23 December 1916, replacing Baron Burián von Rajecz.

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austriaassassinationassassinated
Charles became heir presumptive after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, the event which precipitated World War I. After his uncle Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated in 1914, Charles became heir presumptive of Emperor Franz Joseph.
The officer corps was forbidden to salute the funeral train, and this led to a minor revolt led by Archduke Karl, the new heir presumptive.

Austro-Hungarian Army

Austrian armyAustro-HungarianAustrian
Charles then became a Feldmarschall (Field Marshal) in the Austro-Hungarian Army.
Friedrich remained Supreme Commander until February 1917, when Emperor Charles I decided to assume the office himself.

Habsburg Law

abdicationHabsburgergesetzHabsburgs' banishment
The Austrian Parliament responded on 3 April with the Habsburg Law, which dethroned and banished the Habsburgs.
On 11 November 1918, Emperor Charles I, counseled by ministers of his last Imperial Royal government as well as by ministers of German Austria, issued a proclamation relinquishing his right to take part in Austrian affairs of state.

Madeira

Madeira IslandsAutonomous Region of MadeiraMadeira Island
On 19 November 1921 they arrived at their final exile, the Portuguese island of Madeira.
Charles I (Karl I), the last Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was exiled to Madeira after the war.

First Hungarian Republic

Hungarian Democratic RepublicHungaryHungarian People's Republic
Instead, on 12 November, the day after he issued his proclamation, the independent Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed, followed by the proclamation of the First Hungarian Republic on 16 November.
That day, King Charles IV appointed the revolt's leader, Mihály Károlyi, as Hungarian prime minister.

Personal union

personalUnionunited
On 31 October, Hungary officially ended the personal union between Austria and Hungary.

Edward Lisle Strutt

Edward StruttLt-Col. Edward Lisle StruttStrutt
An uneasy truce-like situation ensued and persisted until 23 to 24 March 1919, when Charles left for Switzerland, escorted by the commander of the small British guard detachment at Eckartsau, Lieutenant Colonel Edward Lisle Strutt.
Strutt commanded a detachment of soldiers from the Honourable Artillery Company that escorted the family of Charles I, the last Austro-Hungarian Emperor-King, to safety in Switzerland in 1919, after having served as the family's protector at Eckartsau on the personal initiative of King George V.

Funchal

Funchal, MadeiraFunchal, Portugalhistory
The couple and their children, who joined them on 2 February 1922, lived first at Funchal at the Villa Vittoria, next to Reid's Hotel, and later moved to Quinta do Monte.
A few of the notable visitors to the region were Elisabeth, empress of Austria-Hungary, 1837–1898 (who travelled to the island for leisure and health), Charles I of Austria (who was exiled), Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary, 1867–1918, Polish Field Marshal Józef Piłsudski in order to recuperate his health, Winston Churchill (who travelled there on holidays and was known to have painted a few paintings during his visits) and Fulgencio Batista (who stopped over en route to his exile in Spain).