Portrait by Titian, probably with Lambert Sustris, 1548
First to reign
Charlemagne
25 December AD 800 – 28 January AD 814
The entrance gate to the Prinsenhof (Dutch; literally "Princes' court") in Ghent, where Charles was born.
Coats of arms of prince electors surround the imperial coat of arms; from a 1545 armorial. Electors voted in an Imperial Diet for a new Holy Roman Emperor.
A painting by Bernhard Strigel representing the extended Habsburg family, with a young Charles in the middle.
Depiction of Charlemagne in a 12th-century stained glass window, Strasbourg Cathedral, now at Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame.
A portrait by Bernard van Orley, 1519. The insignia of the Order of the Golden Fleece are prominently displayed.
Illustration of the election of Henry VII (27 November 1308) showing (left to right) the Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia (Codex Balduini Trevirorum, c. 1340).
A Portrait of Charles V with a Dog by Jakob Seisenegger, 1532
The Dominions of the Habsburgs at the time of the abdication of Charles V in 1556
The Palace of Coudenberg in Brussels from a 17th-century painting, before it burnt down in 1731. Brussels served as the main seat of the Imperial court of Charles V in the Low Countries.
The city of Toledo served as the main seat of the Imperial court of Charles V in Castile.
The exterior of the Palace of Charles V in Granada was built upon his wedding to Isabel of Portugal in 1526.
Pope Clement VII and Emperor Charles V on horseback under a canopy, by Jacopo Ligozzi, c. undefined 1580. It depicts the entry of the Pope and the Emperor into Bologna in 1530, when Charles was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Clement VII.
A panorama of Augsburg, the main German seat of the Imperial court and the location of many of the Imperial Diets presided over by Charles V. A hand-coloured woodcut from the Nuremberg Chronicle.
Francis I and Charles V made peace at the Truce of Nice in 1538. Francis actually refused to meet Charles in person, and the treaty was signed in separate rooms.
Charles V in the 1550s, after Titian
Summons for Martin Luther to appear at the Diet of Worms, signed by Charles V. The text on the left was on the reverse side.
16th-century perception of German soldiers during Charles's reign (1525) portrayed in the manuscript "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel". Painted by Lucas d'Heere in the second half of the 16th century. Preserved in the Ghent University Library.
Isabella of Portugal, Charles's wife. Portrait by Titian, 1548
Emperor Charles V and Empress Isabella. Peter Paul Rubens after Titian, 17th century
The bronze effigies of Charles and Isabella at the Basilica in El Escorial.
Titian's La Gloria, one of the several paintings commissioned by Charles V in memory of his wife Isabella
The children of Phillip and Joanna
In Allegory on the abdication of Emperor Charles V in Brussels, Frans Francken the Younger depicts Charles V in the allegorical act of dividing the entire world between Philip II of Spain and Emperor Ferdinand I.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V.
Deathbed of the emperor at the Monastery of Yuste, Cáceres
A miniature representing Charles V enthroned over his enemies (from left): Suleiman, Pope Clement VII, Francis I, the Duke of Cleves, the Duke of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse. In reality, Charles was never able to completely defeat them.
Equestrian armour of Emperor Charles V. Piece drawn from the collection of the Royal Armoury of Madrid
Statue of Charles V in Granada, Spain
Escutcheon of Charles V, watercolour, John Singer Sargent, 1912. Metropolitan Museum of Art
{{Center|Margaret of Parma}}
{{Center|John of Austria}}
Coat of arms of King Charles I of Spain before becoming emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor.
Arms of Charles, Infante of Spain, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, KG at the time of his installation as a knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.
Variant of the Royal Bend of Castile used by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519 to 1556, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon) from 1516 to 1556, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506 to 1555.

- Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V was the last to be crowned by the pope in 1530.

- Holy Roman Emperor
Portrait by Titian, probably with Lambert Sustris, 1548

8 related topics

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Portrait by Bernhard Strigel, c. undefined 1500

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

Portrait by Bernhard Strigel, c. undefined 1500
Frederick III and Eleanor of Portugal.
Eleanor and Maximilian, from Empress Eleanor's Book of Hours. The mother fed him knights' tales, encouraged him to fence, dance and hunt, while the father wanted Maximilian to be good at Latin.
Weisskunig, garden scene with Maximilian and Mary in Hortus conclusius. Maximilian wrote, "Had we but peace, we would sit here as in a rose garden."
Maximilian offers Mary of Burgundy an engagement ring. Miniature in a medieval manuscript copy of the Excellent Chronicle of Flanders by Anthonis de Roovere. Ca. 1485-1515. (Bruges Public Library Ms. 437)
The Cranenburg House in Bruges, a favorite residence of Mary and Maximilian, near which he usually organized jousting tournaments, and also the place in which he was imprisoned for four weeks in 1488. Ca. 1905.
The Judgment of Cambyses, Bruges's symbolic apology to Maximilian. In a twist, the corrupted judge had the likeness of Maximilian's hated official Peter Lanchals, who was executed by Bruges. Painted by Gerard David. Previously, when Maximilian was moved to Jean Gros's mansion, his second prison, Bruges hired David to paint the strong iron gratings, added to the windows to prevent escape, in order to amuse the prisoner, whom they tried to cheer up in various ways.
Philip I of Castile and Margaret of Austria, usually attributed to Pieter van Coninxloo (1460–1513), circa 1494
Succession wars in Hungary after the death of Matthias Corvinus (Vladislas marked dark red)
Siege of Kufstein, 1504
Maximilian I, after 1504, by unknown artist in Albrecht Dürer's circle. The painting bears similarity to Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis's style.
Sallet of Maximilian I, c. 1490–95, by Lorenz Helmschmid, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Joos van Cleve - Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I, from Statutes of the Order of the Golden Fleece, as Sovereign of the Order, after 1508
Innsbruck, imperial capital under Maximilian, seat of the Hofkammer (Court Treasury) and the Court Chancery, which functioned as "the most influential body in Maximilian's government". Painting of Albrecht Dürer (1496)
Maximilian talking to German knights (depiction from the contemporary Weisskunig)
Maximilian with a map of the ten Imperial Circles. Illustration from Johann Samuel's Tromsdorff: Accurate neue und alte Geographie von ganz Teutschland, 1711.
Execution of the garrison troops after the Siege of Kufstein (1504). The garrison and its commander Hans von Pienzenau had angered Maximilian during the siege by refusing his offer of surrender and using brooms to sweep up damage caused by his cannons. Eighteen including Pienzenau were beheaded before Erich von Braunschweig, a favoured commander, pleaded for the lives of the rest. (Engraving from 1703.)
Maximilian I paying attention to an execution instead of watching Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile's betrothal, much to his son's dismay. The top right corner shows Cain and Abel. Satire against Maximilian's legal reform. Created on behalf of the councilors of Augsburg. Plate 89 of Von der Arztney bayder Glück by the Petrarcameister.
Fresco at the Fuggerhäuser on the Maximilianstraße (named after the emperor since 1957, originally named after Maximilian I of Bavaria). Description: "The council of the free imperial city paying homage to Emperor Maximilian I". RP-F-F00997-CD.
19th century reproduction (by Julien Bernard Van der Plaetsen) of a 1507 fresco depicting Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian holding the coat of arms of Burgundy. The couple stood as a pair of equals, similar to other portrayals, despite Maximilian's status as Emperor. The original work was created to celebrate Charles's status as the new Duke of Burgundy.
Illustration from Die fürstliche Chronik, or Kaiser Maximilians Geburtsspiegel by Jakob Mennel (1518). Under the outspread wings of the triple-crowned peacock was the coats of arms of 14 European kingdoms connected to the Habsburg dynasty through marriages
Emperor Maximilian I and his family; with his son Philip the Fair, his wife Mary of Burgundy, his grandsons Ferdinand I and Charles V, and Louis II of Hungary (husband of his granddaughter Mary of Austria).
Maximilian's cenotaph, Hofkirche, Innsbruck
Maximilian's death mask
The Triumphal Chariot of Maximilian I, by Albrecht Dürer. The canopy is adorned with the solar symbol and the imperial coat-of-arms. The inscription states: "That which the sun is in the heavens, the Emperor is on earth."
Albrecht Altdorfer's Der große Venezianische Krieg, which depicts the Landsknechte in Maximilian's triumphal procession — c. 1512-1515
The arsenal in Lindau. The construction started in 1507 but only finished in 1526, after Maximilian's death.
Behamisch facht (Bohemian battle) from the Weißkunig, Woodcut 175, depicting the Battle of Wenzenbach, one of the last knights' battles (1504), which was won by Maximilian and his ally Albert the Wise. In this battle, Maximilian was dragged from his horse by halberds, but rescued from being butchered by Erich von Braunschweig.
HJRK B 21 - Mechanical breastpiece used for Bundrennen, a tournament type which was probably only organized in the Imperial Court, c. 1490. Only three mechanical breastplates remain (one in Paris, two in Vienna). The breastplate was designed to carry a shield that, when hit properly, will be ejected over the jouster's head and burst apart, releasing triangle tin segments.
Maximilian armour, Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History, Belgium
Hunt of Maximilian, December, from the famous series of tapestries named Hunts of Maximilian completed in the 1530s. The boar sword (a specialized sword made for boar hunting) that Maximilian was holding was invented by him.
Maximilian's Fishing Code for Upper and Lower Austria, 1506. The species illustrated here (from left) are zingel, pike, carp, barbel, huchen, burbot, catfish and trout. Despite its disguise as a mandate (that has never been disseminated or put into practice; the content is also not consistent), this is apparently a work of art that is influenced by or tries to compete with Albrecht Dürer's naturalist drawings. The Chancellery notation suggests the emperor's personal involvement in developing the document.
Freydal, fol.164. A post-tournament festivity: Grotesque dancers performed a moresca while Freydal, in a mask and holding torches, observed them.
Page from Theuerdank, Second Edition. 1519: Coloured by Leonard Beck. Chapter 80: Maximilian's horse is hit by a cannonball and falls.
Ambraserheldenbuch. Fol. 149r. The large initial marks the start of the 10th "Aventiure" of Kudrun.
Hans Burgkmair, The Imperial Eagle, 1507, NGA 39804. The Imperial Eagle is sheltering Maximilian, presented here as a seated Apollo, the Muses and other figures. This is considered an allegory, suggested by Konrad Celtis (bottom figure), of the emperor, the University of Vienna and the Empire. Apollo was the god often associated with the emperor by many artists and humanists, who designed a mission for him not only as the promoter of arts and sciences but also in the realm of politics. Under the wings is the scientific model of the University of Vienna, designed by Celtis.
Hans Burgkmair, ‘’Weisskunig’’, The young White King learns black magic.
Black Hours of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, M 1856, now in the Austrian National Library in Vienna (Codex Vindobon. 1856). The book was made for Maximilian's future father-in-law Charles the Bold in 1466 by Bruges, then given to Galeazzo Maria Sforza likely in 1475–76 during his and Charles's brief alliance, became Bianca Maria Sforza's property, and was finally brought to Maximilian's library after Bianca's and Maximilian's marriage in 1494.
Margarita philosophica by Gregor Reisch (1504)
Universalis Cosmographia, Waldseemüller's 1507 world map which was the first to show the Americas separate from Asia
Ensisheim meteorite, National Museum of Natural History, France
Paul Hofhaimer playing the Apfelregal, detail from Emperor Maximilian hearing Mass, by Hans Weiditz, 1518.
De recta Paschae celebratione by Paul of Middelburg, 1513.
Albrecht Dürer - Melencolia I, the "ripest and most mysterious fruit of the cosmological culture of the age of Maximilian I", according to Aby Warburg.
Part of the Tabula Peutingeriana, one of three Roman maps to have survived to this day, discovered (possibly stolen) by Conrad Celtis who bequeathed it to Konrad Peutinger, who then donated it to Maximilian.
Die Polygraphiae is the first printed work on the topic of cryptography, and also the first comprehensive work on the subject. Title page: Trithemius was presenting his work to Maximilian.
Illustration from Historia Friderici et Maximiliani, 1513–14. The 1462 siege of the Vienna citadel, in which the imperial family resided, by Albert VI, Frederick III's younger brother and Maximilian's uncle.
Assumption of the Virgin from the Berlin Book of hours of Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett Handschrift 78 B 12 (Photo Credit: Bildarchive Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY). "And a great sign appeared in heaven: A woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars."
The Triumphal Arch
Albrecht Dürer - Feast of the Rosary, 1506. Dürer started the work for the German-speaking community of Venice, who were united as a Fraternity of the Rosary. The figure of the Virgin alludes to Mary of Burgundy while the infant Jesus is associated with Philip the Fair. Here the Wise King, or White King, claimed his legitimacy directly from the omnipotent Queen of Heaven, rather than through the mediation of the Church and the Pope.
League of Cambrai (1508) as depicted on a bas-relief in the cenotaph
Innsbruck's Golden Roof
Courtyard of Innsbruck Castle, Albrecht Dürer
Franz von Taxis received the Postmaster order from Frederick III, Maximilian's father
Commemoration print of Maximilian, a flyer created by Hans Weiditz and issued in 1519 after Maximilian's death.
Maximilian and Mary's meeting in Ghent, 1477, monumental painting by Anton Petter and the showpiece of the 2022 Uitbundig Verleden exhibition at the Hof van Busleyden, that attracted top diplomats from Belgium, the Netherlands and Austria. Austrian Ambassador Elisabeth Kornfeind comments that the wedding was the moment "the ties between our countries were formed."
Young Maximilian, portrait at the Ancestral Hall (Ahnensaal), Hofburg.
Maximilian idealized as Saint George, by Lucas Cranach the Elder (c. 1472 – 16 October 1553). Ca. 1515.
16th century stained glass window in St George's Church (Georgskapelle): Philip the Handsome, Maximilian I, Bianca Maria Sforza, Mary of Burgundy with Archduchess Margaret (left to right)
Maximilian in the last year of his life, holding his personal emblem, a pomegranate. Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519.
Habsburg realms (green) under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
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Wartime Triumphs
Musikantendarstellungen
Cart with Horn Musicians
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Hungarian combatants, escort of Emperor Maximilian I
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Coat of arms of Maximilian I of Habsburg as Holy Roman Emperor
Coat of arms of Maximilian I of Habsburg as King of the Romans.

Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death.

Through marriage of his son Philip the Handsome to eventual queen Joanna of Castile in 1498, Maximilian helped to establish the Habsburg dynasty in Spain, which allowed his grandson Charles to hold the thrones of both Castile and Aragon.

Iron Crown of Lombardy

King of Italy

The title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

The title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

Iron Crown of Lombardy

With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages.

The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century.

The royal Throne of Charlemagne in Aachen Cathedral

King of the Romans

The title used by the German king following his election by the princes from the reign of Henry II (1002–1024, emperor from 1014) onward.

The title used by the German king following his election by the princes from the reign of Henry II (1002–1024, emperor from 1014) onward.

The royal Throne of Charlemagne in Aachen Cathedral
Coat of Arms of Joseph II, the last King of the Romans
Detail of the imperial coronation mantle, drawing from 1857
Armor of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, created when he was still King of the Romans in 1549.
Napoleon II, 1811

The title predominantly amounted to being the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, a title long dependent upon coronation by the pope.

Consequently, among his successors only Sigismund and Frederick III were still crowned Emperors in Rome and in 1530 Charles V was the last king to receive the Imperial Crown at the hands of the Pope (in Bologna).

Portrait by Hans Bocksberger der Ältere

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

Portrait by Hans Bocksberger der Ältere
Ferdinand as a young boy
Arms of Ferdinand, Infante of Spain and Archduke of Austria, KG, at the time of his installation as a knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter
Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans
Armor of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, created when he was still King of the Romans in 1549.
Coat of arms of Ferdinand I as King of the Romans, 1536, Hofburg palace, Vienna
Posthumous engraving of Ferdinand by Martin Rota, 1575
The Renaissance coin

Ferdinand I (Fernando I; 10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1556, King of Bohemia, Hungary, and Croatia from 1526, and Archduke of Austria from 1521 until his death in 1564.

Before his accession as Emperor, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

The Habsburg dominions around 1200 in the area of modern-day Switzerland are shown as, among the houses of, and

House of Habsburg

Austrian and Spanish dynasty which was once one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium.

Austrian and Spanish dynasty which was once one of the most prominent royal houses of Europe in the 2nd millennium.

The Habsburg dominions around 1200 in the area of modern-day Switzerland are shown as, among the houses of, and
Map showing the constituent lands of the Archduchy of Austria: the Duchy of Austria, comprising Upper Austria centered on Linz, and Lower Austria centered on Vienna; Inner Austria, centered on Graz, comprising the duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, and the lands of the Austrian Littoral; and Further Austria, comprising mostly the Sundgau territory with the town of Belfort in southern Alsace, the adjacent Breisgau region east of the Rhine, and usually the County of Tyrol. The area between Further Austria and the Duchy of Austria was the Archbishopric of Salzburg.
Habsburg lands (in green), following the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547; excludes Holy Roman Empire, and the Spanish colonial empire
The Iberian Union in 1598, under Philip II, King of Spain and Portugal
The Spanish and Austrian Habsburg European lands, ca 1700
Profile portrait of Leopold I highlighting his "Habsburg jaw", Deutsches Historisches Museum
An ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910
"PLUS OULTRE", motto of Charles V in French, on a ceiling of the Palace of Charles V in Granada
Arms of the Counts of Habsburgs. The Habsburgs all but abandoned this for the arms of Austria. It only reappeared in their triarch family arms in 1805.
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Coat of Arms of the Mexican Empire adopted by Maximilian I in 1864
Current personal arms of the head of the house of Habsburg, claiming only the personal title of Archduke

The family split several times into parallel branches, most consequentially in the mid-16th century between its Spanish and Austrian branches following the abdication of Charles V.

The Habsburg dynasty achieved its highest position when Charles V was elected Holy Roman Emperor.

The imperial prince-electors
left to right: Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia (Codex Balduini Trevirorum, c. 1340)

Prince-elector

The imperial prince-electors
left to right: Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia (Codex Balduini Trevirorum, c. 1340)
Choosing the king. Above: the three ecclesiastical princes choosing the king, pointing at him. Middle: the Count Palatine of the Rhine hands over a golden bowl, acting as a servant. Behind him, the Duke of Saxony with his marshal's staff and the Margrave of Brandenburg bringing a bowl of warm water, as a valet. Below, the new king in front of the great men of the empire (Heidelberg Sachsenspiegel, around 1300)
The Arms of Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria, Arch-Steward and Prince-Elector
The Arms of George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland and Elector (later King) of Hanover
Coats of arms representing the seven original electors with the figure of Germania. Original colours were vivid. Germania's gown was gold, not beige, and the blue-grey was purple.  Also, the browns were painted as vivid red and the muted grey in Saxony's arms was a brilliant green.
Coats of arms of prince electors surround the Holy Roman Emperor's; from flags book of Jacob Köbel (1545). Left to right: Cologne, Bohemia, Brandenburg, Saxony, the Palatinate, Trier, Mainz
The emperor Maximilian surrounded by shield of electorates
Mainz
Trier
Cologne
Kingdom of Bohemia. The white lion bears in his right paw a simple crown symbolizing the King of Bohemia as imperial Arch Cupbearer presenting it to the Emperor.  Restored directly from Medieval, hand-drawn armorials.{{efn|name=armorial Frederick III}}{{efn|name=armorial Maximilian I}}{{efn|name=Kurrent}}
The Palatinate was an electorate until 1777, when the Elector acceded to Bavaria. The office of Arch-Treasurer transferred to Hanover.
Saxony
Brandenburg
Bavaria was granted electoral dignity by Ferdinand II in 1623, removing the dignity from the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
Hanover (Brunswick-Lüneburg), made an elector by Leopold I in 1692 as a reward for aid given in the War of the Grand Alliance. Later, the ceremonial office of Chief Treasurer was transferred here from the Palatinate.
In 1777, the number of Electors dropped from nine to eight, until 1803, when Württemberg was raised to an electorate by Napoleon, while the prince himself was elevated from Standard-Bearer ({{lang|de|Bannerherr}}) to Arch-Standardbearer.
Hesse-Cassel was added in 1803.
Principality of Regensburg was added in 1803, after the annexation of Mainz by the French.
Grand Duchy of Salzburg was added in 1803. After it was mediatized to Austria in 1805, its electoral vote was transferred to Würzburg. Salzburg and Würzburg were ruled by the same person, Ferdinand III.
Grand Duchy of Würzburg
Margraviate of Baden was added in 1803.

The prince-electors (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, , Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

Charles V (elected in 1519) was the last emperor to be crowned (1530); his successors were elected emperors by the electoral college, each being titled "Elected Emperor of the Romans" (erwählter Römischer Kaiser; electus Romanorum imperator).

Holy Roman Empire

Political entity in Western, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Political entity in Western, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

The change of territory of the Holy Roman Empire superimposed on present-day state borders
The double-headed eagle with coats of arms of individual states, the symbol of the Holy Roman Empire (painting from 1510)
The change of territory of the Holy Roman Empire superimposed on present-day state borders
A map of the Carolingian Empire (a.k.a. Francia, the Frankish Empire) within Europe circa 814 CE.
The Holy Roman Empire during the Ottonian Dynasty
The Holy Roman Empire between 972 and 1032
The Hohenstaufen-ruled Holy Roman Empire and Kingdom of Sicily. Imperial and directly held Hohenstaufen lands in the Empire are shown in bright yellow.
The Reichssturmfahne, a military banner during the 13th and early 14th centuries
Lands of the Bohemian Crown since the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV
An illustration from Schedelsche Weltchronik depicting the structure of the Reich: The Holy Roman Emperor is sitting; on his right are three ecclesiastics; on his left are four secular electors.
The Holy Roman Empire when the Golden Bull of 1356 was signed
Innsbruck, most important political centre under Maximilian, seat of the Hofkammer (Court Treasury) and the Court Chancery, which functioned as "the most influential body in Maximilian's government". Painting of Albrecht Dürer (1496)
Maximilian I paying attention to an execution instead of watching the betrothal of his son Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile. The top right corner shows Cain and Abel. Satire against Maximilian's legal reform, associated with imperial tyranny. Created on behalf of the councilors of Augsburg. Plate 89 of Von der Arztney bayder Glück by the Petrarcameister.
Personification of the Reich as Germania by Jörg Kölderer, 1512. The "German woman", wearing her hair loose and a crown, sitting on the Imperial throne, corresponds both to the self-image of Maximilian I as King of Germany and the formula Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (omitting other nations). While usually depicted during the Middle Age as subordinate to both imperial power and Italia or Gallia, she now takes central stage in Maximilian's Triumphal Procession, being carried in front of Roma.
The Holy Roman Empire during the 16th century
Carta itineraria europae by Waldseemüller, 1520 (dedicated to Emperor Charles V)
The Holy Roman Empire around 1600, superimposed over current state borders
Religion in the Holy Roman Empire on the eve of the Thirty Years' War
The Empire after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
The Empire on the eve of the French Revolution, 1789
The crown of the Holy Roman Empire (2nd half of the 10th century), now held in the Schatzkammer (Vienna)
The Seven Prince-electors (Codex Balduini Trevirorum, c. 1340)
A map of the Empire showing division into Circles in 1512
Vienna, circa 1580 by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg
Front page of the Peace of Augsburg, which laid the legal groundwork for two co-existing religious confessions (Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism) in the German-speaking states of the Holy Roman Empire

Otto III's former mentor Antipope John XVI briefly held Rome, until the Holy Roman Emperor seized the city.

In 1516, Ferdinand II of Aragon, grandfather of the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, died.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)

Reformation

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)
Martin Luther's 1534 Bible translated into German. Luther's translation influenced the development of the current Standard German.
Erasmus was a Catholic priest who inspired some of the Protestant reformers
Jiří Třanovský (1592–1637), the "Luther of the Slavs" who was active in Bohemia, Moravia, Poland, and Slovakia (Upper Hungary)
Huldrych Zwingli launched the Reformation in Switzerland. Portrait by Hans Asper.
John Calvin was one of the leading figures of the Reformation. His legacy remains in a variety of churches.
The seal of the Diocese of Turku (Finland) during the 16th and 17th centuries featured the finger of St Henry. The post-Reformation diocese included the relic of a pre-Reformation saint in its seal.
Henry VIII broke England's ties with the Roman Catholic Church, becoming the sole head of the English Church.
Thomas Cranmer proved essential in the development of the English Reformation.
Oliver Cromwell was a devout Puritan and military leader, who became Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
John Knox was a leading figure in the Scottish Reformation
Although a Catholic clergyman himself, Cardinal Richelieu allied France with Protestant states.
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre, painting by François Dubois
Contemporary illustration of the auto-da-fé of Valladolid, in which fourteen Protestants were burned at the stake for their faith, on 21 May 1559
Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.
Stephen Bocskay prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from imposing Catholicism on Hungarians.
A devout Catholic, Mary I of England started the first Plantations of Ireland, which, ironically, soon came to be associated with Protestantism.
Waldensian symbol Lux lucet in tenebris ("Light glows in the darkness")
Jan Łaski sought unity between various Christian Churches in the Commonwealth, and participated in the English Reformation.
Reformation in Moldova
Primož Trubar, a Lutheran reformer in Slovenia
Religious fragmentation in Central Europe at the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618).
The Reformation at its peak, superimposed on modern European borders
The Reformation & the Counter-Reformation—both at their end—and superimposed on modern European borders
Treaty of Westphalia allowed Calvinism to be freely exercised, reducing the need for Crypto-Calvinism
Katharina von Bora played a role in shaping social ethics during the Reformation.

Charles V did not wish to see Spain or the rest of Habsburg Europe divided, and in light of continual threat from the Ottomans, preferred to see the Roman Catholic Church reform itself from within.

The edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.