Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VEmperor Charles VCharles I of SpainCharles IHoly Roman Emperor Charles VCharles V of SpainCarlos VCharlesCarlos IKarl V
Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon, as Charles I) from 1516, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506.wikipedia
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House of Habsburg

HabsburgHabsburgsHabsburg dynasty
Head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe included the Holy Roman Empire extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and the burgundian Low Countries, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. Born in Flanders to Philip the Handsome of the Austrian House of Habsburg (son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Mary of Burgundy) and Joanna the Mad of the Spanish House of Trastámara (daughter of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon), Charles inherited all of his family dominions at a young age due to the premature death of his father and the mental illness of his mother.
From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches.

Habsburg Spain

SpainSpanishSpanish Habsburgs
Head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe included the Holy Roman Empire extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and the burgundian Low Countries, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia.
The Habsburg rulers (chiefly Carlos I and Felipe II) reached the zenith of their influence and power.

The empire on which the sun never sets

The sun never sets on the British Empirea vast Empire, on which the sun never setsempire on which the sun never sets
The personal union of the European and American territories of Charles V was the first collection of realms labelled "the empire on which the sun never sets".
It was originally used for the universal monarchy of the European, American and Asian dominions under Emperor Charles V.

Holy Roman Emperor

EmperorHoly Roman EmperorsImperial
Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon, as Charles I) from 1516, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506.
Charles V was the last to be crowned by the pope in 1530.

German colonization of the Americas

Hanauish IndiesGermanKlein Venedig
Furthermore, his reign encompassed both the long-lasting Spanish and short-lived German colonizations of the Americas.
Klein-Venedig ("Little Venice"; also the etymology of the name "Venezuela") was the most significant part of the German colonization of the Americas, from 1528 to 1546, in which the Augsburg-based Welser banking family was given the colonial rights by Emperor Charles V, who was also King of Spain and owed debts to them for his Imperial election.

Ferdinand II of Aragon

FerdinandFerdinand IIKing Ferdinand
Born in Flanders to Philip the Handsome of the Austrian House of Habsburg (son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Mary of Burgundy) and Joanna the Mad of the Spanish House of Trastámara (daughter of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon), Charles inherited all of his family dominions at a young age due to the premature death of his father and the mental illness of his mother.
At Ferdinand's death Joanna's son, Ferdinand's grandson, Charles I, who was co-ruler in name over all the several Iberian kingdoms except for Portugal, succeeded him, making Charles the first King of Spain.

Monarchy of Spain

King of SpainSpanish CrownKing
Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519, King of Spain (Castile and Aragon, as Charles I) from 1516, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506.
In the early 16th century, the Spanish monarchy controlled several territories in Europe under the Habsburg King Charles I (also Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V), son of Queen Joanna of Castile.

Martin Luther

LutherLutheranLuther, Martin
Crowned King in Germany, Charles sided with Pope Leo X and declared Martin Luther an outlaw at the Diet of Worms (1521).
His refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor.

Italian Wars

Great Italian WarsItalian campaignsHabsburg-Valois War
Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy and spent most of his life defending the integrity of the Holy Roman Empire from the Protestant Reformation, the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, and a series of wars with France.
War resumed in 1521 as Pope Leo X and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (simultaneously ruler of Austria, the Spanish kingdoms, and the Low Countries) expelled French forces from Milan.

Battle of Pavia

PaviaBattle of Pavia (1525)defeated and captured Francis at Pavia
The same year Francis I of France, surrounded by the Habsburg possessions, started a conflict in Lombardy that lasted until the Battle of Pavia (1525) led to his temporary imprisonment.
The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–26 between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor as well as ruler of Spain, Austria, the Low Countries, and the Two Sicilies.

Sack of Rome (1527)

Sack of RomeSack of Rome in 1527sacked Rome
In 1527, the Protestant affair re-emerged as Rome was sacked by mutinous imperial soldiers of Lutheran faith.
The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out in Rome, then part of the Papal States, by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Ferdinand Magellan

MagellanFernão de MagalhãesFernando de Magallanes
Charles ratified the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires by the Spanish Conquistadores Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro, the establishment of Klein-Venedig by the German Welser family in search of the legendary El Dorado, and the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan around the globe.
After King Manuel I of Portugal refused to support his plan to reach India by a new route, by sailing around the southern end of the South American continent, he was eventually selected by King Charles I of Spain to search for a westward route to the Maluku Islands (the "Spice Islands").

Klein-Venedig

colonized by the GermansGerman VenezuelaWelser concession, also known as “Little Venice” (Klein-Venedig)
Charles ratified the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires by the Spanish Conquistadores Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro, the establishment of Klein-Venedig by the German Welser family in search of the legendary El Dorado, and the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan around the globe.
Klein-Venedig (Little Venice) was the most significant territory of the German colonization of the Americas, from 1528 to 1546, in which the Welser banking family of the Free Imperial City of Augsburg obtained colonial rights in the Province of Venezuela in return for debts owed by Emperor Charles V, who was also King of Spain.

Algiers expedition (1541)

Algiers expeditionAlgiersExpedition against Algiers
Nevertheless, the Algiers expedition and the loss of Buda in the early 40s frustrated his anti-Ottoman policies.
The 1541 Algiers expedition occurred when Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire attempted to lead an amphibious attack against the Ottoman Empire's stronghold of Algiers, in modern Algeria.

Diet of Worms

Edict of WormsWormsconfrontation
Crowned King in Germany, Charles sided with Pope Leo X and declared Martin Luther an outlaw at the Diet of Worms (1521).
The Diet of Worms 1521 (Reichstag zu Worms ) was an imperial diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire called by Emperor Charles V.

Francis I of France

Francis IFrançois IKing Francis I
The same year Francis I of France, surrounded by the Habsburg possessions, started a conflict in Lombardy that lasted until the Battle of Pavia (1525) led to his temporary imprisonment.
He was also known as François du Grand Nez ("Francis of the Large Nose"), the Grand Colas, and the Roi-Chevalier (the "Knight-King") for his personal involvement in the wars against his great rival Emperor Charles V, who was also King of Spain.

Schmalkaldic War

Smalkaldic WarSchmalkald Wara war
The refusal of the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League to take part in the Council led to a war, won by Charles V with the imprisonment of the Protestant princes.
The Schmalkaldic War (Schmalkaldischer Krieg) refers to the short period of violence from 1546 until 1547 between the forces of Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (simultaneously King Charles I of Spain), commanded by the Duke of Alba and the Duke of Saxony, and the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League within the domains of the Holy Roman Empire.

King of Italy

KingItalyKings of Italy
After ordering the retreat of the troops from the Papal States, Charles V defended Vienna from the Turks and obtained the coronation as King in Italy by Pope Clement VII.
The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century.

Conquest of Tunis (1535)

Conquest of TunisTunis1535
In 1535, he annexed the vacant Duchy of Milan and captured Tunis.
The Conquest of Tunis in 1535 was an attack on Tunis, then under the control of the Ottoman Empire, by the Habsburg Empire of Charles V and its allies.

Flanders

FlemishVlaanderenFlemings
Born in Flanders to Philip the Handsome of the Austrian House of Habsburg (son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Mary of Burgundy) and Joanna the Mad of the Spanish House of Trastámara (daughter of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon), Charles inherited all of his family dominions at a young age due to the premature death of his father and the mental illness of his mother.
In 1500, Charles V was born in Ghent.

Pope Clement VII

Clement VIIGiulio de' MediciGiulio di Giuliano de' Medici
After ordering the retreat of the troops from the Papal States, Charles V defended Vienna from the Turks and obtained the coronation as King in Italy by Pope Clement VII.
Inheriting daunting challenges, including Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation in Northern Europe; a vast power struggle in Italy between Europe’s two most powerful kings, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Francis I of France, each of whom demanded that the Pope choose a side; and Turkish invasions of Eastern Europe led by Suleiman the Magnificent; Clement's problems were exacerbated by King Henry VIII of England’s contentious divorce, resulting in England breaking away from the Catholic Church; and in 1527, souring relations with Emperor Charles V leading to the violent Sack of Rome, during which the Pope was imprisoned.

Peace of Augsburg

Augsburg SettlementTreaty of AugsburgReligious Peace of Augsburg
After thirty-five years of incessant warfare and facing the prospect of an alliance between all of his enemies, Charles V conceded the Peace of Augsburg and abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications in 1556 that divided his hereditary and imperial domains between the Spanish Habsburgs headed by his son Philip II of Spain and the Austrian Habsburgs headed by his brother Ferdinand, who was Archduke of Austria in Charles' name since 1521 and the designated successor as emperor since 1531.
The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Schmalkaldic League, signed in September 1555 at the imperial city of Augsburg.

Welser

Welser familya rich family of the old German nobilityMarkus Welser
Charles ratified the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires by the Spanish Conquistadores Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro, the establishment of Klein-Venedig by the German Welser family in search of the legendary El Dorado, and the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan around the globe.
Welser was a German banking and merchant family, originally a patrician family from Augsburg, that rose to great prominence in international high finance in the 16th century as financiers of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Philip II of Spain

Philip IIKing Philip IIPhilip
After thirty-five years of incessant warfare and facing the prospect of an alliance between all of his enemies, Charles V conceded the Peace of Augsburg and abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications in 1556 that divided his hereditary and imperial domains between the Spanish Habsburgs headed by his son Philip II of Spain and the Austrian Habsburgs headed by his brother Ferdinand, who was Archduke of Austria in Charles' name since 1521 and the designated successor as emperor since 1531.
The son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Spanish kingdoms Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" ("Philip the Prudent") in the Spanish kingdoms; his empire included territories on every continent then known to Europeans, including his namesake the Philippines.

Pope Paul III

Paul IIIAlessandro FarneseCardinal Farnese
Meanwhile, Charles V had come to an agreement with Pope Paul III for the organisation of the Council of Trent (1545).
His pontificate initiated the Counter-Reformation with the Council of Trent in 1545, as well as the Wars of religion with Emperor Charles V's military campaigns against the Protestants in Germany.