Charyapada

CharyapadAryadevCharjapadCharyageetiCharyapadasChôrjapôdô
The Charyapada is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.wikipedia
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Bengali literature

BengaliliteratureBangla literature
The credit of discovering Charyapad goes to Haraprasad Shastri, a 19th-century Sanskrit scholar and historian of Bengali literature, who during his third visit to Nepal in 1907 chanced upon 50 verses at the Royal library of the Nepalese kings.
The earliest extant work in Bengali literature is the Charyapada, a collection of Buddhist mystic songs dating back to the 10th and 11th centuries.

Pala Empire

PalaPala dynastyPalas
The Charyapada is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.
They laid the basis for the Bengali language, including its first literary work, the Charyapada.

Hara Prasad Shastri

Haraprasad ShastriHaraprasad SastriM. M. Pandit Hara Prasad Shastri
The credit of discovering Charyapad goes to Haraprasad Shastri, a 19th-century Sanskrit scholar and historian of Bengali literature, who during his third visit to Nepal in 1907 chanced upon 50 verses at the Royal library of the Nepalese kings. A palm-leaf manuscript of the Charyapada was rediscovered in the early 20th century by Haraprasad Shastri at the Nepal Royal Court Library.
He is most known for discovering the Charyapada, the earliest known examples of Bengali literature.

Assam

Assam, IndiaAssam StateAssamese
The Charyapada is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.
Traces of the language are found in many poems by Luipa, Sarahapa, and others, in Charyapada (c.

Songs of realization

Caryagitidohadohas
The Charyapada is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.
A renowned collection of Buddhist caryagiti, or mystical songs, is the Charyapada, a palm-leaf manuscript of the 8th-12th century text having been found in the early 20th century in Nepal.

Abahattha

AbahattaApabhramsa Avahatta
It was written in an Abahatta that was the ancestor of Assamese, Bengali, Sylheti, Oriya, Maithilli and many other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages between the 8th and 12th centuries and it is said to be the oldest collection of verses written in those languages.
Many poets composed both in Abahatta and a modern language such as the Charyapada poets, who wrote dohas or short religious verses in Abahatta; the Maithili poet Vidyapati wrote his poem Kirtilata in Abahatta.

Prabodh Chandra Bagchi

P. C. BagchiBagchi, P. C.Prabodh Chandra
Later Prabodhchandra Bagchi published a manuscript of a Tibetan translation containing 50 verses.
In 1929 and 1930 he was sent to Nepal again to carry on his research from the Chinese and Tibetan manuscripts on Tantrik Buddhism(Vajrayana), Buddhist Siddhacharyas and Charyagiti(Charyapada) and Dohakosa (Dohakosa of Tillopada and Sarahapada).

Bengal

Bengal regionBengal, IndiaBengali
The Charyapada is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.
Bengal has a long tradition in folk literature, evidenced by the Chôrjapôdô, Mangalkavya, Shreekrishna Kirtana, Maimansingha Gitika or Thakurmar Jhuli.

Lawapa

KambalapadaKambalaKambalapa
Bhattacharya, while discussing ancient Bengali literature, proffers that Lawapa composed the Kambalagītika ( "Lawapa's Song") and a few songs of realization in the Charyapada.

Saraha

SarahpaSarahapaSarahapada
Pada (verses) 22, 32, 38 and 39 of Caryagītikośa (or Charyapada) are assigned to him.

Luipa

LauhityapadaLuipāda
Luipa was from Kamarupa and wrote two charyas.
The first Pada of the Charyapada was also attributed to Luipa and in its commentary in Sanskrit, Munidatta mentions him as the Adisiddhacharya.

Muhammad Shahidullah

Dr. Muhammad ShahidullahDr. ShaheedullahDr.Muhammad Shahidullah
However, Muhammad Shahidullah was of the opinion that Charyapada dates back to earlier time.
He earned his PhD degree from Sorbonne University in 1928 for his research on the dialects of the Charyapada.

Odia literature

OriyaOriya literatureOraya
The poets of Charyapada prominently are from this region and their thought and writing style has influenced the poems in early Odia literature which is evidently prominent in the 16th century Odia poetry written majorly in Panchasakha period.
The beginnings of Odia poetry coincide with the development of Charyapada or Caryagiti, a literature started by Vajrayana Buddhist poets.

Kukkuripa

Kukkuripāda
Shabarpa, Kukkuripa and Bhusukupa were born in different parts of Bengal.
Kukkuripa was known for his tantric songs of realization and three of his verses appear in the Charyapada, a collection of songs from 8-12th Century India.

Mahasiddha

MahasiddhasmahāsiddhaMahāsiddhas
The 47 verses of this manuscript were composed by 22 of the Mahasiddhas (750 and 1150 CE), or Siddhacharyas, whose names are mentioned at the beginning of each pada (except the first Pada).

Vajrayana

Vajrayana BuddhismTantric Buddhismtantric
The Charyapada is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.

Tantra

TantricTantrismTantrik
The Charyapada is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.

Bihar

Bihar stateBihar, IndiaState of Bihar
The Charyapada is a collection of mystical poems, songs of realization in the Vajrayana tradition of Buddhism from the tantric tradition during the Pala Empire in Ancient Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.

Ganachakra

Ganacakratsogconsumption
Miranda Shaw describes how 'songs of realization were an element of the ritual gathering of practitioners in a ganachakra: "The feast culminates in the performance of tantric dances and music, that must never be disclosed to outsiders. The revellers may also improvise "songs of realization" (caryagiti) to express their heightened clarity and blissful raptures in spontaneous verse."

Nepal

Federal Democratic Republic of NepalNepaleseNepali
The credit of discovering Charyapad goes to Haraprasad Shastri, a 19th-century Sanskrit scholar and historian of Bengali literature, who during his third visit to Nepal in 1907 chanced upon 50 verses at the Royal library of the Nepalese kings.

Twilight language

secretcode-languageSandhya bhasa
Written in a language often referred to as sāndhyabhāṣa or twilight language, a semantic predecessor of today's Bengali, the collection which are essentially Buddhist mystical songs came to be called Charyapada and also Chayagiti by some.

The Asiatic Society

Asiatic SocietyAsiatic Society of BengalJournal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal
Shastri at that time was a librarian of the Asiatic Society in Calcutta, and was engaged in a self-assigned mission to trace and track ancient Bengali manuscripts.

Suniti Kumar Chatterji

Suniti Kumar ChatterjeeSuniti Kumar ChattopadhyayS. K. Chatterji
However, according to Suniti Kumar Chatterji, Charyapada was composed between 10th and 12th century.

Sukumar Sen (linguist)

Sukumar SenDr. Sukumar SenSen, Sukumar
Sukumar Sen while supporting this view maintained that Charyapada could have been written between 11th and 14th century.