Chavacano

ChabacanoChavacano languageZamboangueñoZamboangueño ChavacanoCaviteñoCaviteño ChavacanocbkChavacano creoleChavacano de DavaoChavacano of Cavite
Chavacano or Chabacano is a group of Spanish-based creole language varieties spoken in the Philippines.wikipedia
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Zamboanga City

ZamboangaCity of ZamboangaZamboanga City, Philippines
The variety spoken in Zamboanga City, located in the southern Philippine island group of Mindanao, has the highest concentration of speakers. Zamboangueño (Chavacano) is spoken in Zamboanga City, Basilan, parts of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga del Norte.
', officially the ' (Chavacano/Spanish: Ciudad de Zamboanga; Tagalog: Lungsod ng Zamboanga), is a highly urbanized city in the Zamboanga Peninsula of the Philippines.

Languages of the Philippines

Philippine languagesLanguagesPhilippine language
Among Philippine languages, it is the only one that is not an Austronesian language, but like Malayo-Polynesian languages, it uses reduplication.
A number of Spanish-influenced creole varieties generally called Chavacano are also spoken in certain communities.

Basilan

Basilan IslandBasilan ProvinceBasilan City
Zamboangueño (Chavacano) is spoken in Zamboanga City, Basilan, parts of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga del Norte.
The Province of Basilan (Chavacano: Provincia de Basilan; Tausug: Wilaya' sin Basilan; Yakan: Wilayah Basilanin) is an island province of the Philippines in the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region.

Zamboanga Sibugay

Sibugay(Zamboanga) SibugayZamboanga Sibuguey
Zamboangueño (Chavacano) is spoken in Zamboanga City, Basilan, parts of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga del Norte.
Zamboanga Sibugay (Lalawigan sa Zamboanga Sibugay; Chavacano: Provincia de Zamboanga Sibugay) is a province in the Philippines located in the Zamboanga Peninsula region in Mindanao.

Zamboanga del Sur

del SurLabangan, Mindanaoprovince of Zamboanga del Sur
Zamboangueño (Chavacano) is spoken in Zamboanga City, Basilan, parts of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga del Norte.
Zamboanga del Sur (Cebuano: Habagatang Zamboanga; Subanen: S'helatan Sembwangan/Sembwangan dapit Shelatan; Chavacano: Zamboanga del Sur;) is a province in the Philippines located in the Zamboanga Peninsula region in Mindanao.

Cavite

Cavite ProvinceCavite, PhilippinesProvince of Cavite
Cavite (Lalawigan ng Kabite;, or ; Chabacano: Provincia de Cavite) is a province in the Philippines located on the southern shores of Manila Bay in the Calabarzon region on Luzon island.

Zamboanga Peninsula

ZamboangaWestern MindanaoIX
Chavacano speakers are possibly found in Semporna and elsewhere in Sabah as Sabah was under partial Spanish sovereignty and via Filipino refugees who escaped from Zamboanga Peninsula and predominantly Muslim areas of Mindanao like Sulu Archipelago.
Zamboanga Peninsula (Tagalog: Tangway ng Zamboanga; Chavacano: Peninsula de Zamboanga; Cebuano: Lawis sa Zamboanga) is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region IX.

Davao City

DavaoDavao City, PhilippinesDavao City, Davao del Sur
The other varieties of Chavacano with Cebuano as their primary substrate language are the Mindanao-based creoles of which are Castellano Abakay or Chavacano Davaoeño (now extinct but was spoken in some areas of Davao), influenced by Chinese and Japanese, and divided into two varieties, Castellano Abakay Chino and Castellano Abakay Japón, and Cotabateño (no longer spoken in Cotabato City).
Aside from Cebuano, Chavacano and Hiligaynon are also widely used in addition to languages indigenous to the city, such as the Giangan, the Kalagan, the Tagabawa, the Matigsalug, the Ata Manobo, and the Obo.

Fort Pilar

Real Fuerza de Nuestra Señora La Virgen del Pilar de ZaragozafortNuestra Señora del Pilar de Zamboanga
According to some linguists, Zamboangueño Chavacano is believed to have influenced by Caviteño Chabacano as evidenced by prominent Zamboangueño families who descended from Spanish Army officers (from Spain and Latin America), primarily Caviteño mestizos, stationed at Fort Pilar in the 19th century.
This period also marks the beginning of the Zamboangueño Chavacano as a pidgin that eventually developed into a full-fledged creole language for Zamboangueños.

Ternate, Cavite

Ternatethe municipality of Ternatewithdrew back to the Philippines
The three known varieties of Chavacano with Tagalog as their substrate language are the Luzon-based creoles of which are Caviteño (spoken in Cavite City), Bahra or Ternateño (spoken in Ternate, Cavite) and Ermiteño (once spoken in the old district of Ermita in Manila and is now extinct).
Today, the place is called Ternate after the island of Ternate in the Moluccas, and the descendants of the Merdicas continue to use their Spanish creole (with Portuguese and Papuan influence) which came to be known as Ternateño Chabacano.

Cotabato City

CotabatoKuta WatoKuta Wato/Kota Bato
The other varieties of Chavacano with Cebuano as their primary substrate language are the Mindanao-based creoles of which are Castellano Abakay or Chavacano Davaoeño (now extinct but was spoken in some areas of Davao), influenced by Chinese and Japanese, and divided into two varieties, Castellano Abakay Chino and Castellano Abakay Japón, and Cotabateño (no longer spoken in Cotabato City). Christians and Muslims in Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat, Cotabato, South Cotabato, Cotabato City, and Saranggani speak Chavacano de Zamboanga.
Tagalog, Chavacano and Cebuano spoken by both Christians and Muslims, as well as Iranun, Maranao, English, and Arabic, are also heard in the city.

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
Chavacano or Chabacano is a group of Spanish-based creole language varieties spoken in the Philippines.
In addition, various Spanish-based creole varieties collectively called Chavacano exist.

Cavite City

CaviteCavite City, CaviteCavite, Cavite
The three known varieties of Chavacano with Tagalog as their substrate language are the Luzon-based creoles of which are Caviteño (spoken in Cavite City), Bahra or Ternateño (spoken in Ternate, Cavite) and Ermiteño (once spoken in the old district of Ermita in Manila and is now extinct).
Chabacano is a Spanish-influenced creole language formerly spoken by majority of the people living in the city of Cavite.

South Cotabato

South Cotabato ProvinceGovernor of South CotabatoSo'''uth '''C'''otabato
Christians and Muslims in Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat, Cotabato, South Cotabato, Cotabato City, and Saranggani speak Chavacano de Zamboanga.
Spaniards already took with them Chavacano-speaking Christians and Muslims from Zamboanga and Basilan, as well as the Visayans, especially the Hiligaynons and Cebuanos.

Tawi-Tawi

Tawi TawiTawitawiTawi-Tawi province
Zamboangueño (Chavacano) is spoken in Zamboanga City, Basilan, parts of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga del Norte.
Chavacano, Cebuano, and Yakan are also spoken, as is English.

Sulu

Sulu ProvinceJoloProvince of Sulu
Zamboangueño (Chavacano) is spoken in Zamboanga City, Basilan, parts of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga del Norte.
Chavacano is also spoken by Christian and Muslim locals who maintain contacts and trade with the mainland Zamboanga Peninsula and Basilan, as Tawi-tawi and Sulu were partially ruled by the Spanish as their sovereignty was limited to military stations and garrisons and pockets of civilian settlements, until they had to abandon the region as a consequence of their defeat in the Spanish–American War.

Stratum (linguistics)

substratumsubstratesuperstrate
Their classification is based on their substrate languages and the regions where they are commonly spoken.

Zamboanga del Norte

del NortenorthernPanganuran
Zamboangueño (Chavacano) is spoken in Zamboanga City, Basilan, parts of Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, and Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga del Norte.
Other languages include Chavacano, Subanen, Tausug, and English.

Tausug language

TausugTausūgSuluk language
The Manila Bay Creoles have Tagalog as their substrate language while The Mindanao Creoles have Visayan (mostly Cebuano, Tausug, and Hiligaynon), Subanon, and Sama as their substrate language(s).
Tausug and Chavacano are the only Philippine languages spoken on the island of Borneo.

History of the Philippines (1521–1898)

Spanish colonial periodSpanish colonial eraSpanish Era
The Spanish colonisation of the Philippine islands had led to the presence of the Spanish language in the islands.
Interactions between indigenous Filipinos and immigrant Spaniards plus Latin-Americans eventually caused the formation of a new language, Chavacano, a creole of Mexican Spanish.They depended on the Galleon Trade for a living.

Ethnic groups in the Philippines

ethnic groupsFilipino ethnolinguistic groupethnolingustic group
Prior to the formation of what is today the Philippines, what existed were a collection of various islands and different ethnolinguistic groups inhabiting them.

Cebuano language

CebuanoVisayanCebuano-speaking
The other varieties of Chavacano with Cebuano as their primary substrate language are the Mindanao-based creoles of which are Castellano Abakay or Chavacano Davaoeño (now extinct but was spoken in some areas of Davao), influenced by Chinese and Japanese, and divided into two varieties, Castellano Abakay Chino and Castellano Abakay Japón, and Cotabateño (no longer spoken in Cotabato City). The Manila Bay Creoles have Tagalog as their substrate language while The Mindanao Creoles have Visayan (mostly Cebuano, Tausug, and Hiligaynon), Subanon, and Sama as their substrate language(s). Most of what appears to be Cebuano words in Zamboangueño Chavacano are actually Hiligaynon.
A branch of Mindanao Cebuano in Davao is also known as Davaoeño (not to be confused with the Davao variant of Chavacano which is called "Castellano Abakay").

Mexican Spanish

SpanishMexicanMexico
The Chavacano languages in the Philippines are creoles based on Mexican Spanish and possibly, Portuguese.
Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole language in the Philippines, is based on Mexican Spanish.

Maguindanao

Maguindanao Provincein the provinceMaguindanao Province, Philippines
Christians and Muslims in Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat, Cotabato, South Cotabato, Cotabato City, and Saranggani speak Chavacano de Zamboanga.
Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Chavacano are also spoken by both Christians and Muslims, with the dialect of Chavacano native to Cotabato City being called Cotabateño, which evolved from the Zamboangueño dialect.

Mindanao

Mindanao IslandSouthern PhilippinesRegion X
The other varieties of Chavacano with Cebuano as their primary substrate language are the Mindanao-based creoles of which are Castellano Abakay or Chavacano Davaoeño (now extinct but was spoken in some areas of Davao), influenced by Chinese and Japanese, and divided into two varieties, Castellano Abakay Chino and Castellano Abakay Japón, and Cotabateño (no longer spoken in Cotabato City).
Dozens of languages are spoken in Mindanao; among them, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Surigaonon, Tausug, Maranao, Maguindanao, and Chavacano are most widely spoken.