Checkmate

matecheckmatingmates#matingcan force checkmatecheckCheck, and matecheckmatedelementary checkmate
Checkmate (often shortened to mate) is a game position in chess and other chess-like games in which a player's king is in check (threatened with ) and there is no way to remove the threat.wikipedia
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Chess

chess playerchess gamewestern chess
Checkmate (often shortened to mate) is a game position in chess and other chess-like games in which a player's king is in check (threatened with ) and there is no way to remove the threat.
The objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture.

King (chess)

kingkingschess king
Checkmate (often shortened to mate) is a game position in chess and other chess-like games in which a player's king is in check (threatened with ) and there is no way to remove the threat. A smothered mate is a checkmate delivered by a knight in which the mated king is unable to move because it is surrounded (or smothered) by its own pieces.
The object of the game is to threaten the opponent's king in such a way that escape is not possible (checkmate).

Check (chess)

checkcheckschecking
Checkmate (often shortened to mate) is a game position in chess and other chess-like games in which a player's king is in check (threatened with ) and there is no way to remove the threat.
If the player cannot move out of check, the game ends in checkmate and the player loses.

Draw (chess)

drawdrawsdrew
If a player is not in check but has no legal move, then it is stalemate, and the game immediately ends in a draw. However, the mating process requires accurate play, since a few errors could result in a draw either by the fifty-move rule or stalemate.
Under the standard FIDE rules, a draw also occurs "in dead position", when no sequence of legal moves can lead to checkmate, most commonly when neither player has sufficient to checkmate the opponent.

Chess endgame

endgameendgamesending
A checkmate may occur in as few as two moves on one side with all of the pieces still on the board (as in Fool's mate, in the opening phase of the game), in a middlegame position (as in the 1956 game called the Game of the Century between Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer), or after many moves with as few as three pieces in an endgame position.
The king, which has to be protected in the middlegame owing to the threat of checkmate, becomes a strong piece in the endgame.

History of chess

origins of chesschesschess history
This interpretation is much closer to the original intent of the game being not to kill a king but to leave him with no viable response other than surrender, which better matches the origin story detailed in the Shahnameh.
(Persian for "the king is helpless" – see checkmate) when the king was attacked and could not escape from attack.

Algebraic notation (chess)

algebraic notationalgebraic chess notationalgebraic notation used for chess
A checkmating move is recorded in algebraic notation using the hash symbol "#", for example: 34.Qg7#.
Checkmate at the completion of moves can be represented by the symbol "# ".

Stalemate

stalematingimpasseMilitary stalemate
If a player is not in check but has no legal move, then it is stalemate, and the game immediately ends in a draw. However, the mating process requires accurate play, since a few errors could result in a draw either by the fifty-move rule or stalemate.
Qxe3 (best; 3...Qb8+ 4.Kd7 Qxh8 5.Rxb3+ forces checkmate) 4.Rxb3+!

Bishop (chess)

bishopbishopschess bishop
There are four fundamental checkmates when one side has only his king and the other side has only the minimum needed to force checkmate, i.e. (1) one queen, (2) one rook, (3) two bishops on opposite-colored squares, or (4) a bishop and a knight.
Also, a king and rook can force checkmate against a lone king, while a king and bishop cannot.

Bishop and knight checkmate

bishop and knightbishop and knight versus lone kingbishop, knight, and king versus lone king
The two bishop checkmate is fairly easy to accomplish, but the bishop and knight checkmate is difficult and requires precision. However, the mating process requires accurate play, since a few errors could result in a draw either by the fifty-move rule or stalemate.
The bishop and knight checkmate in chess is the checkmate of a lone king which can be forced by a bishop, knight, and king.

The Game of the Century (chess)

Game of the CenturyThe Game of the Century
A checkmate may occur in as few as two moves on one side with all of the pieces still on the board (as in Fool's mate, in the opening phase of the game), in a middlegame position (as in the 1956 game called the Game of the Century between Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer), or after many moves with as few as three pieces in an endgame position.
At the end, Fischer's pieces coordinate to checkmate, while Byrne's queen sits useless on the other side of the board.

Queen (chess)

queenqueenschess queen
There are four fundamental checkmates when one side has only his king and the other side has only the minimum needed to force checkmate, i.e. (1) one queen, (2) one rook, (3) two bishops on opposite-colored squares, or (4) a bishop and a knight. Two (queens or rooks) can easily checkmate on the edge of the board.
Beginners often the queen early in the game, hoping to plunder the enemy position and deliver an early checkmate such as Scholar's mate.

Bare king

lone kingbare the opponent's kingbaring the king
There are four fundamental checkmates when one side has only his king and the other side has only the minimum needed to force checkmate, i.e. (1) one queen, (2) one rook, (3) two bishops on opposite-colored squares, or (4) a bishop and a knight. Before about 1600, the game could also be won by capturing all of the opponent's pieces, leaving just a bare king.
In some old versions of chess, for example "Baring chess", as well as the game of shatranj, leaving the opponent with a bare king was one way of winning the game (see Checkmate#History).

Pawn (chess)

pawnpawnschess pawn
It often occurs after a pawn has queened.
The piece most often selected for underpromotion is a knight, used to execute a checkmate or a fork to gain a significant net increase in material.

Endgame tablebase

tablebasetablebasesendgame database
Müller and Lamprecht give a fifteen-move solution; however, it contains an inaccurate move by Black (according to endgame tablebases).
Tablebases are generated by retrograde analysis, working backwards from a checkmated position.

Donald Byrne

D. ByrneByrneDonald
A checkmate may occur in as few as two moves on one side with all of the pieces still on the board (as in Fool's mate, in the opening phase of the game), in a middlegame position (as in the 1956 game called the Game of the Century between Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer), or after many moves with as few as three pieces in an endgame position.
Fischer was winning the game decisively and Byrne asked some of the other players if it would be a good "tip of the hat" to Fischer's superb play to let young Fischer play the game to a checkmate instead of Byrne resigning, which would normally happen between masters.

Fifty-move rule

50-move rule50-move draw50-move draw rule
However, the mating process requires accurate play, since a few errors could result in a draw either by the fifty-move rule or stalemate.
All of the basic checkmates can be accomplished in well under 50 moves.

Rook (chess)

rookrookschess rook
There are four fundamental checkmates when one side has only his king and the other side has only the minimum needed to force checkmate, i.e. (1) one queen, (2) one rook, (3) two bishops on opposite-colored squares, or (4) a bishop and a knight. Two (queens or rooks) can easily checkmate on the edge of the board.
The rook is a very powerful piece to deliver checkmate.

Scholar's mate

win in four moves
Scholar's Mate (also known as the four-move checkmate) is the checkmate achieved by the moves:
In chess, Scholar's Mate is the checkmate achieved by the following moves, or similar:

Fork (chess)

forkforkingforks
With the side with the bishop and knight to move, checkmate can be forced in at most thirty-three moves from any starting position, except those in which the defending king is initially forking the bishop and knight and it is not possible to defend both.
Besides attacking pieces, a target of a fork can be a direct mating threat (for example, attacking an unprotected knight while simultaneously setting up a battery of queen and bishop to threaten mate).

Back-rank checkmate

back-rank mateback rank checkmateback rank mate
A back-rank checkmate is a checkmate delivered by a rook or queen along a back rank (that is, the row on which the pieces [not pawns] stand at the start of the game) in which the mated king is unable to move up the board because the king is blocked by friendly pieces (usually pawns) on the second rank.
In chess, a back-rank checkmate (also known as the corridor mate) is a checkmate delivered by a rook or queen along a back rank (that is, the row on which the pieces [not pawns] stand at the start of the game) in which the mated king is unable to move up the board because the king is blocked by friendly pieces (usually pawns) on the second rank.

Knight (chess)

knightknightsKnight's Move
There are four fundamental checkmates when one side has only his king and the other side has only the minimum needed to force checkmate, i.e. (1) one queen, (2) one rook, (3) two bishops on opposite-colored squares, or (4) a bishop and a knight. A smothered mate is a checkmate delivered by a knight in which the mated king is unable to move because it is surrounded (or smothered) by its own pieces.
At the end of the game, if one side has only a king and a knight while the other side has only a king, the game is a draw since a checkmate is impossible.

Promotion (chess)

promotionpromoteunderpromotion
It often occurs after a pawn has queened.
(or any other promotion), Black wins with 1...gxh3, when White cannot stop Black from checkmating him next move with 2...h2.

Fool's mate

A checkmate may occur in as few as two moves on one side with all of the pieces still on the board (as in Fool's mate, in the opening phase of the game), in a middlegame position (as in the 1956 game called the Game of the Century between Donald Byrne and Bobby Fischer), or after many moves with as few as three pieces in an endgame position.
In chess, Fool's Mate, also known as the Two-Move Checkmate, is the checkmate in the fewest possible number of moves from the start of the game.

Smothered mate

a checkmatePhilidor's Legacy
A smothered mate is a checkmate delivered by a knight in which the mated king is unable to move because it is surrounded (or smothered) by its own pieces.
In chess, a smothered mate is a checkmate delivered by a knight in which the mated king is unable to move because he is surrounded (or smothered) by his own pieces.