Chelyabinsk meteor

2013 Russian meteor event2013 Chelyabinsk meteor2013 Chelyabinsk meteor airburst2013/02/15 03:20:33A meteor broke upA meteor explodesChelabynsk meteorite explosionChelyabinskChelyabinsk asteroidChelyabinsk meteor event
The Chelyabinsk meteor was a superbolide that entered Earth's atmosphere over Russia on 15 February 2013 at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC).wikipedia
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Air burst

airburstair-burstaerial burst
Due to its high velocity and shallow angle of atmospheric entry, the object exploded in an air burst over Chelyabinsk Oblast, at a height of around 29.7 km.
Air burst may also refer to naturally occurring explosion of meteors in atmosphere, as happened for example in the Tunguska event and the Chelyabinsk meteor.

367943 Duende

2012 DA14Duendeasteroid 2012 DA14
The earlier-predicted and well-publicized close approach of a larger asteroid on the same day, the roughly 30 m 367943 Duende, occurred about 16 hours later; the very different orbits of the two objects showed they were unrelated to each other.
Duende passage also coincided with the completely unrelated Chelyabinsk meteor, which entered Earth's atmosphere above Russia just 16 hours earlier.

Bolide

superbolidebolidesfireball
The Chelyabinsk meteor was a superbolide that entered Earth's atmosphere over Russia on 15 February 2013 at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC).
Recent examples of superbolides include the Sutter's Mill meteorite and the Chelyabinsk meteor.

Ural (region)

UralUral regionUrals
It quickly became a brilliant superbolide meteor over the southern Ural region.
At around 9:20 a.m. on Friday, February 15, 2013, an astronomical incident occurred, known as the 2013 Russian meteor event.

Shock wave

shock wavesshockwaveshock
The explosion generated a bright flash, producing a hot cloud of dust and gas that penetrated to 26.2 km, and many surviving small fragmentary meteorites, as well as a large shock wave.
The Tunguska event and the 2013 Russian meteor event are the best documented evidence of the shock wave produced by a massive meteoroid.

Duck and cover

assessment of millions of homesDuck-and-cover
Despite not knowing the origin of the intense flash of light, Karbysheva thought it prudent to take precautionary measures by ordering her students to stay away from the room's windows and to perform a duck and cover maneuver and then to leave a building.
Thus, although the advice to duck and cover is over half a century old, ballistic glass lacerations caused the majority of the 1000 human injuries following the Chelyabinsk meteor air burst of February 15, 2013.

Tunguska event

TunguskaTunguska explosionTunguska meteorite
With an estimated initial mass of about 12,000–13,000 tonnes (13,000–14,000 short tons, heavier than the Eiffel Tower), and measuring about 20 m in diameter, it is the largest known natural object to have entered Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 Tunguska event, which destroyed a wide, remote, forested, and very sparsely populated area of Siberia. There have been three incidents in the previous century involving a comparable energy yield or higher: the 1908 Tunguska event, the 1930 Curuçá River event, and in 1963 off the coast of Prince Edward Islands in the Indian Ocean.
The largest asteroid air burst to be observed with modern instrumentation was the 500-kiloton Chelyabinsk meteor of 2013, which shattered windows and produced meteorites.

List of meteor air bursts

air burstairburstexplosion of meteors
There have been three incidents in the previous century involving a comparable energy yield or higher: the 1908 Tunguska event, the 1930 Curuçá River event, and in 1963 off the coast of Prince Edward Islands in the Indian Ocean.
Extremely bright fireballs traveling across the sky are often witnessed from a distance, such as the 1947 Sikhote-Alin meteor and the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor, both in Russia.

Dashcam

dashcamsdashboard cameradashboard cameras
Early analysis of CCTV and dashcam video posted online indicated that the meteor approached from the southeast, and exploded about 40 km south of central Chelyabinsk above Korkino at a height of 23.3 km (14.5 miles, 76,000 feet), with fragments continuing in the direction of Lake Chebarkul. Multiple videos of the Chelyabinsk superbolide, particularly from dashboard cameras and traffic cameras which are ubiquitous in Russia, helped to establish the meteor's provenance as an Apollo asteroid.
They have been called "ubiquitous" and "an on-line obsession," and are so prevalent that dashcam footage was the most common footage of the February 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor, which was documented from at least a dozen angles.

Infrasound

infrasonicInfrasonic Soundsubsonic
The bulk of the object's energy was absorbed by the atmosphere, with a total kinetic energy before atmospheric impact estimated from infrasound and seismic measurements to be equivalent to the blast yield of 400–500 kilotons of TNT (about 1.4–1.8 PJ) range – 26 to 33 times as much energy as that released from the atomic bomb detonated at Hiroshima. The infrasound waves given off by the explosions were detected by 20 monitoring stations designed to detect nuclear weapons testing run by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission, including the distant Antarctic station, some 15000 km away.
The loudest infrasound recorded to date by the monitoring system was generated by the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor.

Impact event

impactmeteorite impactasteroid impact
It is estimated that the frequency of airbursts from objects 20 metres across is about once in every 60 years.
The 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor event is the only known such incident in modern times to result in numerous injuries, excluding the 1490 Ch'ing-yang event in China.

Chelyabinsk meteorite

large fragment
The fall is officially designated as the Chelyabinsk meteorite.
The Chelyabinsk meteorite (Russian: Челябинск or Челябинский метеорит) is the fragmented remains of the large Chelyabinsk meteor of 15 February 2013 which reached the ground after the meteor's passage through the atmosphere.

Yemanzhelinsk

The hypocentre of the explosion was to the south of Chelyabinsk, in Yemanzhelinsk and Yuzhnouralsk.
It became a coal mining settlement in 1930–1931, which was granted town status on September 25, 1951.. It was one of the places closest to the hypocenter of the blast from the 2013 Russian meteor event.

Yuzhnouralsk

Yuzhno-Uralsk
The hypocentre of the explosion was to the south of Chelyabinsk, in Yemanzhelinsk and Yuzhnouralsk.
Town status was granted to it on February 1, 1963.. It was one of the towns closest to the hypocenter of the blast from the 2013 Russian meteor event.

LL chondrite

LLLL5LL-chondrite
The metamorphism in the chondrules in the meteorite samples indicates the rock making up the meteor had a history of collisions and was once several kilometres below the surface of a much larger LL-chondrite asteroid.
The composition of the Chelyabinsk meteor is that of a LL chondrite meteorite.

Russian Machine Never Breaks

The news was first reported by the hockey site Russian Machine Never Breaks before heavy coverage by the international media and the Associated Press with the Russian government's confirmation less than two hours afterwards.
Created in 2009, RMNB received local and national media attention when it was the first U.S. media outlet to cover the 2013 Russian meteor event in the city of Chelyabinsk, Russia.

Spaceguard

Review of Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies, Survey/Detection PanelSpaceguard SurveySpaceguard UK
Dmitry Medvedev, the Prime Minister of Russia, confirmed a meteor had struck Russia and said it proved that the "entire planet" is vulnerable to meteors and a spaceguard system is needed to protect the planet from similar objects in the future.
The 2002 Eastern Mediterranean event, the 2002 Vitim event (Russia) and the Chelyabinsk meteor (Russia, February 2013) were not detected in advance by any Spaceguard effort.

Traktor Ice Arena

Traktor Sport PalaceTraktor ArenaChelyabinsk
One of the buildings damaged in the blast was the Traktor Sport Palace, home arena of Traktor Chelyabinsk of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL).
On 15 February 2013, the arena was damaged by the blast wave from the explosion of the Chelyabinsk meteor.

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

CTBTOComprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization Preparatory CommissionInternational Monitoring System
The infrasound waves given off by the explosions were detected by 20 monitoring stations designed to detect nuclear weapons testing run by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission, including the distant Antarctic station, some 15000 km away.
The CTBTO also recorded the infrasound produced in the atmosphere by the meteor explosion over Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013.

Tagish Lake (meteorite)

Tagish LakeTagish Lake meteoritefireball
Brown also states that the double smoke plume formation, as seen in photographs, is believed to have coincided near the primary airburst section of the dust trail (as also pictured following the Tagish Lake fireball), and it likely indicates where rising air quickly flowed into the center of the trail, essentially in the same manner as a moving 3D version of a mushroom cloud.
The double, and not the expected single, plume formation of debris, as seen in video and photographs of the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor dust trail and believed by Peter Brown to have coincided near the primary airburst location, was also pictured following the Tagish Lake fireball, and according to Brown, likely indicates where rising air quickly flowed into the center of the trail, essentially in the same manner as a moving 3D version of a mushroom cloud.

Apollo asteroid

APOApollo groupApollo
Multiple videos of the Chelyabinsk superbolide, particularly from dashboard cameras and traffic cameras which are ubiquitous in Russia, helped to establish the meteor's provenance as an Apollo asteroid.
The February 15, 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor that exploded over the city of Chelyabinsk in the southern Urals region of Russia, injuring an estimated 1000 people with flying glass from broken windows, was an Apollo class asteroid.

Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System

ATLASATLAS-1ATLAS-HKO
The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System, on the other hand, could now predict some Chelyabinsk-like events a day or so in advance, if their radiant is not close to the Sun.
The 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor event is the only known impact in historical times to have resulted in a large number of injuries, with the potential exception of the possibly highly deadly but poorly documented 1490 Ch'ing-yang event in China.

Meteorite

meteoritesmeteoriticmeteoric
The explosion generated a bright flash, producing a hot cloud of dust and gas that penetrated to 26.2 km, and many surviving small fragmentary meteorites, as well as a large shock wave.

Lake Chebarkul

Chebarkul lake
Early analysis of CCTV and dashcam video posted online indicated that the meteor approached from the southeast, and exploded about 40 km south of central Chelyabinsk above Korkino at a height of 23.3 km (14.5 miles, 76,000 feet), with fragments continuing in the direction of Lake Chebarkul.
On 15 February 2013, local fishermen found a hole in the ice where a large fragment from the 2013 Russian meteor event likely struck the frozen lake.

Near-Earth object

near-Earth asteroidNEOnear-Earth
The earlier-predicted and well-publicized close approach of a larger asteroid on the same day, the roughly 30 m 367943 Duende, occurred about 16 hours later; the very different orbits of the two objects showed they were unrelated to each other. It was caused by an approximately 20 m near-Earth asteroid with a speed of 19.16 ± 0.15 kilometres per second (60,000 –69,000 km/h or 40,000 –42,900 mph).
The third-largest, but by far best-observed impact, was the Chelyabinsk meteor of February 15, 2013.