Chemical bond

bondbondschemical bondsbondingchemical bondingbondedchemically bondedboundbindingmolecular bonding
Compare molecular binding, which often includes chemical bonding.wikipedia
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Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Atoms can attach to one or more other atoms by chemical bonds to form chemical compounds such as molecules or crystals.

Chemical compound

compoundcompoundschemical compounds
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

Molecule

molecularmoleculesmolecular structure
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The atoms in molecules, crystals, metals and diatomic gases—indeed most of the physical environment around us—are held together by chemical bonds, which dictate the structure and the bulk properties of matter.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

Electron

electronse − electron mass
Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other.
The exchange or sharing of the electrons between two or more atoms is the main cause of chemical bonding.

Octet rule

octetduet ruleoctet (8-electron) rule
The octet rule and VSEPR theory are two examples.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that elements tend to bond in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electronic configuration as a noble gas.

Electromagnetism

electromagneticelectrodynamicselectromagnetic force
Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other.
Electromagnetic forces are responsible for the chemical bonds between atoms which create molecules, and intermolecular forces.

Molecular orbital theory

MO theorymolecular orbital methodatomic orbital theory.
More sophisticated theories are valence bond theory, which includes orbital hybridization and resonance, and molecular orbital theory which includes linear combination of atomic orbitals and ligand field theory.
Electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.

Valence bond theory

valence bondvalencevalence bonds
More sophisticated theories are valence bond theory, which includes orbital hybridization and resonance, and molecular orbital theory which includes linear combination of atomic orbitals and ligand field theory.
In chemistry, valence bond (VB) theory is one of the two basic theories, along with molecular orbital (MO) theory, that were developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding.

Valence electron

valencevalence orbitaloutermost electron
This attraction may be seen as the result of different behaviors of the outermost or valence electrons of atoms.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

Chemical polarity

polarpolaritynonpolar
In a polar covalent bond, one or more electrons are unequally shared between two nuclei.
Polar molecules must contain polar bonds due to a difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms.

Metallic bonding

metallic bondmetallicmetallic radius
The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bonds" such as covalent, ionic and metallic bonds, and "weak bonds" or "secondary bonds" such as dipole–dipole interactions, the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that rises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.

Quantum mechanics

quantum physicsquantum mechanicalquantum theory
All bonds can be explained by quantum theory, but, in practice, simplification rules allow chemists to predict the strength, directionality, and polarity of bonds.
It also provides a useful framework for many features of the modern periodic table of elements, and describes the behaviors of atoms during chemical bonding and the flow of electrons in computer semiconductors, and therefore plays a crucial role in many modern technologies.

Chemical species

specieschemical componentaqueous species
Early speculations about the nature of the chemical bond, from as early as the 12th century, supposed that certain types of chemical species were joined by a type of chemical affinity.
These energy levels determine the way the chemical species will interact with others (engaging in chemical bonds, etc.).

Covalent bond

covalentcovalentlycovalently bonded
The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions as in ionic bonds or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds. In 1916, chemist Gilbert N. Lewis developed the concept of the electron-pair bond, in which two atoms may share one to six electrons, thus forming the single electron bond, a single bond, a double bond, or a triple bond; in Lewis's own words, "An electron may form a part of the shell of two different atoms and cannot be said to belong to either one exclusively."
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

Gilbert N. Lewis

Gilbert Newton LewisG. N. LewisLewis
In 1916, chemist Gilbert N. Lewis developed the concept of the electron-pair bond, in which two atoms may share one to six electrons, thus forming the single electron bond, a single bond, a double bond, or a triple bond; in Lewis's own words, "An electron may form a part of the shell of two different atoms and cannot be said to belong to either one exclusively."
Lewis was best known for his discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.

Double bond

double bondsdoubledouble-bond
In 1916, chemist Gilbert N. Lewis developed the concept of the electron-pair bond, in which two atoms may share one to six electrons, thus forming the single electron bond, a single bond, a double bond, or a triple bond; in Lewis's own words, "An electron may form a part of the shell of two different atoms and cannot be said to belong to either one exclusively."
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.

Single bond

singleC–H and C–C bondsingle bonds
In 1916, chemist Gilbert N. Lewis developed the concept of the electron-pair bond, in which two atoms may share one to six electrons, thus forming the single electron bond, a single bond, a double bond, or a triple bond; in Lewis's own words, "An electron may form a part of the shell of two different atoms and cannot be said to belong to either one exclusively."
In chemistry, a single bond is a chemical bond between two atoms involving two valence electrons.

Triple bond

tripletriple-bondtriple bonds
In 1916, chemist Gilbert N. Lewis developed the concept of the electron-pair bond, in which two atoms may share one to six electrons, thus forming the single electron bond, a single bond, a double bond, or a triple bond; in Lewis's own words, "An electron may form a part of the shell of two different atoms and cannot be said to belong to either one exclusively."
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.

Walther Kossel

Walter Kossel
That same year, Walther Kossel put forward a theory similar to Lewis' only his model assumed complete transfers of electrons between atoms, and was thus a model of ionic bonding.
Walther Ludwig Julius Kossel (4 January 1888 – 22 May 1956) was a German physicist known for his theory of the chemical bond (ionic bond/octet rule), Sommerfeld–Kossel displacement law of atomic spectra, the Kossel-Stranski model for crystal growth, and the Kossel effect.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
In 1929, the linear combination of atomic orbitals molecular orbital method (LCAO) approximation was introduced by Sir John Lennard-Jones, who also suggested methods to derive electronic structures of molecules of F 2 (fluorine) and O 2 (oxygen) molecules, from basic quantum principles.
At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula.

Bohr model of the chemical bond

a model of the chemical bond
Niels Bohr proposed a model of the atom and a model of the chemical bond.
In addition to the model of the atom, Niels Bohr also proposed a model of the chemical bond.

Crystal

crystallinecrystalscrystalline solid
The atoms in molecules, crystals, metals and diatomic gases—indeed most of the physical environment around us—are held together by chemical bonds, which dictate the structure and the bulk properties of matter.
In general, solids can be held together by various types of chemical bonds, such as metallic bonds, ionic bonds, covalent bonds, van der Waals bonds, and others.

Bond length

lengthbond distancebond lengths
molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is defined as the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.

Chemical formula

molecular formulaformulageneral formula
In molecular formulas the chemical bonds (binding orbitals) between atoms are indicated in different ways depending on the type of discussion.
Sometimes a chemical formula is complicated by being written as a condensed formula (or condensed molecular formula, occasionally called a "semi-structural formula"), which conveys additional information about the particular ways in which the atoms are chemically bonded together, either in covalent bonds, ionic bonds, or various combinations of these types.

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds.