A report on IronChemical element and Metal

Molar volume vs. pressure for α iron at room temperature
The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Iron, shown here as fragments and a 1 cm3 cube, is an example of a chemical element that is a metal.
Low-pressure phase diagram of pure iron
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
A metal in the form of a gravy boat made from stainless steel, an alloy largely composed of iron, carbon, and chromium
Magnetization curves of 9 ferromagnetic materials, showing saturation. 1.Sheet steel, 2.Silicon steel, 3.Cast steel, 4.Tungsten steel, 5.Magnet steel, 6.Cast iron, 7.Nickel, 8.Cobalt, 9.Magnetite
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Gallium crystals
A polished and chemically etched piece of an iron meteorite, believed to be similar in composition to the Earth's metallic core, showing individual crystals of the iron-nickel alloy (Widmanstatten pattern)
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
A metal rod with a hot-worked eyelet. Hot-working exploits the capacity of metal to be plastically deformed.
Ochre path in Roussillon.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Samples of babbitt metal, an alloy of tin, antimony, and copper, used in bearings to reduce friction
Banded iron formation in McKinley Park, Minnesota.
Dmitri Mendeleev
A sculpture cast in nickel silver—an alloy of copper, nickel, and zinc that looks like silver
Pourbaix diagram of iron
Henry Moseley
Rhodium, a noble metal, shown here as 1 g of powder, a 1 g pressed cylinder, and a 1 g pellet
Hydrated iron(III) chloride (ferric chloride)
A sample of diaspore, an aluminum oxide hydroxide mineral, α-AlO(OH)
Comparison of colors of solutions of ferrate (left) and permanganate (right)
A neodymium compound alloy magnet of composition Nd2Fe14B on a nickel-iron bracket from a computer hard drive
Blue-green iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate
A pile of compacted steel scraps, ready for recycling
The two enantiomorphs of the ferrioxalate ion
The Artemision Bronze showing either Poseidon or Zeus, c. 460 BCE, National Archaeological Museum, Athens. The figure is more than 2 m in height.
Crystal structure of iron(II) oxalate dihydrate, showing iron (gray), oxygen (red), carbon (black), and hydrogen (white) atoms.
De re metallica, 1555
Blood-red positive thiocyanate test for iron(III)
Platinum crystals
Iron penta- carbonyl
A disc of highly enriched uranium that was recovered from scrap processed at the Y-12 National Security Complex, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Prussian blue
Ultrapure cerium under argon, 1.5 gm
Iron harpoon head from Greenland. The iron edge covers a narwhal tusk harpoon using meteorite iron from the Cape York meteorite, one of the largest iron meteorites known.
White-hot steel pours like water from a 35-ton electric furnace, at the Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corporation, in Brackenridge, Pennsylvania.
The symbol for Mars has been used since antiquity to represent iron.
A Ho-Mg-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal formed as a pentagonal dodecahedron, the dual of the icosahedron
The iron pillar of Delhi is an example of the iron extraction and processing methodologies of early India.
Body-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 2-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. chromium, iron, and tungsten
Iron sickle from Ancient Greece.
Face-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 4-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. aluminum, copper, and gold
Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801. Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale.
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure, with a 6-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. titanium, cobalt, and zinc
"Gold gab ich für Eisen" – "I gave gold for iron". German-American brooch from WWI.
Niobium crystals and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} anodized niobium cube for comparison
Iron powder
Molybdenum crystals and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} molybdenum cube for comparison
Iron furnace in Columbus, Ohio, 1922
Tantalum single crystal, some crystalline fragments, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} tantalum cube for comparison
17th century Chinese illustration of workers at a blast furnace, making wrought iron from pig iron
Tungsten rods with evaporated crystals, partially oxidized with colorful tarnish, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} tungsten cube for comparison
How iron was extracted in the 19th century
Rhenium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production.
Native copper
A pot of molten iron being used to make steel
Gold crystals
Iron-carbon phase diagram
Crystalline silver
Photon mass attenuation coefficient for iron.
A slice of meteoric iron
Structure of Heme b; in the protein additional ligand(s) would be attached to Fe.
alt=Three, dark broccoli shaped clumps of oxidised lead with grossly distended buds, and a cube of lead which has a dull silvery appearance.| oxidised lead
A heme unit of human carboxyhemoglobin, showing the carbonyl ligand at the apical position, trans to the histidine residue
A brass weight (35 g)
A droplet of solidified molten tin
alt=A silvery molasses-like liquid being poured into a circular container with a height equivalent to a smaller coin on its edge| Mercury being
Electrum, a natural alloy of silver and gold, was often used for making coins. Shown is the Roman god Apollo, and on the obverse, a Delphi tripod (circa 310–305 BCE).
A plate made of pewter, an alloy of 85–99% tin and (usually) copper. Pewter was first used around the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Near East.
A pectoral (ornamental breastplate) made of tumbaga, an alloy of gold and copper
Arsenic, sealed in a container to prevent tarnishing
Zinc fragments and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Antimony, showing its brilliant lustre
Bismuth in crystalline form, with a very thin oxidation layer, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} bismuth cube
Potassium pearls under paraffin oil. Size of the largest pearl is 0.5 cm.
Strontium crystals
Aluminum chunk, 2.6 grams, {{nowrap|1=1 x 2 cm}}
A bar of titanium crystals
Scandium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Lutetium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Hafnium, in the form of a 1.7 kg bar

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

- Iron

It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 of the periodic table.

- Iron

A metal may be a chemical element such as iron; an alloy such as stainless steel; or a molecular compound such as polymeric sulfur nitride.

- Metal

A first distinction is between metals, which readily conduct electricity, nonmetals, which do not, and a small group, (the metalloids), having intermediate properties and often behaving as semiconductors.

- Chemical element

The same applies to "Fe" (ferrum) for iron, "Hg" (hydrargyrum) for mercury, "Sn" (stannum) for tin, "Au" (aurum) for gold, "Ag" (argentum) for silver, "Pb" (plumbum) for lead, "Cu" (cuprum) for copper, and "Sb" (stibium) for antimony.

- Chemical element
Molar volume vs. pressure for α iron at room temperature

8 related topics with Alpha


High-resolution STEM-HAADF micrograph of Al atoms viewed along the [001] zone axis.


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High-resolution STEM-HAADF micrograph of Al atoms viewed along the [001] zone axis.
Aluminium hydrolysis as a function of pH. Coordinated water molecules are omitted. (Data from Baes and Mesmer)
Structure of trimethylaluminium, a compound that features five-coordinate carbon.
Bauxite, a major aluminium ore. The red-brown color is due to the presence of iron oxide minerals.
The statue of Anteros in Piccadilly Circus, London, was made in 1893 and is one of the first statues cast in aluminium.
World production of aluminium since 1900
1897 American advertisement featuring the aluminum spelling
Extrusion billets of aluminium
Common bins for recyclable waste along with a bin for unrecyclable waste. The bin with a yellow top is labeled "aluminum". Rhodes, Greece.
Aluminium-bodied Austin A40 Sports (c. 1951)
Aluminium can
Laser deposition of alumina on a substrate
Schematic of aluminium absorption by human skin.
There are five major aluminium forms absorbed by human body: the free solvated trivalent cation (Al3+(aq)); low-molecular-weight, neutral, soluble complexes (LMW-Al0(aq)); high-molecular-weight, neutral, soluble complexes (HMW-Al0(aq)); low-molecular-weight, charged, soluble complexes (LMW-Al(L)n+/−(aq)); nano and micro-particulates (Al(L)n(s)). They are transported across cell membranes or cell epi-/endothelia through five major routes: (1) paracellular; (2) transcellular; (3) active transport; (4) channels; (5) adsorptive or receptor-mediated endocytosis.
"Bauxite tailings" storage facility in Stade, Germany. The aluminium industry generates about 70 million tons of this waste annually.

Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13.

Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel.

Impurities in Al2O3, such as chromium and iron, yield the gemstones ruby and sapphire, respectively.

Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery.


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Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery.
Antoine Lavoisier discredited the phlogiston theory.
Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline rocket
An experiment setup for preparation of oxygen in academic laboratories
Orbital diagram, after Barrett (2002), showing the participating atomic orbitals from each oxygen atom, the molecular orbitals that result from their overlap, and the aufbau filling of the orbitals with the 12 electrons, 6 from each O atom, beginning from the lowest-energy orbitals, and resulting in covalent double-bond character from filled orbitals (and cancellation of the contributions of the pairs of σ and σ* and π and π* orbital pairs).
Liquid oxygen, temporarily suspended in a magnet owing to its paramagnetism
Space-filling model representation of dioxygen (O2) molecule
Oxygen discharge (spectrum) tube
Late in a massive star's life, 16O concentrates in the O-shell, 17O in the H-shell and 18O in the He-shell.
Cold water holds more dissolved.
500 million years of climate change vs. 18O
Photosynthesis splits water to liberate and fixes into sugar in what is called a Calvin cycle.
build-up in Earth's atmosphere: 1) no produced; 2) produced, but absorbed in oceans & seabed rock; 3)  starts to gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer; 4–5)  sinks filled and the gas accumulates
Hofmann electrolysis apparatus used in electrolysis of water.
Oxygen and MAPP gas compressed-gas cylinders with regulators
An oxygen concentrator in an emphysema patient's house
Low pressure pure is used in space suits.
Most commercially produced is used to smelt and/or decarburize iron.
Water is the most familiar oxygen compound.
Oxides, such as iron oxide or rust, form when oxygen combines with other elements.
Main symptoms of oxygen toxicity
The interior of the Apollo 1 Command Module. Pure at higher than normal pressure and a spark led to a fire and the loss of the Apollo 1 crew.

Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8.

Common uses of oxygen include production of steel, plastics and textiles, brazing, welding and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, and life support systems in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving.

Even if there was much dissolved iron in the oceans when oxygenic photosynthesis was getting more common, it appears the banded iron formations were created by anoxyenic or micro-aerophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria which dominated the deeper areas of the photic zone, while oxygen-producing cyanobacteria covered the shallows.

Electron micrograph of a Ni nanocrystal inside a single wall carbon nanotube; scale bar 5 nm.


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Electron micrograph of a Ni nanocrystal inside a single wall carbon nanotube; scale bar 5 nm.
Widmanstätten pattern showing the two forms of nickel-iron, kamacite and taenite, in an octahedrite meteorite
Tetracarbonyl nickel
Structure of ion
Color of various Ni(II) complexes in aqueous solution. From left to right,, [Ni(C2H4(NH2)2)]2+, ,
Crystals of hydrated nickel(II) sulfate.
Nickel(III) antimonide
Dutch coins made of pure nickel
Time trend of nickel production
Nickel ores grade evolution in some leading nickel producing countries.
Evolution of the annual nickel extraction, according to ores.
Electrolytically refined nickel nodule, with green, crystallized nickel-electrolyte salts visible in the pores.
Highly purified nickel spheres made by the Mond process.
Nickel foam (top) and its internal structure (bottom)
A "horseshoe magnet" made of alnico nickel alloy.

Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge.

Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis.

The first row of transition metals in order.

Transition metal

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In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible definitions:

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible definitions:

The first row of transition metals in order.
From left to right, aqueous solutions of: (red); (orange);  (yellow);  (turquoise);  (blue);  (purple).
Oxidation states of the transition metals. The solid dots show common oxidation states, and the hollow dots show possible but unlikely states.

The IUPAC definition defines a transition metal as "an element whose atom has a partially filled d sub-shell, or which can give rise to cations with an incomplete d sub-shell".

Cotton and Wilkinson expand the brief IUPAC definition (see above) by specifying which elements are included. As well as the elements of groups 4 to 11, they add scandium and yttrium in group 3, which have a partially filled d sub-shell in the metallic state. Lanthanum and actinium, which they consider group 3 elements, are however classified as lanthanides and actinides respectively.

Vanadium(V) oxide (in the contact process), finely divided iron (in the Haber process), and nickel (in catalytic hydrogenation) are some of the examples.

The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.


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The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.
Depiction of a hydrogen atom with size of central proton shown, and the atomic diameter shown as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale)
Hydrogen gas is colorless and transparent, here contained in a glass ampoule.
Phase diagram of hydrogen. The temperature and pressure scales are logarithmic, so one unit corresponds to a 10x change. The left edge corresponds to 105 Pa, which is about atmospheric pressure.
A sample of sodium hydride
Hydrogen discharge (spectrum) tube
Deuterium discharge (spectrum) tube
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier
Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series
NGC 604, a giant region of ionized hydrogen in the Triangulum Galaxy

Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.

Hydrogen also forms compounds with less electronegative elements, such as metals and metalloids, where it takes on a partial negative charge.

In 1671, Robert Boyle discovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which results in the production of hydrogen gas.

A block of electrolytically refined cobalt (99.9% purity) cut from a large plate


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A block of electrolytically refined cobalt (99.9% purity) cut from a large plate
Cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate
Structure of tetrakis(1-norbornyl)cobalt(IV)
Early Chinese blue and white porcelain, manufactured c. 1335
Cobalt ore
World production trend
Cobalt prices February and March 2021 (USD$ per ton)
Cobalt prices 2016 to 2021 5 years (USD$ per ton)
Cobalt blue glass
Cobalt-colored glass
alt=chemical diagram of cobalamin molecule|Cobalamin
alt=two cobalt-deficient sheep facing away from camera|Cobalt-deficient sheep

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27.

The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal.

Cobalt has a relative permeability two-thirds that of iron.

A pound coin (density ~7.6 g/cm3) floats on mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension.

Mercury (element)

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A pound coin (density ~7.6 g/cm3) floats on mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension.
Mercury-discharge spectral calibration lamp
The symbol for the planet Mercury (☿) has been used since ancient times to represent the element
Native mercury with cinnabar, Socrates mine, Sonoma County, California. Cinnabar sometimes alters to native mercury in the oxidized zone of mercury deposits.
The bulb of a mercury-in-glass thermometer
Amalgam filling
A single-pole, single-throw (SPST) mercury switch
Mercury manometer to measure pressure
Amount of atmospheric mercury deposited at Wyoming's Upper Fremont Glacier over the last 270 years
EPA workers clean up residential mercury spill in 2004
The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp, whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.
Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast
Assorted types of fluorescent lamps.
The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.

Mercury is a chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

Iron is an exception, and iron flasks have traditionally been used to trade mercury.

They believed that different metals could be produced by varying the quality and quantity of sulfur contained within the mercury.

Sample of pure chromium metal


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Sample of pure chromium metal
The Pourbaix diagram for chromium in pure water, perchloric acid, or sodium hydroxide
Chromium(II) carbide (Cr3C2)
Anhydrous chromium(III) chloride (CrCl3)
Chromium(VI) oxide
Sodium chromate (Na2CrO4)
Chromium compound determined experimentally to contain a Cr-Cr quintuple bond
Crocoite (PbCrO4)
Chromite ore
The red color of rubies is due to trace amounts of chromium within the corundum.
Piece of chromium produced with aluminothermic reaction
World production trend of chromium
Chromium, remelted in a horizontal arc zone-refiner, showing large visible crystal grains
Chromium ore output in 2002
Stainless steel cutlery made from Cromargan 18/10, containing 18% chromium
Decorative chrome plating on a motorcycle
Red crystal of a ruby laser

Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

Chromium is also highly valued as a metal that is able to be highly polished while resisting tarnishing.

Though misidentified as a lead compound with selenium and iron components, the mineral was in fact crocoite with a formula of PbCrO4.