The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Iron, shown here as fragments and a 1 cm3 cube, is an example of a chemical element that is a metal.
A pound coin (density ~7.6 g/cm3) floats on mercury due to the combination of the buoyant force and surface tension.
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
A metal in the form of a gravy boat made from stainless steel, an alloy largely composed of iron, carbon, and chromium
Mercury-discharge spectral calibration lamp
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Gallium crystals
The symbol for the planet Mercury (☿) has been used since ancient times to represent the element
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
A metal rod with a hot-worked eyelet. Hot-working exploits the capacity of metal to be plastically deformed.
Native mercury with cinnabar, Socrates mine, Sonoma County, California. Cinnabar sometimes alters to native mercury in the oxidized zone of mercury deposits.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Samples of babbitt metal, an alloy of tin, antimony, and copper, used in bearings to reduce friction
The bulb of a mercury-in-glass thermometer
Dmitri Mendeleev
A sculpture cast in nickel silver—an alloy of copper, nickel, and zinc that looks like silver
Amalgam filling
Henry Moseley
Rhodium, a noble metal, shown here as 1 g of powder, a 1 g pressed cylinder, and a 1 g pellet
A single-pole, single-throw (SPST) mercury switch
A sample of diaspore, an aluminum oxide hydroxide mineral, α-AlO(OH)
Mercury manometer to measure pressure
A neodymium compound alloy magnet of composition Nd2Fe14B on a nickel-iron bracket from a computer hard drive
Amount of atmospheric mercury deposited at Wyoming's Upper Fremont Glacier over the last 270 years
A pile of compacted steel scraps, ready for recycling
EPA workers clean up residential mercury spill in 2004
The Artemision Bronze showing either Poseidon or Zeus, c. 460 BCE, National Archaeological Museum, Athens. The figure is more than 2 m in height.
The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp, whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.
De re metallica, 1555
Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast
Platinum crystals
Assorted types of fluorescent lamps.
A disc of highly enriched uranium that was recovered from scrap processed at the Y-12 National Security Complex, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee
The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.
Ultrapure cerium under argon, 1.5 gm
White-hot steel pours like water from a 35-ton electric furnace, at the Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corporation, in Brackenridge, Pennsylvania.
A Ho-Mg-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal formed as a pentagonal dodecahedron, the dual of the icosahedron
Body-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 2-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. chromium, iron, and tungsten
Face-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 4-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. aluminum, copper, and gold
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure, with a 6-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. titanium, cobalt, and zinc
Niobium crystals and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} anodized niobium cube for comparison
Molybdenum crystals and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} molybdenum cube for comparison
Tantalum single crystal, some crystalline fragments, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} tantalum cube for comparison
Tungsten rods with evaporated crystals, partially oxidized with colorful tarnish, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} tungsten cube for comparison
Rhenium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Native copper
Gold crystals
Crystalline silver
A slice of meteoric iron
alt=Three, dark broccoli shaped clumps of oxidised lead with grossly distended buds, and a cube of lead which has a dull silvery appearance.| oxidised lead
A brass weight (35 g)
A droplet of solidified molten tin
alt=A silvery molasses-like liquid being poured into a circular container with a height equivalent to a smaller coin on its edge| Mercury being
Electrum, a natural alloy of silver and gold, was often used for making coins. Shown is the Roman god Apollo, and on the obverse, a Delphi tripod (circa 310–305 BCE).
A plate made of pewter, an alloy of 85–99% tin and (usually) copper. Pewter was first used around the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Near East.
A pectoral (ornamental breastplate) made of tumbaga, an alloy of gold and copper
Arsenic, sealed in a container to prevent tarnishing
Zinc fragments and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Antimony, showing its brilliant lustre
Bismuth in crystalline form, with a very thin oxidation layer, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} bismuth cube
Potassium pearls under paraffin oil. Size of the largest pearl is 0.5 cm.
Strontium crystals
Aluminum chunk, 2.6 grams, {{nowrap|1=1 x 2 cm}}
A bar of titanium crystals
Scandium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Lutetium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Hafnium, in the form of a 1.7 kg bar

Mercury is a chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

- Mercury (element)

A metal may be a chemical element such as iron; an alloy such as stainless steel; or a molecular compound such as polymeric sulfur nitride.

- Metal

They believed that different metals could be produced by varying the quality and quantity of sulfur contained within the mercury.

- Mercury (element)

A first distinction is between metals, which readily conduct electricity, nonmetals, which do not, and a small group, (the metalloids), having intermediate properties and often behaving as semiconductors.

- Chemical element

Only bromine and mercury are liquids at 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and normal atmospheric pressure; caesium and gallium are solids at that temperature, but melt at 28.4 °C (83.2 °F) and 29.8 °C (85.6 °F), respectively.

- Chemical element

These principles were not necessarily the common substances sulfur and mercury found in most laboratories.

- Metal
The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

7 related topics with Alpha


Sphalerite (ZnS)


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Sphalerite (ZnS)
Zinc acetate
Zinc chloride
Late Roman brass bucket – the Hemmoorer Eimer from Warstade, Germany, second to third century AD
Various alchemical symbols for the element zinc
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is given credit for first isolating pure zinc
Galvanization was named after Luigi Galvani.
Percentage of zinc output in 2006 by countries
World production trend
Zinc Mine Rosh Pinah, Namibia
Zinc Mine Skorpion, Namibia
Hot-dip handrail galvanized crystalline surface
Cast brass microstructure at magnification 400x
Zinc oxide is used as a white pigment in paints.
Addition of diphenylzinc to an aldehyde
GNC zinc 50 mg tablets. The amount exceeds what is deemed the safe upper limit in the United States (40 mg) and European Union (25 mg)
Zinc gluconate is one compound used for the delivery of zinc as a dietary supplement.
Ribbon diagram of human carbonic anhydrase II, with zinc atom visible in the center
Zinc fingers help read DNA sequences.
Foods and spices containing zinc

Zinc is a chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks.

The melting point is the lowest of all the d-block metals aside from mercury and cadmium; for this reason among others, zinc, cadmium, and mercury are often not considered to be transition metals like the rest of the d-block metals.

Silver is extremely ductile, and can be drawn into a wire one atom wide.


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Silver is extremely ductile, and can be drawn into a wire one atom wide.
Silver(I) sulfide
The three common silver halide precipitates: from left to right, silver iodide, silver bromide, and silver chloride.
Crystals of silver nitrate
Structure of the diamminesilver(I) complex, [Ag(NH3)2]+
Different colors of silver–copper–gold alloys
Silver vase, circa 2400 BC
Silver mining and processing in Kutná Hora, Bohemia, 1490s
16th-century fresco painting of Judas being paid thirty pieces of silver for his betrayal of Jesus
Acanthite sample from the Imider mine in Morocco
A 2004 American Silver Eagle bullion coin, minted in .999 fine silver.
Embossed silver sarcophagus of Saint Stanislaus in the Wawel Cathedral was created in main centers of the 17th century European silversmithery - Augsburg and Gdańsk
17th century silverware
A tray of South Asian sweets, with some pieces covered with shiny silver vark
Proto-Elamite kneeling bull holding a spouted vessel; 3100–2900 BC; 16.3 x 6.3 x 10.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Ancient Egyptian figurine of Horus as falcon god with an Egyptian crown; circa 500 BC; silver and electrum; height: 26.9 cm; Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst (Munich, Germany)
Ancient Greek tetradrachm; 315–308 BC; diameter: 2.7 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Ancient Greek gilded bowl; 2nd–1st century BC; height: 7.6 cm, dimeter: 14.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Roman plate; 1st–2nd century AD; height: 0.1 cm, diameter: 12.7 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Roman bust of Serapis; 2nd century; 15.6 x 9.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Auricular basin with scenes from the story of Diana and Actaeon; 1613; length: 50 cm, height: 6 cm, width: 40 cm; Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
French Rococo tureen; 1749; height: 26.3 cm, width: 39 cm, depth: 24 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
French Rococo coffeepot; 1757; height: 29.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
French Neoclassical ewer; 1784–1785; height: 32.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Neo-Rococo coffeepot; 1845; overall: 32 x 23.8 x 15.4 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA)
French Art Nouveau dessert spoons; circa 1890; Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum (New York City)
Art Nouveau jardinière; circa 1905–1910; height: 22 cm, width: 47 cm, depth: 22.5 cm; Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Hand mirror; 1906; height: 20.7 cm, weight: 88 g; Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam, the Netherlands)
Mystery watch; ca. 1889; diameter: 5.4 cm, depth: 1.8 cm; Musée d'Horlogerie of Le Locle, (Switzerland)
Price of silver 2009-2022

Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European h₂erǵ: "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal.

The abundance of silver in the Earth's crust is 0.08 parts per million, almost exactly the same as that of mercury.

High-resolution STEM-HAADF micrograph of Al atoms viewed along the [001] zone axis.


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High-resolution STEM-HAADF micrograph of Al atoms viewed along the [001] zone axis.
Aluminium hydrolysis as a function of pH. Coordinated water molecules are omitted. (Data from Baes and Mesmer)
Structure of trimethylaluminium, a compound that features five-coordinate carbon.
Bauxite, a major aluminium ore. The red-brown color is due to the presence of iron oxide minerals.
The statue of Anteros in Piccadilly Circus, London, was made in 1893 and is one of the first statues cast in aluminium.
World production of aluminium since 1900
1897 American advertisement featuring the aluminum spelling
Extrusion billets of aluminium
Common bins for recyclable waste along with a bin for unrecyclable waste. The bin with a yellow top is labeled "aluminum". Rhodes, Greece.
Aluminium-bodied Austin A40 Sports (c. 1951)
Aluminium can
Laser deposition of alumina on a substrate
Schematic of aluminium absorption by human skin.
There are five major aluminium forms absorbed by human body: the free solvated trivalent cation (Al3+(aq)); low-molecular-weight, neutral, soluble complexes (LMW-Al0(aq)); high-molecular-weight, neutral, soluble complexes (HMW-Al0(aq)); low-molecular-weight, charged, soluble complexes (LMW-Al(L)n+/−(aq)); nano and micro-particulates (Al(L)n(s)). They are transported across cell membranes or cell epi-/endothelia through five major routes: (1) paracellular; (2) transcellular; (3) active transport; (4) channels; (5) adsorptive or receptor-mediated endocytosis.
"Bauxite tailings" storage facility in Stade, Germany. The aluminium industry generates about 70 million tons of this waste annually.

Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13.

Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel.

The oxide layer on aluminium is also destroyed by contact with mercury due to amalgamation or with salts of some electropositive metals.

Crystals of osmium, a heavy metal nearly twice as dense as lead

Heavy metals

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Crystals of osmium, a heavy metal nearly twice as dense as lead
In a cello (example shown above) or a viola the C-string sometimes incorporates tungsten; its high density permits a smaller diameter string and improves responsiveness.
The Statue of Liberty. A stainless steel alloy armature provides structural strength; a copper skin confers corrosion resistance.
Cerium(IV) oxide (sample shown above) is used as a catalyst in self-cleaning ovens.
Neodymium sulfate (Nd2(SO4)3), used to colour glassware
The Topaz Solar Farm, in southern California, features nine million cadmium-tellurium photovoltaic modules covering an area of 25.6 km2.
An X-ray tube with a rotating anode, typically a tungsten-rhenium alloy on a molybdenum core, backed with graphite
alt=A silvery finger of chromium irregularly encrusted with diamond-like chunks of chromium of varying size. There is also a one-third sized version of the finger and three roughly hewn gem-like chunks of chromium, as well as the cube. There is a partial reflection of one of the three gem-like chunks in one of the faces of the cube.| Chromium crystals and 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
alt=Two dull silver clusters of crystalline shards| Arsenic, sealed in a container to stop tarnishing
alt=A more or less smooth silvery finger of cadmium with some slightly angled faces plus a dull cube| Cadmium bar and 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
alt=A silvery molasses- like liquid being poured into a circular container with a height equivalent to a smaller coin on its edge| Mercury being poured into a petri dish
alt=Three, dark broccoli shaped clumps of oxidised lead with grossly distended buds, and a cube of lead which has a dull silvery appearance.| Oxidised lead nodules and 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

The definitions surveyed in this article encompass up to 96 out of the 118 known chemical elements; only mercury, lead and bismuth meet all of them.

Molar volume vs. pressure for α iron at room temperature


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Molar volume vs. pressure for α iron at room temperature
Low-pressure phase diagram of pure iron
Magnetization curves of 9 ferromagnetic materials, showing saturation. 1.Sheet steel, 2.Silicon steel, 3.Cast steel, 4.Tungsten steel, 5.Magnet steel, 6.Cast iron, 7.Nickel, 8.Cobalt, 9.Magnetite
A polished and chemically etched piece of an iron meteorite, believed to be similar in composition to the Earth's metallic core, showing individual crystals of the iron-nickel alloy (Widmanstatten pattern)
Ochre path in Roussillon.
Banded iron formation in McKinley Park, Minnesota.
Pourbaix diagram of iron
Hydrated iron(III) chloride (ferric chloride)
Comparison of colors of solutions of ferrate (left) and permanganate (right)
Blue-green iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate
The two enantiomorphs of the ferrioxalate ion
Crystal structure of iron(II) oxalate dihydrate, showing iron (gray), oxygen (red), carbon (black), and hydrogen (white) atoms.
Blood-red positive thiocyanate test for iron(III)
Iron penta- carbonyl
Prussian blue
Iron harpoon head from Greenland. The iron edge covers a narwhal tusk harpoon using meteorite iron from the Cape York meteorite, one of the largest iron meteorites known.
The symbol for Mars has been used since antiquity to represent iron.
The iron pillar of Delhi is an example of the iron extraction and processing methodologies of early India.
Iron sickle from Ancient Greece.
Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801. Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale.
"Gold gab ich für Eisen" – "I gave gold for iron". German-American brooch from WWI.
Iron powder
Iron furnace in Columbus, Ohio, 1922
17th century Chinese illustration of workers at a blast furnace, making wrought iron from pig iron
How iron was extracted in the 19th century
This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production.
A pot of molten iron being used to make steel
Iron-carbon phase diagram
Photon mass attenuation coefficient for iron.
Structure of Heme b; in the protein additional ligand(s) would be attached to Fe.
A heme unit of human carboxyhemoglobin, showing the carbonyl ligand at the apical position, trans to the histidine residue

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 of the periodic table.

Unlike many other metals, iron does not form amalgams with mercury.

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.


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Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.
A positive flame test for sodium has a bright yellow color.
The structure of sodium chloride, showing octahedral coordination around Na+ and Cl− centres. This framework disintegrates when dissolved in water and reassembles when the water evaporates.
Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical soap.
The structure of the complex of sodium (Na+, shown in yellow) and the antibiotic monensin-A.
NaK phase diagram, showing the melting point of sodium as a function of potassium concentration. NaK with 77% potassium is eutectic and has the lowest melting point of the NaK alloys at −12.6 °C.

Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal.

Group 12 metals (zinc, cadmium and mercury) are known to make alloys with sodium.

Gold can be drawn into a monatomic wire, and then stretched more before it breaks.


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Gold can be drawn into a monatomic wire, and then stretched more before it breaks.
A gold nugget of 5 mm in size can be hammered into a gold foil of about 0.5 m2 in area.
Different colors of Ag–Au–Cu alloys
Gold(III) chloride solution in water
Schematic of a NE (left) to SW (right) cross-section through the 2.020-billion-year-old Vredefort impact crater in South Africa and how it distorted the contemporary geological structures. The present erosion level is shown. Johannesburg is located where the Witwatersrand Basin (the yellow layer) is exposed at the "present surface" line, just inside the crater rim, on the left. Not to scale.
Oldest golden artifacts in the world (4600 BC - 4200 BC) from Varna necropolis, Bulgaria - grave offerings on exposition in Varna Museum.
An Indian tribute-bearer at Apadana, from the Achaemenid satrapy of Hindush, carrying gold on a yoke, circa 500 BC.
The Muisca raft, between circa 600-1600 AD. The figure refers to the ceremony of the legend of El Dorado. The zipa used to cover his body in gold dust, and from his raft, he offered treasures to the Guatavita goddess in the middle of the sacred lake. This old Muisca tradition became the origin of the legend of El Dorado. This Muisca raft figure is on display in the Gold Museum, Bogotá, Colombia.
Ancient golden Kritonios Crown, funerary or marriage material, 370–360 BC. From a grave in Armento, Basilicata
Gold coin of Eucratides I (171–145 BC), one of the Hellenistic rulers of ancient Ai-Khanoum. This is the largest known gold coin minted in antiquity (169.2 g; 58 mm).
An early mention of gold in the Beowulf
Gold crafts from the Philippines prior to Western contact.
The Agusan image, depicting a deity from northeast Mindanao.
Time trend of gold production
A miner underground at Pumsaint gold mine, Wales; c. 1938.
Grasberg mine, Indonesia is the world's largest gold mine.
Relative sizes of an 860 kg block of gold ore and the 30 g of gold that can be extracted from it, Toi gold mine, Japan.
Gold prospecting at the Ivalo River in the Finnish Lapland in 1898
Gold Nuggets found in Arizona.
Two golden 20 kr coins from the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which was based on a gold standard. The coin to the left is Swedish and the right one is Danish.
Gold price history in 1960–2020.
Moche gold necklace depicting feline heads. Larco Museum Collection, Lima, Peru.
A 21.5k yellow gold pendant watch so-called "Boule de Genève" (Geneva ball), ca. 1890.
Cake with gold decoration served at the Amstel Hotel, Amsterdam
Mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope coated in gold to reflect infrared light
Kamakshi Amman Temple with golden roof, Kanchipuram.
Iron pyrite or "fool's gold"
Minoan jewellery; 2300–2100 BC; various sizes; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Pair of Sumerian earrings with cuneiform inscriptions; 2093–2046 BC; Sulaymaniyah Museum (Sulaymaniyah, Iraq)
Ancient Egyptian statuette of Amun; 945–715 BC; gold; {{cvt|175x47|mm}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Ancient Egyptian signet ring; 664–525 BC; gold; diameter: {{cvt|30|x|34|mm}}; British Museum (London)
Ancient Greek stater; 323–315 BC; {{cvt|18|mm}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Etruscan funerary wreath; 4th–3rd century BC; length: {{cvt|333|mm}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Roman aureus of Hadrian; 134–138 AD; 7.4 g; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Quimbaya lime container; 5th–9th century; gold; height: {{cvt|230|mm}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Byzantine scyphate; 1059–1067; diameter: {{cvt|25|mm}}; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA)
Pre-Columbian pendant with two bat-head warriors who carry spears; 11th–16th century; gold; overall: {{cvt|76.2|mm}}; from the Chiriqui Province (Panama); Metropolitan Museum of Art
English Neoclassical box; 1741; overall: {{cvt|44|x|116|x|92|mm}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art
French Rococo glass bottle mounted in gold; circa 1775; overall: {{cvt|70|x|29|mm}}; Cleveland Museum of Art

Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

It is a bright, slightly orange-yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal in a pure form.

Gold also dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, and as the gold acts simply as a solute, this is not a chemical reaction.