A report on OxygenChemical element and Metal

Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery.
The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Iron, shown here as fragments and a 1 cm3 cube, is an example of a chemical element that is a metal.
Antoine Lavoisier discredited the phlogiston theory.
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
A metal in the form of a gravy boat made from stainless steel, an alloy largely composed of iron, carbon, and chromium
Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline rocket
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Gallium crystals
An experiment setup for preparation of oxygen in academic laboratories
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
A metal rod with a hot-worked eyelet. Hot-working exploits the capacity of metal to be plastically deformed.
Orbital diagram, after Barrett (2002), showing the participating atomic orbitals from each oxygen atom, the molecular orbitals that result from their overlap, and the aufbau filling of the orbitals with the 12 electrons, 6 from each O atom, beginning from the lowest-energy orbitals, and resulting in covalent double-bond character from filled orbitals (and cancellation of the contributions of the pairs of σ and σ* and π and π* orbital pairs).
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Samples of babbitt metal, an alloy of tin, antimony, and copper, used in bearings to reduce friction
Liquid oxygen, temporarily suspended in a magnet owing to its paramagnetism
Dmitri Mendeleev
A sculpture cast in nickel silver—an alloy of copper, nickel, and zinc that looks like silver
Space-filling model representation of dioxygen (O2) molecule
Henry Moseley
Rhodium, a noble metal, shown here as 1 g of powder, a 1 g pressed cylinder, and a 1 g pellet
Oxygen discharge (spectrum) tube
A sample of diaspore, an aluminum oxide hydroxide mineral, α-AlO(OH)
Late in a massive star's life, 16O concentrates in the O-shell, 17O in the H-shell and 18O in the He-shell.
A neodymium compound alloy magnet of composition Nd2Fe14B on a nickel-iron bracket from a computer hard drive
Cold water holds more dissolved.
A pile of compacted steel scraps, ready for recycling
500 million years of climate change vs. 18O
The Artemision Bronze showing either Poseidon or Zeus, c. 460 BCE, National Archaeological Museum, Athens. The figure is more than 2 m in height.
Photosynthesis splits water to liberate and fixes into sugar in what is called a Calvin cycle.
De re metallica, 1555
build-up in Earth's atmosphere: 1) no produced; 2) produced, but absorbed in oceans & seabed rock; 3)  starts to gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer; 4–5)  sinks filled and the gas accumulates
Platinum crystals
Hofmann electrolysis apparatus used in electrolysis of water.
A disc of highly enriched uranium that was recovered from scrap processed at the Y-12 National Security Complex, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Oxygen and MAPP gas compressed-gas cylinders with regulators
Ultrapure cerium under argon, 1.5 gm
An oxygen concentrator in an emphysema patient's house
White-hot steel pours like water from a 35-ton electric furnace, at the Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corporation, in Brackenridge, Pennsylvania.
Low pressure pure is used in space suits.
A Ho-Mg-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal formed as a pentagonal dodecahedron, the dual of the icosahedron
Most commercially produced is used to smelt and/or decarburize iron.
Body-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 2-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. chromium, iron, and tungsten
Water is the most familiar oxygen compound.
Face-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 4-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. aluminum, copper, and gold
Oxides, such as iron oxide or rust, form when oxygen combines with other elements.
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure, with a 6-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. titanium, cobalt, and zinc
Main symptoms of oxygen toxicity
Niobium crystals and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} anodized niobium cube for comparison
The interior of the Apollo 1 Command Module. Pure at higher than normal pressure and a spark led to a fire and the loss of the Apollo 1 crew.
Molybdenum crystals and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} molybdenum cube for comparison
Tantalum single crystal, some crystalline fragments, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} tantalum cube for comparison
Tungsten rods with evaporated crystals, partially oxidized with colorful tarnish, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} tungsten cube for comparison
Rhenium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Native copper
Gold crystals
Crystalline silver
A slice of meteoric iron
alt=Three, dark broccoli shaped clumps of oxidised lead with grossly distended buds, and a cube of lead which has a dull silvery appearance.| oxidised lead
A brass weight (35 g)
A droplet of solidified molten tin
alt=A silvery molasses-like liquid being poured into a circular container with a height equivalent to a smaller coin on its edge| Mercury being
Electrum, a natural alloy of silver and gold, was often used for making coins. Shown is the Roman god Apollo, and on the obverse, a Delphi tripod (circa 310–305 BCE).
A plate made of pewter, an alloy of 85–99% tin and (usually) copper. Pewter was first used around the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Near East.
A pectoral (ornamental breastplate) made of tumbaga, an alloy of gold and copper
Arsenic, sealed in a container to prevent tarnishing
Zinc fragments and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Antimony, showing its brilliant lustre
Bismuth in crystalline form, with a very thin oxidation layer, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} bismuth cube
Potassium pearls under paraffin oil. Size of the largest pearl is 0.5 cm.
Strontium crystals
Aluminum chunk, 2.6 grams, {{nowrap|1=1 x 2 cm}}
A bar of titanium crystals
Scandium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Lutetium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Hafnium, in the form of a 1.7 kg bar

Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8.

- Oxygen

A metal may be a chemical element such as iron; an alloy such as stainless steel; or a molecular compound such as polymeric sulfur nitride.

- Metal

Air is primarily a mixture of the elements nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, though it does contain compounds including carbon dioxide and water.

- Chemical element

In this sense the first four "metals" collecting in stellar cores through nucleosynthesis are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, all of which are strictly non-metals in chemistry.

- Metal

Common uses of oxygen include production of steel, plastics and textiles, brazing, welding and cutting of steels and other metals, rocket propellant, oxygen therapy, and life support systems in aircraft, submarines, spaceflight and diving.

- Oxygen

A first distinction is between metals, which readily conduct electricity, nonmetals, which do not, and a small group, (the metalloids), having intermediate properties and often behaving as semiconductors.

- Chemical element
Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery.

8 related topics with Alpha


The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.


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The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.
Depiction of a hydrogen atom with size of central proton shown, and the atomic diameter shown as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale)
Hydrogen gas is colorless and transparent, here contained in a glass ampoule.
Phase diagram of hydrogen. The temperature and pressure scales are logarithmic, so one unit corresponds to a 10x change. The left edge corresponds to 105 Pa, which is about atmospheric pressure.
A sample of sodium hydride
Hydrogen discharge (spectrum) tube
Deuterium discharge (spectrum) tube
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier
Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series
NGC 604, a giant region of ionized hydrogen in the Triangulum Galaxy

Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.

Hydrogen can form compounds with elements that are more electronegative, such as halogens (F, Cl, Br, I), or oxygen; in these compounds hydrogen takes on a partial positive charge.

Hydrogen also forms compounds with less electronegative elements, such as metals and metalloids, where it takes on a partial negative charge.


Periodic table

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3D views of some hydrogen-like atomic orbitals showing probability density and phase (g orbitals and higher are not shown)
Idealized order of shell-filling (most accurate for n  ≲ 4.)
Trend in atomic radii
Graph of first ionisation energies of the elements in electronvolts (predictions used for elements 105–118)
Trend in electron affinities
Flowing liquid mercury. Its liquid state at room temperature is a result of special relativity.
A periodic table colour-coded to show some commonly used sets of similar elements. The categories and their boundaries differ somewhat between sources. Alkali metals
 Alkaline earth metals
 Transition metals Other metals
 Other nonmetals
 Noble gases
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table
Mendeleev's 1871 periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley
Periodic table of van den Broek
Glenn T. Seaborg
One possible form of the extended periodic table to element 172, suggested by Finnish chemist Pekka Pyykkö. Deviations from the Madelung order (8s < < 6f < 7d < 8p) begin to appear at elements 139 and 140, though for the most part it continues to hold approximately.
Otto Theodor Benfey's spiral periodic table (1964)
Iron, a metal
Sulfur, a nonmetal
Arsenic, an element often called a semi-metal or metalloid

The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of the (chemical) elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements.

Trends run through the periodic table, with nonmetallic character (keeping their own electrons) increasing from left to right across a period, and from down to up across a group, and metallic character (surrendering electrons to other atoms) increasing in the opposite direction.

Oxygen (1s2 2s2 2p4), fluorine (1s2 2s2 2p5), and neon (1s2 2s2 2p6) then complete the already singly filled 2p orbitals; the last of these fills the second shell completely.

Periodic table highlighting the first row of each block. Helium (He), as a noble gas, is normally shown over neon (Ne) with the rest of the noble gases. The elements within scope of this article are inside the thick black borders. The status of oganesson (Og, element 118) is not yet known.


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[[File:Nonmetals in the periodic table.png|thumb|upright=0.85|

[[File:Nonmetals in the periodic table.png|thumb|upright=0.85|

Periodic table highlighting the first row of each block. Helium (He), as a noble gas, is normally shown over neon (Ne) with the rest of the noble gases. The elements within scope of this article are inside the thick black borders. The status of oganesson (Og, element 118) is not yet known.
Electronegativity values of the group 16 chalcogen elements showing a W-shaped alternation or secondary periodicity going down the group
Modern periodic table extract showing nonmetal subclasses.
<hr style="color:white;background-color:white">
† moderately strong oxidising agent
‡ strong oxidising agent
A small (about 2 cm long) piece of rapidly melting argon ice
A cluster of purple fluorite, a fluorine mineral, between two quartzes
Selenium conducts electricity around 1,000 times better when light falls on it, a property used since the mid-1870s in light-sensing applications.
A crystal of realgar, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic", an arsenic sulfide mineral As4S4
Brownish crystals of buckminsterfullerene С60, a semiconducting allotrope of carbon
Germanium occurs in some zinc-copper-lead ore bodies, in quantities sufficient to justify extraction. The pure form costs $360 per 100 grams, as at February 2022.
The Alchemist Discovering Phosphorus (1771) by Joseph Wright. The alchemist is Hennig Brand; the glow emanates from the combustion of phosphorus inside the flask.

In chemistry, a nonmetal is a chemical element that generally lacks a predominance of metallic properties; they range from colorless gases (like hydrogen) to shiny and high melting point solids (like boron).

Five nonmetallic elements, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and silicon, largely make up the Earth's crust, atmosphere, oceans and biosphere.

Molar volume vs. pressure for α iron at room temperature


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Molar volume vs. pressure for α iron at room temperature
Low-pressure phase diagram of pure iron
Magnetization curves of 9 ferromagnetic materials, showing saturation. 1.Sheet steel, 2.Silicon steel, 3.Cast steel, 4.Tungsten steel, 5.Magnet steel, 6.Cast iron, 7.Nickel, 8.Cobalt, 9.Magnetite
A polished and chemically etched piece of an iron meteorite, believed to be similar in composition to the Earth's metallic core, showing individual crystals of the iron-nickel alloy (Widmanstatten pattern)
Ochre path in Roussillon.
Banded iron formation in McKinley Park, Minnesota.
Pourbaix diagram of iron
Hydrated iron(III) chloride (ferric chloride)
Comparison of colors of solutions of ferrate (left) and permanganate (right)
Blue-green iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate
The two enantiomorphs of the ferrioxalate ion
Crystal structure of iron(II) oxalate dihydrate, showing iron (gray), oxygen (red), carbon (black), and hydrogen (white) atoms.
Blood-red positive thiocyanate test for iron(III)
Iron penta- carbonyl
Prussian blue
Iron harpoon head from Greenland. The iron edge covers a narwhal tusk harpoon using meteorite iron from the Cape York meteorite, one of the largest iron meteorites known.
The symbol for Mars has been used since antiquity to represent iron.
The iron pillar of Delhi is an example of the iron extraction and processing methodologies of early India.
Iron sickle from Ancient Greece.
Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801. Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale.
"Gold gab ich für Eisen" – "I gave gold for iron". German-American brooch from WWI.
Iron powder
Iron furnace in Columbus, Ohio, 1922
17th century Chinese illustration of workers at a blast furnace, making wrought iron from pig iron
How iron was extracted in the 19th century
This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production.
A pot of molten iron being used to make steel
Iron-carbon phase diagram
Photon mass attenuation coefficient for iron.
Structure of Heme b; in the protein additional ligand(s) would be attached to Fe.
A heme unit of human carboxyhemoglobin, showing the carbonyl ligand at the apical position, trans to the histidine residue

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 of the periodic table.

It is, by mass, the most common element on Earth, right in front of oxygen (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's outer and inner core.

Theoretically predicted phase diagram of carbon, from 1989. Newer work indicates that the melting point of diamond (top-right curve) does not go above about 9000 K.


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Theoretically predicted phase diagram of carbon, from 1989. Newer work indicates that the melting point of diamond (top-right curve) does not go above about 9000 K.
A large sample of glassy carbon
Some allotropes of carbon: a) diamond; b) graphite; c) lonsdaleite; d–f) fullerenes (C60, C540, C70); g) amorphous carbon; h) carbon nanotube
Comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) surrounded by glowing carbon vapor
Graphite ore, shown with a penny for scale
Raw diamond crystal
"Present day" (1990s) sea surface dissolved inorganic carbon concentration (from the GLODAP climatology)
Diagram of the carbon cycle. The black numbers indicate how much carbon is stored in various reservoirs, in billions tonnes ("GtC" stands for gigatonnes of carbon; figures are circa 2004). The purple numbers indicate how much carbon moves between reservoirs each year. The sediments, as defined in this diagram, do not include the ≈70 million GtC of carbonate rock and kerogen.
Structural formula of methane, the simplest possible organic compound.
Correlation between the carbon cycle and formation of organic compounds. In plants, carbon dioxide formed by carbon fixation can join with water in photosynthesis ( green ) to form organic compounds, which can be used and further converted by both plants and animals.
This anthracene derivative contains a carbon atom with 5 formal electron pairs around it.
Antoine Lavoisier in his youth
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Diamond output in 2005
Pencil leads for mechanical pencils are made of graphite (often mixed with a clay or synthetic binder).
Sticks of vine and compressed charcoal
A cloth of woven carbon fibres
Silicon carbide single crystal
The C60 fullerene in crystalline form
Tungsten carbide endmills
Worker at carbon black plant in Sunray, Texas (photo by John Vachon, 1942)

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6.

Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen.

This results in a lower bulk electrical conductivity for carbon than for most metals.

High-resolution STEM-HAADF micrograph of Al atoms viewed along the [001] zone axis.


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High-resolution STEM-HAADF micrograph of Al atoms viewed along the [001] zone axis.
Aluminium hydrolysis as a function of pH. Coordinated water molecules are omitted. (Data from Baes and Mesmer)
Structure of trimethylaluminium, a compound that features five-coordinate carbon.
Bauxite, a major aluminium ore. The red-brown color is due to the presence of iron oxide minerals.
The statue of Anteros in Piccadilly Circus, London, was made in 1893 and is one of the first statues cast in aluminium.
World production of aluminium since 1900
1897 American advertisement featuring the aluminum spelling
Extrusion billets of aluminium
Common bins for recyclable waste along with a bin for unrecyclable waste. The bin with a yellow top is labeled "aluminum". Rhodes, Greece.
Aluminium-bodied Austin A40 Sports (c. 1951)
Aluminium can
Laser deposition of alumina on a substrate
Schematic of aluminium absorption by human skin.
There are five major aluminium forms absorbed by human body: the free solvated trivalent cation (Al3+(aq)); low-molecular-weight, neutral, soluble complexes (LMW-Al0(aq)); high-molecular-weight, neutral, soluble complexes (HMW-Al0(aq)); low-molecular-weight, charged, soluble complexes (LMW-Al(L)n+/−(aq)); nano and micro-particulates (Al(L)n(s)). They are transported across cell membranes or cell epi-/endothelia through five major routes: (1) paracellular; (2) transcellular; (3) active transport; (4) channels; (5) adsorptive or receptor-mediated endocytosis.
"Bauxite tailings" storage facility in Stade, Germany. The aluminium industry generates about 70 million tons of this waste annually.

Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13.

Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel.

It has a great affinity towards oxygen, and forms a protective layer of oxide on the surface when exposed to air.

The first row of transition metals in order.

Transition metal

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In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible definitions:

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible definitions:

The first row of transition metals in order.
From left to right, aqueous solutions of: (red); (orange);  (yellow);  (turquoise);  (blue);  (purple).
Oxidation states of the transition metals. The solid dots show common oxidation states, and the hollow dots show possible but unlikely states.

The IUPAC definition defines a transition metal as "an element whose atom has a partially filled d sub-shell, or which can give rise to cations with an incomplete d sub-shell".

Cotton and Wilkinson expand the brief IUPAC definition (see above) by specifying which elements are included. As well as the elements of groups 4 to 11, they add scandium and yttrium in group 3, which have a partially filled d sub-shell in the metallic state. Lanthanum and actinium, which they consider group 3 elements, are however classified as lanthanides and actinides respectively.

the formation of many paramagnetic compounds due to the presence of unpaired d electrons. A few compounds of main-group elements are also paramagnetic (e.g. nitric oxide, oxygen)

Droplet of solidified molten tin


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Droplet of solidified molten tin
Ceremonial giant bronze dirk of the Plougrescant-Ommerschans type, Plougrescant, France, 1500–1300 BC.
Ball-and-stick models of the structure of solid stannous chloride.
Sample of cassiterite, the main ore of tin
World production and price (US exchange) of tin.
World consumption of refined tin by end-use, 2006
A coil of lead-free solder wire
Tin plated metal from a can.
Pewter plate
Artisans working with tin sheets.
A 21st-century reproduction barn lantern made of punched tin.

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

Tin is a soft, malleable, ductile and highly crystalline silvery-white metal.

Tin acts as a catalyst triggering a chemical reaction of a solution containing oxygen and helps to increase the speed of the chemical reaction that results.