Chemical formula

molecular formulaformulageneral formulachemical notationformulasChemicalchemical formula notationchemical formulae@ notationchemical composition
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus and minus signs.wikipedia
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Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
For example, the empirical formula for glucose is CH 2 O (twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon and oxygen), while its molecular formula is C 6 H 12 O 6 (12 hydrogen atoms, six carbon and oxygen atoms).
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula.

Structural formula

condensed structural formulachemical structurestructural formulae
Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula.
Unlike chemical formulas, which have a limited number of symbols and are capable of only limited descriptive power, structural formulas provide a more complete geometric representation of the molecular structure.

Chemical compound

compoundcompoundschemical compounds
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus and minus signs.
A chemical formula specifies the number of atoms of each element in a compound molecule, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements and numerical subscripts.

Chemical nomenclature

chemical nameIUPAC nomenclaturenomenclature
A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words.
To be more generally applicable, the name should indicate at least the chemical formula.

C6H12O6

C 6 H 12 O 6
For example glucose shares its molecular formula C 6 H 12 O 6 with a number of other sugars, including fructose, galactose and mannose.
The molecular formula C 6 H 12 O 6 (molar mass: 180.16 g/mol) may refer to:

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
For example, the empirical formula of ethanol may be written C 2 H 6 O because the molecules of ethanol all contain two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom.
Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

Chemical equation

chemical equationsequationIonic equation
Chemical formulas may be used in chemical equations to describe chemical reactions and other chemical transformations, such as the dissolving of ionic compounds into solution.
A chemical equation consists of the chemical formulas of the reactants (the starting substances) and the chemical formula of the products (substances formed in the chemical reaction).

Empirical formula

empiricalchemical componentsformula
The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type.
However, their molecular formulas, which express the number of atoms in each molecule of a chemical compound, are not the same.

Hexane

n''-hexanen-hexanehexanes
For example, hexane has a molecular formula of, or structurally, implying that it has a chain structure of 6 carbon atoms, and 14 hydrogen atoms.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C 6 H 14.

Formaldehyde

formalinH 2 COmethanal
Formaldehyde and acetic acid have the same empirical formula,.
Formaldehyde (systematic name methanal) is a naturally occurring organic compound with the formula CH 2 O (H−CHO).

Chemical reaction

reactionchemical reactionsreactions
Chemical formulas may be used in chemical equations to describe chemical reactions and other chemical transformations, such as the dissolving of ionic compounds into solution.
They consist of chemical or structural formulas of the reactants on the left and those of the products on the right.

Acetic acid

aceticglacial acetic acidacetate
Formaldehyde and acetic acid have the same empirical formula,.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH 3 COOH (also written as CH 3 CO 2 H or C 2 H 4 O 2 ).

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
For example, hexane has a molecular formula of, or structurally, implying that it has a chain structure of 6 carbon atoms, and 14 hydrogen atoms.
At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H 2.

Dichlorine hexoxide

chlorine trioxideCl 2 O 6 ClO 3
For example, the compound dichlorine hexoxide has an empirical formula, and molecular formula, but in liquid or solid forms, this compound is more correctly shown by an ionic condensed formula, which illustrates that this compound consists of ions and ions.
Dichlorine hexoxide is the chemical compound with the molecular formula, which is correct for its gaseous state.

Boron carbide

B 4 C 10 B 4 Cboron
An example is boron carbide, whose formula of CB n is a variable non-whole number ratio with n ranging from over 4 to more than 6.5.
Boron carbide was discovered in the 19th century as a by-product of reactions involving metal borides, but its chemical formula was unknown.

Molecule

molecularmoleculesmolecular structure
Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas.
The chemical formula for a molecule uses one line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, and plus and minus signs.

Sugar

sugarssugar tradesugar cube
For example glucose shares its molecular formula C 6 H 12 O 6 with a number of other sugars, including fructose, galactose and mannose.
Glucose has the molecular formula.

Ethane

C 2 H 6 dimethyldicarbon hexahydride
For example, ethane consists of two carbon atoms single-bonded to each other, with each carbon atom having three hydrogen atoms bonded to it.
Ethane ( or ) is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.

Chemical bond

bondbondschemical bonds
Sometimes a chemical formula is complicated by being written as a condensed formula (or condensed molecular formula, occasionally called a "semi-structural formula"), which conveys additional information about the particular ways in which the atoms are chemically bonded together, either in covalent bonds, ionic bonds, or various combinations of these types.
In molecular formulas the chemical bonds (binding orbitals) between atoms are indicated in different ways depending on the type of discussion.

Isobutane

iso-butaneE943bGreenfreeze
For example, isobutane may be written (CH 3 ) 3 CH.
Isobutane, also known as i-butane, 2-methylpropane or methylpropane, is a chemical compound with molecular formula HC(CH 3 ) 3.

Methyl group

methylCH 3 Me
The formula (CH 3 ) 3 CH implies a central carbon atom connected to one hydrogen atom and three CH 3 groups.
In formulas, the group is often abbreviated Me.

Chemical substance

chemicalchemicalssubstance
Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas.
Chemists frequently refer to chemical compounds using chemical formulae or molecular structure of the compound.

Caesium dodecaborate

Cs 2 [B 12 H 12 dodecaborate anion
For more complex ions, brackets [ ] are often used to enclose the ionic formula, as in [B 12 H 12 ] 2−, which is found in compounds such as Cs 2 [B 12 H 12 ].
Caesium dodecaborate is an inorganic compound with the formula Cs 2 B 12 H 12.

Hydrocarbon

hydrocarbonsliquid hydrocarbonHC
For example, a hydrocarbon molecule that is described as CH 3 (CH 2 ) 50 CH 3, is a molecule with fifty repeating units.

International Chemical Identifier

InChIInChI TrustInChiKey
In addition, linear naming systems such as International Chemical Identifier (InChI) allow a computer to construct a structural formula, and simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) allows a more human-readable ASCII input.