Chemical substance

chemicalchemicalssubstancesubstanceschemical productschemical substancesmaterialspure substancechemicallychemicals terminal
A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.wikipedia
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Chemical compound

compoundcompoundschemical compounds
Chemical substances can be simple substances, chemical compounds, or alloys. Chemists frequently refer to chemical compounds using chemical formulae or molecular structure of the compound.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

Mixture

mixturesmixingadmixture
Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. Often a pure substance needs to be isolated from a mixture, for example from a natural source (where a sample often contains numerous chemical substances) or after a chemical reaction (which often give mixtures of chemical substances).
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are physically combined.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds.
The term "element" is used for atoms with a given number of protons (regardless of whether or not they are ionized or chemically bonded, e.g. hydrogen in water) as well as for a pure chemical substance consisting of a single element (e.g. hydrogen gas).

Properties of water

waterH 2 Owater molecule
A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory.
Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula ; one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.

Chemical reaction

reactionchemical reactionsreactions
Chemical substances may be combined or converted to others by means of chemical reactions. Often a pure substance needs to be isolated from a mixture, for example from a natural source (where a sample often contains numerous chemical substances) or after a chemical reaction (which often give mixtures of chemical substances).
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

REACHREACH RegulationRegistration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals
For example, the EU regulation REACH defines "monoconstituent substances", "multiconstituent substances" and "substances of unknown or variable composition".
REACH addresses the production and use of chemical substances, and their potential impacts on both human health and the environment.

Light

visible lightvisiblelight source
Forms of energy, such as light and heat, are not matter, and are thus not "substances" in this regard.
where θ 1 is the angle between the ray and the surface normal in the first medium, θ 2 is the angle between the ray and the surface normal in the second medium, and n 1 and n 2 are the indices of refraction, n = 1 in a vacuum and n > 1 in a transparent substance.

Chemistry

chemistchemicalApplied Chemistry
Later with the advancement of methods for chemical synthesis particularly in the realm of organic chemistry; the discovery of many more chemical elements and new techniques in the realm of analytical chemistry used for isolation and purification of elements and compounds from chemicals that led to the establishment of modern chemistry, the concept was defined as is found in most chemistry textbooks.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.

Heat

heat energythermalhot
Forms of energy, such as light and heat, are not matter, and are thus not "substances" in this regard.
Latent heat is the heat released or absorbed by a chemical substance or a thermodynamic system during a change of state that occurs without a change in temperature.

Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
A common example is glucose vs. fructose.
Since glucose is a basic necessity of many organisms, a correct understanding of its chemical makeup and structure contributed greatly to a general advancement in organic chemistry.

Solubility

solubleinsolublewater-soluble
Iron(II) sulfide has its own distinct properties such as melting point and solubility, and the two elements cannot be separated using normal mechanical processes; a magnet will be unable to recover the iron, since there is no metallic iron present in the compound.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
Polymers almost always appear as mixtures of molecules of multiple molar masses, each of which could be considered a separate chemical substance.
Polymer degradation is a change in the properties—tensile strength, color, shape, or molecular weight—of a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors, such as heat, light, chemicals and, in some cases, galvanic action.

Systematic name

systematicIUPAC namesystematic nomenclature
Every chemical substance has one or more systematic names, usually named according to the IUPAC rules for naming.
A systematic name is a name given in a systematic way to one unique group, organism, object or chemical substance, out of a specific population or collection.

Chemical formula

molecular formulaformulageneral formula
Chemists frequently refer to chemical compounds using chemical formulae or molecular structure of the compound.
Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas.

CAS Registry Number

CAS numberCASCAS RN
CAS provides the abstracting services of the chemical literature, and provides a numerical identifier, known as CAS registry number to each chemical substance that has been reported in the chemical literature (such as chemistry journals and patents).
A CAS Registry Number, also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, substances of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products, or biological origin).

International Chemical Identifier

InChIInChI TrustInChiKey
Other computer-friendly systems that have been developed for substance information, are: SMILES and the International Chemical Identifier or InChI.
The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI or ) is a textual identifier for chemical substances, designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web.

Nitrogen

NN 2 dinitrogen
Around a dozen elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, are classified as non-metals.
The amount of nitrogen in a chemical substance can be determined by the Kjeldahl method.

Molecule

molecularmoleculesmolecular structure
Chemists frequently refer to chemical compounds using chemical formulae or molecular structure of the compound. A chemical compound can be either atoms bonded together in molecules or crystals in which atoms, molecules or ions form a crystalline lattice.
Earlier definitions were less precise, defining molecules as the smallest particles of pure chemical substances that still retain their composition and chemical properties.

Nature

naturalnatural worldmaterial world
Often a pure substance needs to be isolated from a mixture, for example from a natural source (where a sample often contains numerous chemical substances) or after a chemical reaction (which often give mixtures of chemical substances).
Water is a chemical substance that is composed of hydrogen and oxygen (H2O) and is vital for all known forms of life.

Matter

corporealsubstancematerial
A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.

Chemical bond

bondbondschemical bonds
Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds. A chemical compound can be either atoms bonded together in molecules or crystals in which atoms, molecules or ions form a crystalline lattice.

Ratio

ratiosproportionratio analysis
A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. Around a dozen elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, are classified as non-metals.