Chen Duxiu

Ch'en Tu-hsiuanti-Confucianism
Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (with Li Dazhao) in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary.wikipedia
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Communist Party of China

Communist PartyCPCCommunist
Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (with Li Dazhao) in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary.
It was founded in 1921, chiefly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao.

Li Dazhao

Li Ta-chao
Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (with Li Dazhao) in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary. At the First Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai, Chen was elected (in absentia) as the party's first General Secretary; and, with the assistance of Li Dazhao, he developed what would become a crucial cooperative relationship with the International Communist Movement, the Comintern.
Li Dazhao (October 29, 1889 – April 28, 1927) was a Chinese intellectual who co-founded the Communist Party of China with Chen Duxiu and other early communists in 1921.

Anhui

Anhui ProvinceAnhweiAnhui, China
Chen's ancestral home was in Anqing, Anhui, where he established the influential vernacular Chinese periodical New Youth (Xin Qingnian).
Several of them impacted the future of China including, Hu Shih, a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat, and Chen Duxiu, founder of the Chinese Communist Party and the first General Secretary of the CCP.

Trotskyism

TrotskyistTrotskyistsTrotskyite
Expelled from the Communist Party in 1929, he was for a time the leader of China's small Trotskyist movement.
There was also a substantial Trotskyist movement in China which included the founding father of the Chinese communist movement, Chen Duxiu, amongst its number.

Peking University

Beijing UniversityUniversity of BeijingPeking
Chen joined the faculty of Peking University in 1917 as the university's dean, at the invitation of Cai Yuanpei, who also paid for moving Chen's journal to Beijing.
Peking University has educated and hosted many prominent modern Chinese figures, including Mao Zedong, Lu Xun, Gu Hongming, Hu Shih, Mao Dun, Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu, and the current Premier Li Keqiang.

May Fourth Movement

May 4th MovementMay FourthMay 4 Movement
Chen was a leading figure in both the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty and the May Fourth Movement for scientific and democratic developments in early Republic of China.
People like Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao shifted more to the left and were among the leading founders of the Communist Party of China in 1921, whilst other intellectuals, such as the anarchist writer and agitator, Ba Jin also took part in the movement.

Grigori Voitinsky

Over time, the more prominent revolutionaries attracted to the early Chinese Communist Party eventually adopted a more orthodox interpretation of Communism, and were organized through the influence of a Comintern advisor, Grigori Voitinsky, who made a tour of China during 1920-21.
He was sent to China in 1920 as an Senior advisor to contact the Top prominent Chinese Communists such as Chen Duxiu, just before the formation of the Communist Party of China.

Zhejiang University

National Chekiang UniversityZhejiang Agricultural UniversityChe Kiang University
1898, he passed the entrance exam and became a student of Qiushi Academy (currently Zhejiang University) in Hangzhou, where he studied French, English, and naval architecture.

Mao Zedong

MaoMao Tse-tungChairman Mao
It has been generally asserted that Chen, Li and the other Chinese radicals of the time (including future chairman Mao Zedong) formed the CPC out of diligent study of Marxist theories, inspired by the Russian Revolution of 1917. In 1927, he and other high-ranking Communists, including Mao Zedong and Mikhail Borodin, collaborated closely with Wang Jingwei's Nationalist government in Wuhan, convincing Wang's regime to adopt various proto-Communist policies.
Befriending Mao, professor Yang Changji urged him to read a radical newspaper, New Youth (Xin qingnian), the creation of his friend Chen Duxiu, a dean at Peking University.

Written vernacular Chinese

vernacular Chinesebaihuavernacular
Chen's ancestral home was in Anqing, Anhui, where he established the influential vernacular Chinese periodical New Youth (Xin Qingnian).
However, it was not until after the May Fourth Movement in 1919 and the promotion by scholars and intellectuals such as pragmatist reformer Hu Shih, leftist Lu Xun, Chen Duxiu, and leftist Qian Xuantong that vernacular Chinese, or Bai hua, gained widespread importance.

Cai Yuanpei

Cai Yuan PeiT'sai Yuan-p'eiTsai Yuan-pei
Chen joined the faculty of Peking University in 1917 as the university's dean, at the invitation of Cai Yuanpei, who also paid for moving Chen's journal to Beijing.
It was during his tenure at Peking University that he recruited such famous thinkers (and future Chinese Communist Party leaders) to the school as Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, as well as quite different thinkers as Hu Shih, a close friend, Liang Shuming and the painter Xu Beihong.

1st National Congress of the Communist Party of China

1st National Congressfounding National Congress1st Congress
At the First Congress of the Communist Party in Shanghai, Chen was elected (in absentia) as the party's first General Secretary; and, with the assistance of Li Dazhao, he developed what would become a crucial cooperative relationship with the International Communist Movement, the Comintern.
Notably, the two founders of the party did not attend the congress: Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao.

Tokyo Shinbu Gakko

Tokyo Shimbu GakkoTokyo Shimbu AcademyTokyo Shimbu Military Academy
He moved to Nanjing in 1902, after he was reported to have given speeches attacking the Qing government, and then to Japan the same year under a scholarship from the government to study at the Tokyo Shimbu Gakko, a military preparatory academy.

Long March

The Long MarchChangzhengChinese Long March
The Chinese Communist Party only managed to survive the purges by fleeing to the northern frontier in the Long March of 1934-5, during which Mao Zedong emerged as leader.
The Communist Party of China (CCP) was founded in 1921 by Chen Duxiu with Soviet support.

General Secretary of the Communist Party of China

General SecretaryGeneral Secretary of the Communist PartyParty General Secretary
Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (with Li Dazhao) in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary.

Wang Jingwei

Wang Ching-weiWang ZhaomingWang
In 1927, he and other high-ranking Communists, including Mao Zedong and Mikhail Borodin, collaborated closely with Wang Jingwei's Nationalist government in Wuhan, convincing Wang's regime to adopt various proto-Communist policies.
While attempting to direct the government from Wuhan, Wang was notable for his close collaboration with leading communist figures, including Mao Zedong, Chen Duxiu, and Borodin, and for his faction's provocative land reform policies.

Shanghai massacre

Shanghai massacre of 1927White TerrorApril 12 Incident
Chen was forced to resign as General Secretary in 1927, due to his public dissatisfaction with the Comintern order to disarm during the April 12 Incident, which had led to the deaths of thousands of Communists - now known as the Shanghai massacre of 1927, and because of his disagreement with the Comintern's new focus on peasant rebellions.
On March 21–22 KMT and CPC union workers led by Zhou Enlai and Chen Duxiu launched an armed uprising in Shanghai, defeating the warlord forces of the Zhili clique.

Boxer Rebellion

Boxer UprisingBoxersThe Boxer Rebellion
From the late 19th century through the early the 20th century, the Qing Dynasty had suffered a series of military defeats against the colonial foreign powers, most recently in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and the war against the Alliance of Eight Nations that invaded China in reaction to the 1901 Boxer Rebellion.
The leader of the New Culture Movement, Chen Duxiu, forgave the "barbarism of the Boxer... given the crime foreigners committed in China", and contended that it was those "subservient to the foreigners" that truly "deserved our resentment".

New Culture Movement

New CultureNew Cultural MovementMay Fourth school
During this phase, it became influential among the New Culture Movement.
Scholars such as Chen Duxiu, Cai Yuanpei, Li Dazhao, Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren, He Dong, and Hu Shih, had classical educations but began to lead a revolt against Confucianism.

Deng Xiaoping

DengDeng Xiao PingChairman Deng
After Mao died in 1976, Hua Guofeng gave a speech praising Mao's suppression of "Right and 'Left' Opportunist lines of the Party" as one of the late Chairman's greatest achievements: Chen was the first person to be named as being correctly suppressed; Deng Xiaoping was the last.
He participated in the historic emergency session on 7 August 1927 in which, by Soviet instruction, the Party dismissed its founder Chen Duxiu, and Qu Qiubai became the general secretary.

Hu Shih

Hu Shi胡适Shih Hu
He also thought that teamwork was very important in journalism, and consequently asked for help from many talented authors and journalists, including Hu Shih and Lu Xun.
During his tenure there, he received support from Chen Duxiu, editor of the influential journal New Youth, quickly gaining much attention and influence.

Left Opposition

International Left OppositionInternational Communist LeagueInternational Secretariat of the Trotskyist movement
Afterwards, Chen became associated with the International Left Opposition of Leon Trotsky.

New Youth

New Youth (Xin Qingnian)La JeunesseNew Youths
Chen's ancestral home was in Anqing, Anhui, where he established the influential vernacular Chinese periodical New Youth (Xin Qingnian).
Chen Duxiu founded the magazine on September 15, 1915 in Shanghai.

Lu Xun

Lu HsunCall to ArmsZhou Shuren
He also thought that teamwork was very important in journalism, and consequently asked for help from many talented authors and journalists, including Hu Shih and Lu Xun.
In 1917, an old friend of Lu's, Qian Xuantong, invited Lu to write for New Youth, a radical populist literary magazine that had recently been founded by Chen Duxiu.

Leon Trotsky

TrotskyLev TrotskyLeo Trotsky
Afterwards, Chen became associated with the International Left Opposition of Leon Trotsky.
Among his other supporters was Chen Duxiu, founder of the Chinese Communist Party.