A report on Cherokee

Great Smoky Mountains
An annotated copy of a hand-painted Catawba deerskin map of the tribes between Charleston (left) and Virginia (right) following the displacements of a century of disease and enslavement and the 1715–7 Yamasee War. The Cherokee are labelled as "Cherrikies".
After the Anglo-Cherokee War, bitterness remained between the two groups. In 1765, Henry Timberlake took three Cherokee chiefs to London meet the Crown and help strengthen the newly declared peace.
Portrait of Major Ridge in 1834, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America.
Cherokee National Council building, New Echota
Tah-Chee (Dutch), A Cherokee Chief, 1837
Chief John Ross, c. 1840
Cherokee beadwork sampler, made at Dwight Mission, Indian Territory, 19th century, collection of the Oklahoma History Center
Cól-lee, a Band Chief, painted by George Catlin, 1834
Cherokee confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1902.
William Penn (Cherokee), His Shield (Yanktonai), Levi Big Eagle (Yanktonai), Bear Ghost (Yanktonai) and Black Moustache (Sisseton).
Map of present-day Cherokee Nation Tribal Jurisdiction Area (red)
Sequoyah, the inventor of the Cherokee syllabary
Flag of the Cherokee Nation
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
The Cherokee Female Seminary was built in 1889 by the Cherokee in Indian Territory.
Flag of the Eastern Band Cherokee
Flag of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians
The Mount Tabor Indian Community flag of primarily Cherokee as well as Choctaw, Chickasaw and Muscogee-Creek people located in Rusk County, Texas.

The Cherokee ( ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯᎢ, or ᏣᎳᎩ) are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States.

- Cherokee

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Southeastern U.S. and Indian territories, including Cherokee, Creek, and Chickasaw; 1806

Cherokee Nation (1794–1907)

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Legal, autonomous, tribal government in North America recognized from 1794 to 1907.

Legal, autonomous, tribal government in North America recognized from 1794 to 1907.

Southeastern U.S. and Indian territories, including Cherokee, Creek, and Chickasaw; 1806
The Cherokee Nation Lands in 1830 Georgia, before the Trail of Tears
The Arkansaw Territory division: showing the progression of Indian Territory separation from Arkansas Territory, 1819–1836
Map of Southern United States during the time of the Indian Removals (Trail of Tears), 1830–1838, showing the historic lands of the Five Civilized Tribes. The destination Indian Territory is depicted in light yellow-green.
The Cherokee Braves Flag, as flown by Stand Watie's troop.
Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, along with No Man's Land (also known as the Oklahoma Panhandle). The division of the two territories is shown with a heavy purple line. Together, these three areas would become the State of Oklahoma in 1907.
The Cherokee Nation Capitol Building and Courthouse, Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Built in 1869, it functioned as the political center of "The Nation" until 1907, and is the oldest public building standing in Oklahoma.
Tahlequah, Oklahoma stop sign, written in English and Cherokee
The second Cherokee Female Seminary was opened in 1889 by the original Cherokee Nation.

The Cherokee Nation consisted of the Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ —pronounced Tsalagi or Cha-la-gee) people of the Qualla Boundary and the southeastern United States; those who relocated voluntarily from the southeastern United States to the Indian Territory (circa 1820 —known as the "Old Settlers"); those who were forced by the Federal government of the United States to relocate (through the Indian Removal Act) by way of the Trail of Tears (1830s); and descendants of the Natchez, the Lenape and the Shawnee peoples, and, after the Civil War and emancipation of slaves, Cherokee Freedmen and their descendants.

Muscogee Creek bandolier bag, c. 1820, Birmingham Museum of Art

Muscogee

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The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Muscogee Creek, and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy ( in the Muscogee language), are a group of related indigenous (Native American) peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands in the United States of America.

The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Muscogee Creek, and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy ( in the Muscogee language), are a group of related indigenous (Native American) peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands in the United States of America.

Muscogee Creek bandolier bag, c. 1820, Birmingham Museum of Art
Etowah Mound C, was part of a precontact Mississippian culture site, occupied by ancestors of the Muscogee people from c. 1000–1550 CE, in Cartersville, Georgia
Hernando de Soto and his men burn Mabila, after a surprise attack by Chief Tuskaloosa and his people in 1540; painting by Herb Roe, 2008
The protohistoric King Site, occupied during the mid-1500s
A raiding party against Spanish missions in Florida passes the Ocmulgee trading post
Yamacraw leader Tomochichi and nephew in 1733
Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734. Notice the Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing.
William Augustus Bowles (1763–1805) was also known as Estajoca, his Muscogee name.
Painting (1805) of Benjamin Hawkins on his plantation, instructing Muscogee Creek in European technology
The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee to support the Shawnee's resistance.
Menawa was one of the principal leaders of the Red Sticks. After the war, he continued to oppose white encroachment on Muscogee lands, visiting Washington, D.C. in 1826 to protest the treaty of Indian Springs. Painted by Charles Bird King, 1837.
Depiction of Red Eagle's surrender to Andrew Jackson after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Jackson was so impressed with Weatherford's boldness that he let him go.
Charles Bird King's portrait of William McIntosh
Members of the Creek Nation in Oklahoma around 1877. They included men of mixed Creek, European and African ancestry.
Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee chief.
Muscogee Creek land cessions 1733–1832
Ceded area as deemed by the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814
Muscogee Creek bike messenger, originally from Okmulgee, Oklahoma
Micah Wesley, Muscogee Creek-Kiowa artist and DJ

The Ochese Creeks joined the Yamasee, burning trading posts, and raiding back-country settlers, but the revolt ran low on gunpowder and was put down by Carolinian militia and their Cherokee allies.

Tennessee

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State in the Southeastern region of the United States.

State in the Southeastern region of the United States.

Detail of Tanasi (spelled "Tennessee") on Henry Timberlake's [[:File:Draught of the Cherokee Country.jpg|Draught of the Cherokee Country]]
Reconstruction of Fort Loudoun, the first British settlement in Tennessee
The Southwest Territory in 1790
Surveyor Daniel Smith's "Map of the Tennassee State" (1796)
The Hermitage, plantation home of President Andrew Jackson in Nashville
The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864
Memphis became known as the "Cotton Capital of the World" in the years following the Civil War
Workers at the Norris Dam construction camp site in 1933
Calutron operators at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge during the Manhattan Project
The 1982 World's Fair in Knoxville
The Ocoee River was home to the 1996 Summer Olympics whitewater slalom events, the only Olympic sporting event ever held in the state.
Mount Le Conte in the Great Smoky Mountains is the tallest mountain in eastern North America, measured from base to summit
Fall Creek Falls, the tallest waterfall in the eastern United States, is located on the Cumberland Plateau
Reelfoot Lake in West Tennessee was formed by the 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquakes
Cedar glades are an extremely rare ecosystem that is found in regions of Middle Tennessee where limestone bedrock is close to the surface
Köppen climate types of Tennessee, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
A geomap showing the counties of Tennessee colored by the relative range of that county's median income.
Chart showing poverty in Tennessee, by age and gender (red = female)
A Nissan Leaf, one of six models manufactured at the Nissan Smyrna Assembly Plant, the largest automotive assembly plant in North America
Established in 1942, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is the largest national laboratory in the Department of Energy system
Norris Dam, a hydroelectric dam operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority.
The resort city of Gatlinburg borders the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which is the most visited national park in the United States.
The Grand Ole Opry, which was recorded in Nashville's Ryman Auditorium from 1943 to 1974, is the longest-running radio broadcast in US history.
Vanderbilt University in Nashville is consistently ranked as one of the top research institutions in the nation
Offices of The Tennessean in Nashville
Interstate 40 traverses Tennessee from east to west, and serves the state's three largest cities.
Memphis International Airport, the hub of FedEx Corporation, is the busiest cargo airport in the world
Tennessee State Capitol in Nashville
Al Gore served as a United States Senator from Tennessee (1985-1993) and as Vice President of the United States (1993-2001)
Howard Baker served as Senate Minority and Majority Leader from 1977 to 1985, and was known as "The Great Conciliator"
Tennessee Volunteers football

Its name derives from "Tanasi", a Cherokee town in the eastern part of the state that existed before the first European American settlement.

The Trail of Tears memorial at the New Echota Historic Site in Georgia, which honors the Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears

Trail of Tears

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Series of forced displacements of approximately 60,000 American Indians of the "Five Civilized Tribes" between 1830 and 1850 by the United States government.

Series of forced displacements of approximately 60,000 American Indians of the "Five Civilized Tribes" between 1830 and 1850 by the United States government.

The Trail of Tears memorial at the New Echota Historic Site in Georgia, which honors the Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears
A map of the process of Indian Removal, 1830–1838. Oklahoma is depicted in light yellow-green.
George W. Harkins, Choctaw chief.
Alexis de Tocqueville, French political thinker and historian
Seminole warrior Tuko-see-mathla, 1834
Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee chief who appealed to Andrew Jackson to reduce the demands for Creek lands at the signing of the Treaty of Fort Jackson.
Historic Marker in Marion, Arkansas, for the Trail of Tears
Cherokee Principal Chief John Ross, photographed before his death in 1866
Elizabeth "Betsy" Brown Stephens (1903), a Cherokee Indian who walked the Trail of Tears in 1838
A Trail of Tears map of Southern Illinois from the USDA – U.S. Forest Service
Walkway map at the Cherokee Removal Memorial Park in Tennessee depicting the routes of the Cherokee on the Trail of Tears, June 2020
Map of National Historic trails

Members of the so-called "Five Civilized Tribes"—the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations (including thousands of their black slaves )—were forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States to areas to the west of the Mississippi River that had been designated Indian Territory.

Gallery of the Five Civilized Tribes: Sequoyah (Cherokee), Pushmataha (Choctaw), Selecta (Muscogee/Creek), a "Characteristic Chickasaw Head", and Osceola (Seminole). The portraits were drawn or painted between 1775 and 1850.

Five Civilized Tribes

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Gallery of the Five Civilized Tribes: Sequoyah (Cherokee), Pushmataha (Choctaw), Selecta (Muscogee/Creek), a "Characteristic Chickasaw Head", and Osceola (Seminole). The portraits were drawn or painted between 1775 and 1850.
The Mississippian culture was a mound building Native American urban culture that flourished in the South and Eastern United States before the arrival of Europeans.
Routes of southern removals to the first Indian Territory of the Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, built in 1849, is the oldest public building standing in Oklahoma.

The term Five Civilized Tribes was applied by European Americans in the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States to the five major Native American nations in the Southeast—the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek (Muscogee), and Seminole.

The Cherokees are Coming!, an illustration depicting a scout warning the residents of Knoxville, Tennessee, of the approach of a large Cherokee force in September 1793

Cherokee–American wars

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The Cherokees are Coming!, an illustration depicting a scout warning the residents of Knoxville, Tennessee, of the approach of a large Cherokee force in September 1793
A commander of Fort Patrick Henry sent Henry Timberlake as a token of friendship after the Anglo-Cherokee War. Timberlake later took three Cherokee to London, 1763.
Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers through the Cumberland Gap, George Caleb Bingham, oil on canvas, 1851–52
The Wilderness Road and the Transylvania purchase.
The British colonies in North America at the outbreak of the Revolution in 1775, including the locations of the proposed colonies of Charlotiana, Transylvania, and Vandalia
The Abduction of Daniel Boone's Daughter by the Indians by Charles Ferdinand Wimar (1853)
Map of the Cherokee invasion of the Washington District, Pendleton District, and Carter's Valley
The eleven towns in the Chickamauga area, along with the Hiwassee towns and the towns on the Tellico
Lieutenant Colonel John Sevier
Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country", showing the location of the Overhill towns on the Little Tennessee River (labeled Tennessee River on the map)
State of Franklin
Coat of arms of the House of Bourbon in Spain
Cumberland River watershed
The various hazards of the Tennessee River Gorge, also known as Cash Canyon or The Suck
Lookout Mountain from Moccasin Bend
The primary areas of operations during the Chickamauga Wars
Tennessee River Gorge from Snooper's Rock
Upper East Tennessee
The Tellico Blockhouse site, with posts and stone fill showing the original layout

The Cherokee–American wars, also known as the Chickamauga Wars, were a series of raids, campaigns, ambushes, minor skirmishes, and several full-scale frontier battles in the Old Southwest from 1776 to 1794 between the Cherokee and American settlers on the frontier.

Cherokee Nation

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Example of a Cherokee census card for Fairland, Oklahoma from the first few years of the 20th century.
Second Cherokee Female Seminary in Tahlequah (present-day Seminary Hall of Northeastern State University)
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, built in 1849, is the oldest public building standing in the state of Oklahoma.
Cherokee Nation Marshal Service Patch
Basket weaving workshop sponsored by the nation.
Hastings Shade, medicine man, artist, and former Deputy Chief of the Cherokee Nation
Little Miss Cherokee, 2007
Angel Goodrich, professional basketball player in the WNBA, 2015

The Cherokee Nation (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, Tsalagihi Ayeli or ᏣᎳᎩᏰᎵ "Tsalagiyehli"), also known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States.

Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country." Timberlake's "Tennessee River" is now known as the Little Tennessee River. North is to the left.

Overhill Cherokee

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Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country." Timberlake's "Tennessee River" is now known as the Little Tennessee River. North is to the left.
Approximate location of the three major Overhill towns in modern East Tennessee. Red lines and letters show modern roads and towns.
The site of Great Hiwassee along US-411 near Etowah, Tennessee. The Hiwassee River is on the left.
The site of Great Tellico in Tellico Plains, Tennessee
Tanasi monument on the shoreline above the now-submerged site of Tanasi.
The now-submerged site of Tuskegee at Fort Loudoun State Park.
The now-submerged site of Tomotley and Toqua in Monroe County, Tennessee
Monument marking the site of the Cherokee village of Chota in Monroe County, Tennessee
The ancient site of Chilhowee is now under Chilhowee Lake, near the junction of US-129 and Foothills Parkway.
The Tellico Blockhouse site, with posts and stone fill showing the original layout.
Grave site of Cherokee Nancy Ward showing her memorial (right). The other markers are for her son Fivekiller, and her brother Longfellow. The site is situated on a small hill overlooking the Ocoee River near Benton, Tennessee
Sequoyah Birthplace Museum in Vonore

Overhill Cherokee was the term for the Cherokee people located in their historic settlements in what is now the U.S. state of Tennessee in the Southeastern United States, on the western side of the Appalachian Mountains.

Routes of southern removals

Indian removal

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The United States government policy of forced displacement of self-governing tribes of Native Americans from their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River – specifically, to a designated Indian Territory .

The United States government policy of forced displacement of self-governing tribes of Native Americans from their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River – specifically, to a designated Indian Territory .

Routes of southern removals
Representatives of the Five Civilized Tribes: (clockwise from upper left) Sequoyah, Pushmataha, Selecta, Osceola, and a typical Chickasaw

After the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1831, approximately 60,000 members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations (including thousands of their black slaves) were forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands, with thousands dying during the Trail of Tears.

Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835

Andrew Jackson

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American lawyer, general, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

American lawyer, general, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835
Young Jackson Refusing to Clean Major Coffin's Boots (1876 lithograph)
Notice of reward offered by Jackson for return of an enslaved man
General Andrew Jackson as pictured in Harper's Magazine, Vol 28, "War with the Creek Indians", page 605, 1864
In the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Muscogee surrendered large parts of present-day Alabama and Georgia.
General Andrew Jackson by John Wesley Jarvis, c. undefined 1819
The Battle of New Orleans. General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.
Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, painted by Thomas Sully in 1845 from an earlier portrait he had completed from life in 1824
Trial of Robert Ambrister during the Seminole War. Ambrister was one of two British subjects executed by General Jackson. (1848)
Teracotta bust of General Jackson by William Rush, 1819
Jackson in 1824, painted by Thomas Sully
1828 election results
President Andrew Jackson
New York: Ritchie & Co. (1860)
Jackson's Indian Removal Act and subsequent treaties resulted in the forced removal of the major tribes of the Southeast from their traditional territories, many along the Trail of Tears.
Portrait of Jackson by Earl, 1830
William C. Rives, Jackson's Minister to France, successfully negotiated a reparations treaty with France in 1831.
1832 election results
1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the "Devil's Bank"
Richard Lawrence's attempt on Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835 etching
USS Porpoise (1836), a brig ship laid down in 1835 and launched in May 1836; used in the U.S. Exploring Expedition
A New York newspaper blamed the Panic of 1837 on Andrew Jackson, depicted in spectacles and top hat.
Mezzotint after a Daguerreotype of Jackson by Mathew Brady, April 15, 1845
Tennessee Gentleman, portrait of Jackson, c. 1831, from the collection of The Hermitage
Andrew Jackson as Grand Master of Tennessee, 1822
Equestrian statue of Jackson, Jackson County Courthouse, Kansas City, Missouri, commissioned by Judge Harry S. Truman
Jackson portrait on obverse $20 bill
2-cent red stamp
2-cent green stamp
The tomb of Andrew and Rachel Jackson located at The Hermitage

In 1794, Jackson formed a partnership with fellow lawyer John Overton, dealing in claims for land reserved by treaty for the Cherokee and Chickasaw.