Gallery of the Five Civilized Tribes: Sequoyah (Cherokee), Pushmataha (Choctaw), Selecta (Muscogee/Creek), a "Characteristic Chickasaw Head", and Osceola (Seminole). The portraits were drawn or painted between 1775 and 1850.
Southeastern U.S. and Indian territories, including Cherokee, Creek, and Chickasaw; 1806
The Mississippian culture was a mound building Native American urban culture that flourished in the South and Eastern United States before the arrival of Europeans.
The Cherokee Nation Lands in 1830 Georgia, before the Trail of Tears
Great Smoky Mountains
Routes of southern removals to the first Indian Territory of the Five Civilized Tribes
The Arkansaw Territory division: showing the progression of Indian Territory separation from Arkansas Territory, 1819–1836
An annotated copy of a hand-painted Catawba deerskin map of the tribes between Charleston (left) and Virginia (right) following the displacements of a century of disease and enslavement and the 1715–7 Yamasee War. The Cherokee are labelled as "Cherrikies".
Map of Indian Territory (Oklahoma), 1889, Britannica 9th edition
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, built in 1849, is the oldest public building standing in Oklahoma.
Map of Southern United States during the time of the Indian Removals (Trail of Tears), 1830–1838, showing the historic lands of the Five Civilized Tribes. The destination Indian Territory is depicted in light yellow-green.
After the Anglo-Cherokee War, bitterness remained between the two groups. In 1765, Henry Timberlake took three Cherokee chiefs to London meet the Crown and help strengthen the newly declared peace.
Map of the Confederate States with allied tribes (in present-day Oklahoma)
The Cherokee Braves Flag, as flown by Stand Watie's troop.
Portrait of Major Ridge in 1834, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America.
The Dust Bowl sent thousands of farmers into poverty during the 1930s.
Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, along with No Man's Land (also known as the Oklahoma Panhandle). The division of the two territories is shown with a heavy purple line. Together, these three areas would become the State of Oklahoma in 1907.
Cherokee National Council building, New Echota
This map of the ‘State of Sequoyah’ was compiled from the USGS Map of Indian Territory (1902), revised to include the county divisions made under direction of Sequoyah Statehood Convention (1905), by D.W. Bolich, a civil engineer at Muskogee.
The Cherokee Nation Capitol Building and Courthouse, Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Built in 1869, it functioned as the political center of "The Nation" until 1907, and is the oldest public building standing in Oklahoma.
Tah-Chee (Dutch), A Cherokee Chief, 1837
The bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was one of the deadliest acts of terrorism in American history.
Tahlequah, Oklahoma stop sign, written in English and Cherokee
Chief John Ross, c. 1840
The former reservations of the Five Civilized Tribes in dispute in McGirt v. Oklahoma
The second Cherokee Female Seminary was opened in 1889 by the original Cherokee Nation.
Cherokee beadwork sampler, made at Dwight Mission, Indian Territory, 19th century, collection of the Oklahoma History Center
Köppen climate types of Oklahoma
Cól-lee, a Band Chief, painted by George Catlin, 1834
Populations of American bison inhabit the state's prairie ecosystems.
Cherokee confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1902.
Oklahoma's climate is prime for the generation of thunderstorms.
William Penn (Cherokee), His Shield (Yanktonai), Levi Big Eagle (Yanktonai), Bear Ghost (Yanktonai) and Black Moustache (Sisseton).
Winter at the Oklahoma Baptist University campus
Map of present-day Cherokee Nation Tribal Jurisdiction Area (red)
Oklahoma population density map
Sequoyah, the inventor of the Cherokee syllabary
Oklahoma Tribal Statistical Areas (teal)
Flag of the Cherokee Nation
Located in Tahlequah, this stop sign includes Cherokee lettering
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
The Boston Avenue Methodist Church in Tulsa is a National Historic Landmark.
The Cherokee Female Seminary was built in 1889 by the Cherokee in Indian Territory.
The Cathedral of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in Oklahoma City
Flag of the Eastern Band Cherokee
The BOK Tower of Tulsa, Oklahoma's second-tallest building, serves as the world headquarters for Williams Companies.
Flag of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians
A major oil-producing state, Oklahoma is the fifth-largest producer of crude oil in the United States.
The Mount Tabor Indian Community flag of primarily Cherokee as well as Choctaw, Chickasaw and Muscogee-Creek people located in Rusk County, Texas.
Oklahoma's system of public regional universities includes Northeastern State University in Tahlequah.
Writing in Cherokee
The Pioneer Woman statue in Ponca City, by Bryant Baker (1930)
Philbrook Museum of Art, one of the nation's top fifty
National Powwow dancer of the Cherokee of Oklahoma, 2007
The Oklahoma City Thunder moved there in 2008, becoming its first permanent major-league team in any sport.
Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Southwestern Regional Medical Center, Tulsa
The second-largest newspaper in Oklahoma, the Tulsa World, has a circulation of 189,789.
Road network and waterways of Oklahoma from the 1970 edition of the National Atlas
The Oklahoma State Capitol in Oklahoma City
The five congressional districts of Oklahoma
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
Oklahoma City is the state's capital and largest city.
Tulsa is the state's second-largest city by population and by land area.
The American bison is Oklahoma's state mammal.
Turner Falls
thumb|State rock (rose rock) specimens from Cleveland County
alt=|thumb|Illinois River in northeastern Oklahoma
thumb|Elk Mountain, in the eastern Wichita Mountains, southwestern Oklahoma
Wichita Mountains Narrows
The Ouachita Mountains cover much of southeastern Oklahoma.
Grave Creek in McIntosh County
Mesas rise above one of Oklahoma's state parks
Party registration by county (January 2018)

The term Five Civilized Tribes was applied by European Americans in the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States to the five major Native American nations in the Southeast—the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek (Muscogee), and Seminole.

- Five Civilized Tribes

The Cherokee Nation consisted of the Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ —pronounced Tsalagi or Cha-la-gee) people of the Qualla Boundary and the southeastern United States; those who relocated voluntarily from the southeastern United States to the Indian Territory (circa 1820 —known as the "Old Settlers"); those who were forced by the Federal government of the United States to relocate (through the Indian Removal Act) by way of the Trail of Tears (1830s); and descendants of the Natchez, the Lenape and the Shawnee peoples, and, after the Civil War and emancipation of slaves, Cherokee Freedmen and their descendants.

- Cherokee Nation (1794–1907)

By the 19th century, White American settlers had classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes" in the region.

- Cherokee

The Choctaw was the first of the Five Civilized Tribes to be removed from the Southeastern United States.

- Oklahoma

The phrase "Trail of Tears" originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831, although the term is usually used for the Cherokee removal.

- Oklahoma

The Cherokee Nation had an internal civil war.

- Oklahoma

Most members of the Five Tribes were forced to Indian Territory before 1840, many to what later became the states of Kansas and Oklahoma.

- Five Civilized Tribes

The Cherokee Nation resisted removal until 1838 and lost thousands of members in removal, along what they called the Cherokee Trail of Tears.

- Five Civilized Tribes

After the war, the United States negotiated new treaties with the Five Civilized Tribes.

- Cherokee Nation (1794–1907)

From 1898–1906, beginning with the Curtis Act of 1898, the US federal government set about the dismantling of the Cherokee Nation's governmental and civic institutions, in preparation for the incorporation of the Indian Territory into the new state of Oklahoma.

- Cherokee Nation (1794–1907)

The deerskin trade was no longer feasible on their greatly reduced lands, and over the next several decades, the people of the fledgling Cherokee Nation began to build a new society modeled on the white Southern United States.

- Cherokee

"Old Settlers", the first of the Cherokee to make their way to what would eventually become Indian Territory (modern day Oklahoma).

- Cherokee
Gallery of the Five Civilized Tribes: Sequoyah (Cherokee), Pushmataha (Choctaw), Selecta (Muscogee/Creek), a "Characteristic Chickasaw Head", and Osceola (Seminole). The portraits were drawn or painted between 1775 and 1850.

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Indian Territory

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Evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land as a sovereign independent state.

Evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land as a sovereign independent state.

Oklahoma and Indian Territories, 1890
Indian Country 1834 (in Red)
Indian Territory in 1844
United States Department of the Interior map of Indian Territory in 1879
Map of the gradual opening of Oklahoma Territory to white settlers and the Indian Territory, annexed by Oklahoma in 1907.
The Louisiana Purchase was one of several historical territorial additions to the United States.
Map of Indian territory 1836
Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota Territories 1855
Two Wichita women in summer dress, 1870
Artist's conception of Spiro Mounds, a Caddoan Mississippian site, as seen from the west
Caddo village near Anadarko, 1870s
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in North America before the arrival of Europeans.
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, built in 1849, is the oldest public building standing in Oklahoma.
The historic Choctaw Capitol in Tuskahoma.
Jennie Bobb, left, and her daughter, Nellie Longhat, both members of the Delaware Nation, Oklahoma, 1915
Peoria beaded moccasins, c. 1860, collection of the Oklahoma History Center
Tipis painted by George Catlin c. 1830
Plains Indians at time of European contact and current homelands.
Pre-contact distribution of the Western Siouan languages
Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages
Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages

The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the single state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, ending the existence of an unorganized unincorporated independent Indian Territory as such.

After the Civil War, the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the Midwestern United States.

But this was where the Choctaw and Cherokee tribes had just begun to settle, and the two nations objected strongly.

Brigadier General Stand Watie, a Confederate commander of the Cherokee Nation, became the last Confederate general to surrender in the American Civil War, near the community of Doaksville on June 23, 1865.

The Trail of Tears memorial at the New Echota Historic Site in Georgia, which honors the Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears

Trail of Tears

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The Trail of Tears memorial at the New Echota Historic Site in Georgia, which honors the Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears
A map of the process of Indian Removal, 1830–1838. Oklahoma is depicted in light yellow-green.
George W. Harkins, Choctaw chief.
Alexis de Tocqueville, French political thinker and historian
Seminole warrior Tuko-see-mathla, 1834
Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee chief who appealed to Andrew Jackson to reduce the demands for Creek lands at the signing of the Treaty of Fort Jackson.
Historic Marker in Marion, Arkansas, for the Trail of Tears
Cherokee Principal Chief John Ross, photographed before his death in 1866
Elizabeth "Betsy" Brown Stephens (1903), a Cherokee Indian who walked the Trail of Tears in 1838
A Trail of Tears map of Southern Illinois from the USDA – U.S. Forest Service
Walkway map at the Cherokee Removal Memorial Park in Tennessee depicting the routes of the Cherokee on the Trail of Tears, June 2020
Map of National Historic trails

The Trail of Tears was a series of forced displacements of approximately 60,000 American Indians of the "Five Civilized Tribes" between 1830 and 1850 by the United States government.

Members of the so-called "Five Civilized Tribes"—the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations (including thousands of their black slaves )—were forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States to areas to the west of the Mississippi River that had been designated Indian Territory.

Nearly 17,000 Choctaws made the move to what would be called Indian Territory and then later Oklahoma.

In Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831), the Marshall court ruled that the Cherokee Nation was not a sovereign and independent nation, and therefore refused to hear the case.

Native Americans in the United States

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Native Americans, also known as First Americans, Indigenous Americans, American Indians, and other terms, are the Indigenous peoples of the United States, including Hawaii and territories of the United States, and other times limited to the mainland.

Native Americans, also known as First Americans, Indigenous Americans, American Indians, and other terms, are the Indigenous peoples of the United States, including Hawaii and territories of the United States, and other times limited to the mainland.

Comanche Indians Chasing Buffalo with Lances and Bows, by George Catlin
The Cultural areas of pre-Columbian North America, according to Alfred Kroeber
This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).
A Folsom point for a spear
Artists conception of Ohio Hopewell culture Shriver Circle with the Mound City Group to the left
Cahokia, the largest Mississippian culture site
Map showing the approximate locations of the Native American nations circa 16th century
Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell (1823–1879) is a Romantic depiction of Spanish explorer de Soto's seeing the Mississippi River for the first time. It hangs in the United States Capitol rotunda.
1882 studio portrait of the (then) last surviving Six Nations warriors who fought with the British in the War of 1812
Early Native American tribal territories color-coded by linguistic group
The Treaty of Penn with the Indians by Benjamin West, painted in 1771
Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the Trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734. The painting shows a Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing.
Benjamin Hawkins, seen here on his plantation, teaches Creek Native Americans how to use European technology, painted in 1805
Native-controlled territories in the West, 1836
Tecumseh was the Shawnee leader of Tecumseh's War who attempted to organize an alliance of Native American tribes throughout North America.
The Rescue sculpture stood outside the U.S. Capitol between 1853 and 1958. A work commissioned by the U.S. government, its sculptor Horatio Greenough wrote that it was "to convey the idea of the triumph of the whites over the savage tribes".
Mass grave for the dead Lakota following the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre, which took place during the Indian Wars in the 19th century
Ely Parker (of the Seneca people) was a Union Civil War general who wrote the terms of surrender between the United States and the Confederate States of America.
Republican Charles Curtis, of Kaw, Osage, Potawatomi, French and British ancestry from Kansas, was 31st vice president of the United States, 1929–1933, serving with Republican Herbert Hoover.
General Douglas MacArthur meeting Navajo, Pima, Pawnee and other Native American troops
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley, Arizona, United States
Byron Mallott, an Alaskan Native, was the lieutenant governor of Alaska.
Proportion of Indigenous Americans in each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census
This Census Bureau map depicts the locations of differing Native American groups, including Indian reservations, as of 2000. Note the concentration (blue) in modern-day Oklahoma in the South West, which was once designated as an Indian Territory before statehood in 1907.
Indian reservations in the continental United States
Native peoples are concerned about the effects of abandoned uranium mines on or near their lands.
National Indian Youth Council demonstrations, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office
A discriminatory sign posted above a bar. Birney, Montana, 1941
Chief Plenty Coups and seven Crow prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887
Protest against the name of the Washington Redskins in Minneapolis, November 2014
Secotan Indians' dance in North Carolina. Watercolor by John White, 1585
Sandia Casino, owned by the Sandia Pueblo of New Mexico
Three Native American women in Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Wasco County, Oregon (1902)
Geronimo, Chiricahua Apache leader. Photograph by Frank A. Rinehart (1898).
Pre-contact: distribution of North American language families, including northern Mexico
Oklahoma Cherokee language immersion school student writing in the Cherokee syllabary
The Cherokee language taught to preschoolers as a first language, at New Kituwah Academy
Maize grown by Native Americans
Ojibwe baby waits on a cradleboard while parents tend wild rice crops (Minnesota, 1940).
Frybread, made into an Indian taco.
Makah Native Americans and a whale, The King of the Seas in the Hands of the Makahs, 1910 photograph by Asahel Curtis
Saint Kateri Tekakwitha, the patron of ecologists, exiles, and orphans, was canonized by the Catholic Church.
Baptism of Pocahontas was painted in 1840 by John Gadsby Chapman, who depicts Pocahontas, wearing white, being baptized Rebecca by Anglican minister Alexander Whiteaker (left) in Jamestown, Virginia. This event is believed to have taken place either in 1613 or 1614.
Susan La Flesche Picotte was the first Native American woman to become a physician in the United States.
Jim Thorpe—gold medalist at the 1912 Olympics, in the pentathlon and decathlon events
Ball players from the Choctaw and Lakota tribe in a 19th-century lithograph by George Catlin
Billy Mills crosses the finish line at the end of the 10,000-meter race at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics.
Fancy Dancer at the Seafair Indian Days Pow-Wow, Daybreak Star Cultural Center, Seattle, Washington
Jake Fragua, Jemez Pueblo from New Mexico
Lillian Gross, described as a "Mixed Blood" by the Smithsonian source, was of Cherokee and European-American heritage. She identified with the Cherokee culture in which she was raised.
The 1725 return of an Osage bride from a trip to Paris, France. The Osage woman was married to a French soldier.
Five Indians and a Captive, painted by Carl Wimar, 1855
Charles Eastman was one of the first Native Americans to become certified as a medical doctor, after he graduated from Boston University.
Buffalo Soldiers, 1890. The nickname was given to the "Black Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought.
Ben Nighthorse Campbell, one of only four Native Americans elected to the U.S. Senate
Sharice Davids became one of the first two Native American women elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Deb Haaland became one of the first two Native American women elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Yvette Herrell became the first Cherokee woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Ada E. Brown, a citizen of the Choctaw Nation with mixed-African-American heritage, nominated by President Donald Trump in 2019 to be a federal judge in Texas
Members of the Creek (Muscogee) Nation in Oklahoma around 1877; they include men with some European and African ancestry.

Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in positive changes to the lives of many Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by them. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations: California, Arizona and Oklahoma have the largest populations of Native Americans in the United States.

Conflicts in the Southeast include the Creek War and Seminole Wars, both before and after the Indian Removals of most members of the Five Civilized Tribes.

At the outbreak of the war, for example, the minority party of the Cherokees gave its allegiance to the Confederacy, while originally the majority party went for the North.

Today, they include descendants of African Americans once enslaved by the Cherokees, who were granted, by federal treaty, citizenship in the historic Cherokee Nation as freedmen after the Civil War.

Seal of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians

United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians

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Seal of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians
UKB Tribal Complex, West Willis Road, Tahlequah
Virginia Stroud, enrolled UKB member, accepts an award for her artwork, Cherokee Heritage Center, Park Hill, Oklahoma, 2007
UKB Jim Proctor Elder Community Center, Tahlequah

The United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma (ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ or Anigiduwagi Aniyvwiya, abbreviated United Keetoowah Band or UKB) is a federally recognized tribe of Cherokee Native Americans headquartered in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.

Today the UKB has over 14,300 members, with 13,300 living within the state of Oklahoma.

By assigning plots to individual households among the Five Civilized Tribes, they intended to encourage the European-American model of subsistence farming.

Under the Curtis Act of 1898, the government of the Cherokee Nation was dissolved in 1906, in spite of the resistance of many of its members.