A report on Cherokee and Muscogee

Muscogee Creek bandolier bag, c. 1820, Birmingham Museum of Art
Great Smoky Mountains
Etowah Mound C, was part of a precontact Mississippian culture site, occupied by ancestors of the Muscogee people from c. 1000–1550 CE, in Cartersville, Georgia
An annotated copy of a hand-painted Catawba deerskin map of the tribes between Charleston (left) and Virginia (right) following the displacements of a century of disease and enslavement and the 1715–7 Yamasee War. The Cherokee are labelled as "Cherrikies".
Hernando de Soto and his men burn Mabila, after a surprise attack by Chief Tuskaloosa and his people in 1540; painting by Herb Roe, 2008
After the Anglo-Cherokee War, bitterness remained between the two groups. In 1765, Henry Timberlake took three Cherokee chiefs to London meet the Crown and help strengthen the newly declared peace.
The protohistoric King Site, occupied during the mid-1500s
Portrait of Major Ridge in 1834, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America.
A raiding party against Spanish missions in Florida passes the Ocmulgee trading post
Cherokee National Council building, New Echota
Yamacraw leader Tomochichi and nephew in 1733
Tah-Chee (Dutch), A Cherokee Chief, 1837
Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734. Notice the Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing.
Chief John Ross, c. 1840
William Augustus Bowles (1763–1805) was also known as Estajoca, his Muscogee name.
Cherokee beadwork sampler, made at Dwight Mission, Indian Territory, 19th century, collection of the Oklahoma History Center
Painting (1805) of Benjamin Hawkins on his plantation, instructing Muscogee Creek in European technology
Cól-lee, a Band Chief, painted by George Catlin, 1834
The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth
Cherokee confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1902.
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee to support the Shawnee's resistance.
William Penn (Cherokee), His Shield (Yanktonai), Levi Big Eagle (Yanktonai), Bear Ghost (Yanktonai) and Black Moustache (Sisseton).
Menawa was one of the principal leaders of the Red Sticks. After the war, he continued to oppose white encroachment on Muscogee lands, visiting Washington, D.C. in 1826 to protest the treaty of Indian Springs. Painted by Charles Bird King, 1837.
Map of present-day Cherokee Nation Tribal Jurisdiction Area (red)
Depiction of Red Eagle's surrender to Andrew Jackson after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Jackson was so impressed with Weatherford's boldness that he let him go.
Sequoyah, the inventor of the Cherokee syllabary
Charles Bird King's portrait of William McIntosh
Flag of the Cherokee Nation
Members of the Creek Nation in Oklahoma around 1877. They included men of mixed Creek, European and African ancestry.
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee chief.
The Cherokee Female Seminary was built in 1889 by the Cherokee in Indian Territory.
Muscogee Creek land cessions 1733–1832
Flag of the Eastern Band Cherokee
Ceded area as deemed by the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814
Flag of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians
Muscogee Creek bike messenger, originally from Okmulgee, Oklahoma
The Mount Tabor Indian Community flag of primarily Cherokee as well as Choctaw, Chickasaw and Muscogee-Creek people located in Rusk County, Texas.
Micah Wesley, Muscogee Creek-Kiowa artist and DJ

Another theory is that "Cherokee" derives from a Lower Creek word Cvlakke ("chuh-log-gee"), as the Creek were also in this mountainous region.

- Cherokee

The Ochese Creeks joined the Yamasee, burning trading posts, and raiding back-country settlers, but the revolt ran low on gunpowder and was put down by Carolinian militia and their Cherokee allies.

- Muscogee

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Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835

Andrew Jackson

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American lawyer, general, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

American lawyer, general, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835
Young Jackson Refusing to Clean Major Coffin's Boots (1876 lithograph)
Notice of reward offered by Jackson for return of an enslaved man
General Andrew Jackson as pictured in Harper's Magazine, Vol 28, "War with the Creek Indians", page 605, 1864
In the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Muscogee surrendered large parts of present-day Alabama and Georgia.
General Andrew Jackson by John Wesley Jarvis, c. undefined 1819
The Battle of New Orleans. General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.
Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, painted by Thomas Sully in 1845 from an earlier portrait he had completed from life in 1824
Trial of Robert Ambrister during the Seminole War. Ambrister was one of two British subjects executed by General Jackson. (1848)
Teracotta bust of General Jackson by William Rush, 1819
Jackson in 1824, painted by Thomas Sully
1828 election results
President Andrew Jackson
New York: Ritchie & Co. (1860)
Jackson's Indian Removal Act and subsequent treaties resulted in the forced removal of the major tribes of the Southeast from their traditional territories, many along the Trail of Tears.
Portrait of Jackson by Earl, 1830
William C. Rives, Jackson's Minister to France, successfully negotiated a reparations treaty with France in 1831.
1832 election results
1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the "Devil's Bank"
Richard Lawrence's attempt on Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835 etching
USS Porpoise (1836), a brig ship laid down in 1835 and launched in May 1836; used in the U.S. Exploring Expedition
A New York newspaper blamed the Panic of 1837 on Andrew Jackson, depicted in spectacles and top hat.
Mezzotint after a Daguerreotype of Jackson by Mathew Brady, April 15, 1845
Tennessee Gentleman, portrait of Jackson, c. 1831, from the collection of The Hermitage
Andrew Jackson as Grand Master of Tennessee, 1822
Equestrian statue of Jackson, Jackson County Courthouse, Kansas City, Missouri, commissioned by Judge Harry S. Truman
Jackson portrait on obverse $20 bill
2-cent red stamp
2-cent green stamp
The tomb of Andrew and Rachel Jackson located at The Hermitage

The subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast lands in present-day Alabama and Georgia.

In 1794, Jackson formed a partnership with fellow lawyer John Overton, dealing in claims for land reserved by treaty for the Cherokee and Chickasaw.

The Shawnee Prophet, Tenskwatawa (1775–1836), ca. 1820, portrait by Charles Bird King

Shawnee

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Algonquian-speaking indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands.

Algonquian-speaking indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands.

The Shawnee Prophet, Tenskwatawa (1775–1836), ca. 1820, portrait by Charles Bird King
The Shawnee Prophet, Tenskwatawa (1775–1836), ca. 1820, portrait by Charles Bird King
Fort Ancient Monongahela cultures by Herb Roe
Serpent Mound, Peebles, Ohio
1715 map showing the land of the "Chaouanons" (Shawnee)
Tecumseh, by Benson Lossing in 1848 based on 1808 drawing.
This portrait of Harrison originally showed him in civilian clothes as the Congressional delegate from the Northwest Territory in 1800.
The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee as a reason to support the Shawnee resistance.
Flag of the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma
Flag of the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma
Flag of the Shawnee Tribe
First Shawnee Tribe coin issue: 2002—one dollar
Tecumseh commemorative dollar
This portrait of Harrison originally showed him in civilian clothes as the Congressional delegate from the Northwest Territory in 1800.

War leaders such as Blackfish and Blue Jacket joined Dragging Canoe and a band of Cherokee along the lower Tennessee River and Chickamauga Creek against the colonists in that area.

Tecumseh told the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee, and many others that the comet of March 1811 had signaled his coming.

Gallery of the Five Civilized Tribes: Sequoyah (Cherokee), Pushmataha (Choctaw), Selecta (Muscogee/Creek), a "Characteristic Chickasaw Head", and Osceola (Seminole). The portraits were drawn or painted between 1775 and 1850.

Five Civilized Tribes

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Gallery of the Five Civilized Tribes: Sequoyah (Cherokee), Pushmataha (Choctaw), Selecta (Muscogee/Creek), a "Characteristic Chickasaw Head", and Osceola (Seminole). The portraits were drawn or painted between 1775 and 1850.
The Mississippian culture was a mound building Native American urban culture that flourished in the South and Eastern United States before the arrival of Europeans.
Routes of southern removals to the first Indian Territory of the Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, built in 1849, is the oldest public building standing in Oklahoma.

The term Five Civilized Tribes was applied by European Americans in the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States to the five major Native American nations in the Southeast—the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek (Muscogee), and Seminole.

William Weatherford surrendering to Andrew Jackson

Creek War

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William Weatherford surrendering to Andrew Jackson
Painting (1805) of Benjamin Hawkins on his plantation, instructing Muscogee Creek in European technology
Map of battle sites in the Creek War
U.S. troops storm the breastworks at Horseshoe Bend
Territory ceded by the Creek Confederation in 1814 under the Treaty of Fort Jackson

The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil War, was a regional war between opposing Indigenous American Creek factions, European empires and the United States, taking place largely in modern-day Alabama and along the Gulf Coast.

The United States government formed an alliance with the Choctaw Nation and Cherokee Nation (the traditional enemies of the Creeks), along with the remaining Creeks to put down the rebellion.

Routes of southern removals

Indian removal

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The United States government policy of forced displacement of self-governing tribes of Native Americans from their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River – specifically, to a designated Indian Territory .

The United States government policy of forced displacement of self-governing tribes of Native Americans from their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River – specifically, to a designated Indian Territory .

Routes of southern removals
Representatives of the Five Civilized Tribes: (clockwise from upper left) Sequoyah, Pushmataha, Selecta, Osceola, and a typical Chickasaw

After the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1831, approximately 60,000 members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations (including thousands of their black slaves) were forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands, with thousands dying during the Trail of Tears.

That year, most of the Five Civilized Tribes—the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, and Cherokee—lived east of the Mississippi.

The Trail of Tears memorial at the New Echota Historic Site in Georgia, which honors the Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears

Trail of Tears

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Series of forced displacements of approximately 60,000 American Indians of the "Five Civilized Tribes" between 1830 and 1850 by the United States government.

Series of forced displacements of approximately 60,000 American Indians of the "Five Civilized Tribes" between 1830 and 1850 by the United States government.

The Trail of Tears memorial at the New Echota Historic Site in Georgia, which honors the Cherokees who died on the Trail of Tears
A map of the process of Indian Removal, 1830–1838. Oklahoma is depicted in light yellow-green.
George W. Harkins, Choctaw chief.
Alexis de Tocqueville, French political thinker and historian
Seminole warrior Tuko-see-mathla, 1834
Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee chief who appealed to Andrew Jackson to reduce the demands for Creek lands at the signing of the Treaty of Fort Jackson.
Historic Marker in Marion, Arkansas, for the Trail of Tears
Cherokee Principal Chief John Ross, photographed before his death in 1866
Elizabeth "Betsy" Brown Stephens (1903), a Cherokee Indian who walked the Trail of Tears in 1838
A Trail of Tears map of Southern Illinois from the USDA – U.S. Forest Service
Walkway map at the Cherokee Removal Memorial Park in Tennessee depicting the routes of the Cherokee on the Trail of Tears, June 2020
Map of National Historic trails

Members of the so-called "Five Civilized Tribes"—the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations (including thousands of their black slaves )—were forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States to areas to the west of the Mississippi River that had been designated Indian Territory.

They were to be settled on the Creek reservation and become part of the Creek nation, who considered them deserters; some of the Seminoles had been derived from Creek bands but also from other Indian nations.

Indian Territory

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Evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land as a sovereign independent state.

Evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land as a sovereign independent state.

Oklahoma and Indian Territories, 1890
Indian Country 1834 (in Red)
Indian Territory in 1844
United States Department of the Interior map of Indian Territory in 1879
Map of the gradual opening of Oklahoma Territory to white settlers and the Indian Territory, annexed by Oklahoma in 1907.
The Louisiana Purchase was one of several historical territorial additions to the United States.
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Map of Indian territory 1836
Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota Territories 1855
Two Wichita women in summer dress, 1870
Artist's conception of Spiro Mounds, a Caddoan Mississippian site, as seen from the west
Caddo village near Anadarko, 1870s
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in North America before the arrival of Europeans.
Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, built in 1849, is the oldest public building standing in Oklahoma.
The historic Choctaw Capitol in Tuskahoma.
Jennie Bobb, left, and her daughter, Nellie Longhat, both members of the Delaware Nation, Oklahoma, 1915
Peoria beaded moccasins, c. 1860, collection of the Oklahoma History Center
Tipis painted by George Catlin c. 1830
Plains Indians at time of European contact and current homelands.
Pre-contact distribution of the Western Siouan languages
Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages
Pre-contact distribution of Northern Uto-Aztecan languages

But this was where the Choctaw and Cherokee tribes had just begun to settle, and the two nations objected strongly.

Many of the tribes forcibly relocated to Indian Territory were from Southeastern United States, including the so-called Five Civilized Tribes or Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee Creeks, and Seminole, but also the Natchez, Yuchi, Alabama, Koasati, and Caddo people.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815

War of 1812

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Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
Northern theatre, War of 1812
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.

Carl Benn notes that the War Hawks' desire to annex the Canadas was similar to the enthusiasm for the annexation of Spanish Florida by inhabitants of the American South as both expected war to facilitate expansion into long-desired lands and end support for hostile tribes (Tecumseh's Confederacy in the North and the Creek in the South).

From November 1813 to January 1814, Georgia's militia and auxiliary Federal troops from the Creek and Cherokee indigenous nations and the states of North Carolina and South Carolina organized the fortification of defences along the Chattahoochee River and expeditions into Upper Creek territory in present-day Alabama.

Tennessee

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State in the Southeastern region of the United States.

State in the Southeastern region of the United States.

Detail of Tanasi (spelled "Tennessee") on Henry Timberlake's [[:File:Draught of the Cherokee Country.jpg|Draught of the Cherokee Country]]
Reconstruction of Fort Loudoun, the first British settlement in Tennessee
The Southwest Territory in 1790
Surveyor Daniel Smith's "Map of the Tennassee State" (1796)
The Hermitage, plantation home of President Andrew Jackson in Nashville
The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864
Memphis became known as the "Cotton Capital of the World" in the years following the Civil War
Workers at the Norris Dam construction camp site in 1933
Calutron operators at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge during the Manhattan Project
The 1982 World's Fair in Knoxville
The Ocoee River was home to the 1996 Summer Olympics whitewater slalom events, the only Olympic sporting event ever held in the state.
Mount Le Conte in the Great Smoky Mountains is the tallest mountain in eastern North America, measured from base to summit
Fall Creek Falls, the tallest waterfall in the eastern United States, is located on the Cumberland Plateau
Reelfoot Lake in West Tennessee was formed by the 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquakes
Cedar glades are an extremely rare ecosystem that is found in regions of Middle Tennessee where limestone bedrock is close to the surface
Köppen climate types of Tennessee, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
A geomap showing the counties of Tennessee colored by the relative range of that county's median income.
Chart showing poverty in Tennessee, by age and gender (red = female)
A Nissan Leaf, one of six models manufactured at the Nissan Smyrna Assembly Plant, the largest automotive assembly plant in North America
Established in 1942, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is the largest national laboratory in the Department of Energy system
Norris Dam, a hydroelectric dam operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority.
The resort city of Gatlinburg borders the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which is the most visited national park in the United States.
The Grand Ole Opry, which was recorded in Nashville's Ryman Auditorium from 1943 to 1974, is the longest-running radio broadcast in US history.
Vanderbilt University in Nashville is consistently ranked as one of the top research institutions in the nation
Offices of The Tennessean in Nashville
Interstate 40 traverses Tennessee from east to west, and serves the state's three largest cities.
Memphis International Airport, the hub of FedEx Corporation, is the busiest cargo airport in the world
Tennessee State Capitol in Nashville
Al Gore served as a United States Senator from Tennessee (1985-1993) and as Vice President of the United States (1993-2001)
Howard Baker served as Senate Minority and Majority Leader from 1977 to 1985, and was known as "The Great Conciliator"
Tennessee Volunteers football

Its name derives from "Tanasi", a Cherokee town in the eastern part of the state that existed before the first European American settlement.

Spanish conquistadors who explored the region in the 16th century encountered some of the Mississippian peoples, including the Muscogee Creek, Yuchi, and Shawnee.

Alabama

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State in the Southeastern region of the United States, bordered by Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east; Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south; and Mississippi to the west.

State in the Southeastern region of the United States, bordered by Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east; Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south; and Mississippi to the west.

The Moundville Archaeological Site in Hale County. It was occupied by Native Americans of the Mississippian culture from 1000 to 1450 CE.
The main house, built in 1833, at Thornhill in Greene County. It is a former Black Belt plantation.
Union Army troops occupying Courthouse Square in Huntsville, following its capture and occupation by federal forces in 1864
The developing skyline of Birmingham in 1915
The former Mount Sinai School in rural Autauga County, completed in 1919. It was one of the 387 Rosenwald Schools built in the state.
Ono Island in Baldwin County
Monte Sano State Park in Huntsville
Cathedral Caverns in Marshall County
The Natural Bridge Rock in Winston County is the longest natural bridge east of the Rockies.
Cliffs at the rim of the Wetumpka meteorite crater
Tornado damage in Phil Campbell following the statewide April 27, 2011, tornado outbreak
A stand of Cahaba lilies (Hymenocallis coronaria) in the Cahaba River, within the Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge
Statue of Liberty replica at Liberty Park in Vestavia Hills
Dauphin Street in Mobile
Lighthouse on Guntersville Lake
Alabama's population density, 2010
Highlands United Methodist Church in Birmingham, part of the Five Points South Historic District
Temple B'Nai Sholom in Huntsville, established in 1876. It is the oldest synagogue building in continuous use in the state.
The Islamic Center of Tuscaloosa
The Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail has a large economic impact on the state.
The Riverchase Galleria in Hoover, one of the largest shopping centers in the southeast
The Space Shuttle Enterprise being tested at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1978
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama in Montgomery in 2010
Shelby Hall, School of Computing, at the University of South Alabama in Mobile
Mercedes-Benz U.S. International in Tuscaloosa County was the first automotive facility to locate within the state.
Airbus Mobile Engineering Center at the Brookley Aeroplex in Mobile
Alabama's beaches are one of the state's major tourist destinations.
Mobile is the birthplace of Mardi Gras in the U.S.
Regions-Harbert Plaza, Regions Center, and Wells Fargo Tower in Birmingham's financial district
The State Capitol Building in Montgomery, completed in 1851
The Heflin-Torbert Judicial Building in Montgomery. It houses the Supreme Court of Alabama, Alabama Court of Civil Appeals, and Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals.
Republican Kay Ivey is the governor of Alabama as of 2021.
Senator Doug Jones won a special election in 2017.
Vestavia Hills High School in the suburbs of Birmingham
Harrison Plaza at the University of North Alabama in Florence. The school was chartered as LaGrange College by the Alabama Legislature in 1830.
William J. Samford Hall at Auburn University
Bryant–Denny Stadium at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa
Regions Field in Birmingham
Von Braun Center in Huntsville
Birmingham–Jefferson Convention Complex in Birmingham
Terminal at the Montgomery Regional Airport in Montgomery
Interstate 59 (co-signed with Interstate 20) approaching Interstate 65 in downtown Birmingham
Aerial view of the port of Mobile

Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people; and the Muskogean-speaking Alabama (Alibamu), Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Koasati.

While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages.