Chesapeake Bay

The Chesapeake Bay – Landsat satellite image
The Chesapeake Bay – Landsat satellite image
Boundaries of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater.
View of the Eastern Bay in Maryland at sunset
The Chesapeake Bay Bridge, near Annapolis, Maryland
The Bay viewed from a plane
Food chain diagram for waterbirds of the Chesapeake Bay
Revised map of John White's original by Theodore DeBry. In this 1590 version, the Chesapeake Bay appears named for the first time.
Later (1630) version of the 1612 map by Captain John Smith during his exploration of the Chesapeake. The map is oriented with west at top.
Oyster boats at war off the Maryland shore (1886 wood engraving). Regulation of the oyster beds in Virginia and Maryland has existed since the 19th century.
Lighthouses and lightships such as Chesapeake have helped guide ships into the Bay.
Example Chesapeake Bay tides from Baltimore and the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel for quarter and full moons during June 2013
A skipjack, part of the oystering fleet in Maryland
The Thomas Point Shoal Light in Maryland
Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay
Dead menhaden floating in the bay in 1973
Dissolved oxygen levels (Milligrams per liter) required by various marine animals living in the Chesapeake Bay.
A cluster of oysters grown in a sanctuary
Sediment sources in the Chesapeake Bay
Maryland Department of Natural Resources survey vessel tied up to a private dock with a continuous monitoring station.
Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System smart buoy on the Patapsco River.

Largest estuary in the United States.

- Chesapeake Bay
The Chesapeake Bay – Landsat satellite image

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Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815

War of 1812

Conflict fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Conflict fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
Northern theatre, War of 1812
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.

The blockading British fleet in the Chesapeake Bay received increasing numbers of freed slaves during 1813.

Delmarva Peninsula map. The southern yellow area is the Eastern Shore of Virginia; the orange area is the Eastern Shore of Maryland; and the northern yellow area is part of Delaware.

Delmarva Peninsula

Large peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by the vast majority of the state of Delaware and parts of the Eastern Shore regions of Maryland and Virginia.

Large peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by the vast majority of the state of Delaware and parts of the Eastern Shore regions of Maryland and Virginia.

Delmarva Peninsula map. The southern yellow area is the Eastern Shore of Virginia; the orange area is the Eastern Shore of Maryland; and the northern yellow area is part of Delaware.
Topography of Delmarva Peninsula
Sediment in motion at Ocean City
A feral pony of Assateague Island

It is bordered by the Chesapeake Bay on the west, Pocomoke Sound on the southwest, the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east.

Delaware

State in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east.

State in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east.

The Twelve-Mile Circle
Map of Delaware
Sunset in Woodbrook, New Castle County, Delaware
The Blackbird Pond on the Blackbird State Forest Meadows Tract in New Castle County, Delaware
A field north of Fox Den Road, along the Lenape Trail in Middle Run Valley Natural Area
Delaware Köppen climate classification is humid subtropical.
Delaware population density map
Picking Peaches in Delaware, from an 1878 issue of Harper's Weekly
Rehoboth Beach is a popular vacation spot during the summer months.
Fort Delaware State Park on Pea Patch Island is a popular spot during the spring and summer. A ferry takes visitors to the fort from nearby Delaware City.
University of Delaware
Delaware's license plate design, introduced in 1959, is the longest-running one in U.S. history.
Delaware Route 1 (DE1) is a partial toll road linking Fenwick Island and Wilmington.
Cape May–Lewes Ferry
Wilmington Station
The Delaware General Assembly meets in the Legislative Hall in Dover.
Joe Biden, the 46th president of the United States and a U.S. senator for Delaware from 1973 to 2009.
NASCAR racing at Dover Motor Speedway
Dover
Newark
Seaford
Wilmington

A ridge about 75 to 80 ft high extends along the western boundary of the state and separates the watersheds that feed Delaware River and Bay to the east and the Chesapeake Bay to the west.

Hampton Roads

Virginia's Historic Triangle
View of the Elizabeth River with Downtown Norfolk at top right. The carrier in the foreground is USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75).
Hampton is a Hampton Roads community.
The harbor area of Hampton Roads, from official state map of pre-civil war Virginia circa 1858. image from the Library of Virginia
Hampton Roads from space
Huntington Ingalls' Newport News Shipbuilding
NASA Langley Research Center
Lynnhaven Mall, opened in 1981, has 1400000 sqft and 180 stores.
MacArthur Center, opened in 1999, has 1100000 sqft and 140 stores.
Patrick Henry Mall, opened in 1987, has 714310 sqft and 120+ stores
Ferry between Norfolk and Portsmouth
A tugboat in Norfolk
I-64 on the Hampton Roads Beltway, north of I-264
Hampton Roads flag, adopted 1998
Hampton Roads viewed from an airplane
Crim Dell in the heart of William & Mary's wooded campus

Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water that serves as a wide channel for the James, Nansemond and Elizabeth rivers between Old Point Comfort and Sewell's Point where the Chesapeake Bay flows into the Atlantic Ocean, and the surrounding metropolitan region located in the southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina portions of the Tidewater region.

Maryland Eastern Shore counties.

Eastern Shore of Maryland

Maryland Eastern Shore counties.
Crisfield, a major seafood center along the Chesapeake Bay
A farm in Kent County
Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge
Queen Anne's County courthouse
Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum in St. Michaels
A view of the Ocean City beach, looking north from the pier
The Chesapeake Bay Bridge, which connects the Eastern Shore with the Baltimore-Washington area and the rest of Maryland
Arthur W. Perdue Stadium, home of the Delmarva Shorebirds baseball team

The Eastern Shore of Maryland is a part of the U.S. state of Maryland that lies mostly on the east side of the Chesapeake Bay.

Baltimore

Most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, fourth most populous city in the Mid-Atlantic, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with a population of 585,708 in 2020.

Most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, fourth most populous city in the Mid-Atlantic, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with a population of 585,708 in 2020.

Baltimore Town in 1752, at "The Basin"
Bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British. Engraved by John Bower
The Battle Monument is the official emblem of the City of Baltimore.
Sixth Regiment fighting railroad strikers, July 20, 1877
The Great Baltimore Fire of 1904, looking west from Pratt and Gay streets
Satellite image of Baltimore
A map of Baltimore with the official city-designated Baltimore neighborhoods, by the Baltimore City Dept. of Planning
Sherwood Gardens, Guilford neighborhood, Baltimore
Rowhouses, Federal Hill neighborhood, Baltimore
Map of racial distribution in Baltimore, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:
Baltimore Basilica, the first cathedral built in the U.S.
Patrol car of the Baltimore Police Department
The Washington Monument
Emerson Bromo-Seltzer Tower, built in 1911. The 15 stories of the Bromo Seltzer Tower have been transformed into studio spaces for visual and literary artists
Hippodrome Baltimore
Oriole Park at Camden Yards
M&T Bank Stadium
Baltimore City Hall
Courthouse east is a historic combined post office and Federal courthouse located in Battle Monument Square.
Keyser Quadrangle in Spring at the Johns Hopkins University the first research university in the United States.
Interior of the George Peabody Library at the Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University. The library is renowned for its beauty.
The Baltimore Light RailLink provides service to Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport and the Baltimore area. Here, a train stops at Convention Center station, just west of the Baltimore Convention Center on Pratt Street.
View south along I-95 from the ramp from I-395 to I-95 northbound in Baltimore
Charm City Circulator Van Hool A330#1101 on the Orange Line
Baltimore Pennsylvania Station
The interior of Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Baltimore's major commercial airport
Eastward view Baltimore's Inner Harbor
Baltimore harbor in 1849 with the prominent Washington Monument in the background north of the city
Francis Scott Key Bridge over the Baltimore harbor.
The "Mr. Trash Wheel" trash interceptor at the mouth of the Jones Falls River in Baltimore's Inner Harbor
Belair-Edison
Woodberry
Reservoir Hill
Station North
Fells Point
Roland Park
Baltimore Visitor Center in Inner Harbor
Fountain near visitor center in Inner Harbor
Sunset views from Baltimore's Inner Harbor
Baltimore is the home of the National Aquarium, one of the world's largest.

Baltimore is in north-central Maryland on the Patapsco River close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay.

Colony of Virginia

The first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, and the subsequent farther south Roanoke Island by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s.

The first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, and the subsequent farther south Roanoke Island by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s.

The site of the 1607 Popham Colony is shown by "Po" on the map. The settlement at Jamestown is shown by "J".
The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony "from sea to sea"
Map depicting the Colony of Virginia (according to the Second Charter), made by Willem Blaeu between 1609 and 1638
The Indian massacre of 1622, depicted in a 1628 woodcut by Matthäus Merian out of Theodore de Bry's workshop
Briefe Declaration of 1624
Red line showing the boundary between the Virginia Colony and Tributary Indian tribes, as established by the Treaty of 1646. The Red dot shows Jamestown, the capital of the Virginia Colony.
Lines showing the legal treaty frontiers between the Virginia Colony and Indian Nations in various years, as well as today's state boundaries. Red: Treaty of 1646. Green: Treaty of Albany (1684). Blue: Treaty of Albany (1722). Orange: Proclamation of 1763. Black: Treaty of Camp Charlotte (1774). Area west of this line in present-day Southwest Virginia was ceded by the Cherokee in 1775.
Map of the Iroquois expansion during the Beaver Wars, 1638–1711
Bermuda Hundred and other early English settlements upriver of Jamestown
Hanover County Courthouse (c. 1735–1742), with its arcaded front, is typical of a numerous colonial courthouse built in Virginia.
Rear view of the Wren Building at the College of William and Mary, begun in 1695

By the terms of the charter, the Plymouth Company was permitted to establish a colony of 100 mi square between the 38th parallel and the 45th parallel (roughly between Chesapeake Bay and the current U.S.–Canada border).

Oyster

Common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

Common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

Mixed seafood with oyster in Dubai
Removing a pearl from a pearl oyster
Oyster reef at about mid-tide off fishing pier at Hunting Island State Park, South Carolina
Rocks in intertidal zone covered by oysters, at Bangchuidao Scenic Area, Dalian, Liaoning Province, China
Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas equipped with activity electrodes to follow their daily behaviour
Dishes with Oysters, Fruit, and Wine, a 1620s painting by Osias Beert
Still-Life with Oysters by Alexander Adriaenssen
The Whaleback Shell Midden in Maine contains the shells from oysters harvested for food dating from 2200 to 1000 years ago
Oyster culture in Riec-sur-Belon, France
Freshly shucked European flat oyster
Special knives for opening live oysters, such as this one, have short and stout blades.
Oysters in a depuration tank
Pacific oyster
Pacific oyster, opened
Chargrilled oysters.
Fried oyster with egg and flour is a common dish in Malaysia<ref>{{cite web|title=Fried Oyster|url=http://www.bestmalaysianfood.com/fried-oyster/|website=Best Malaysian Food Guide|access-date=24 July 2015}}</ref> and Singapore.
{{ill|kaki furai|lt=Deep fried oyster|ja|カキフライ}} in Japan.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/en/radio/cooking/20200228.html|title=Let's Cook Japanese – Kaki Furai (Oysters Deep-Fried in Breadcrumbs)|date=2020-02-28|access-date=2021-08-21|website=NHK World-Japan|publisher=NHK}}</ref>
Six steamed Eastern oysters on the half shell

Chesapeake Bay's once-flourishing oyster population historically filtered excess nutrients from the estuary's entire water volume every three to four days.

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis by John Trumbull, depicts the British surrendering to Benjamin Lincoln, flanked by French (left) and American troops. Oil on canvas, 1820.

Siege of Yorktown

Decisive victory by a combined force of the American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, and French Army troops led by Comte de Rochambeau over British Army troops commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.

Decisive victory by a combined force of the American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, and French Army troops led by Comte de Rochambeau over British Army troops commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis by John Trumbull, depicts the British surrendering to Benjamin Lincoln, flanked by French (left) and American troops. Oil on canvas, 1820.
A plan of the Battle of Yorktown drawn in 1875
National Park Service map of the W3R Route
Siège de Yorktown by Auguste Couder, c. 1836. Rochambeau and Washington giving their last orders before the battle.
Washington firing the first gun
Storming of Redoubt #10
The storming of Redoubt No. 10, by Eugène Lami
Storming of Redoubt #9
Overview of the capitulation of the British army at Yorktown, with the blockade of the French squadron
The surrender of Lord Cornwallis, October 19, 1781, at Yorktown
Surrender of Cornwallis. At York-town, VA Oct. 1781, Nathaniel Currier. D'Amour Museum of Fine Arts
The victory at Yorktown and the American Revolution were honored in Libertas Americana, a 1783 medallion minted in Paris and designed there by US Ambassador Benjamin Franklin.
US Postage Stamp, 1931 issue, depicting Rochambeau, George Washington and De Grasse, commemorating 150th anniversary of the victory at Yorktown, 1781
Yorktown Victory Monument

On the advice of Rochambeau, de Grasse informed them of his intent to sail to the Chesapeake Bay, where Cornwallis had taken command of the army.

Delaware Bay in Winter

Delaware Bay

Estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the northeast seaboard of the United States.

Estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the northeast seaboard of the United States.

Delaware Bay in Winter
Delaware Bay in Winter
Beginning of the Lewes and Rehoboth Canal, at the Roosevelt inlet
Nautical chart of the Dutch colony Zwaanendael and Godyn's Bay (Delaware Bay), 1639
The shore on Cape May, near the Atlantic Ocean

The upper bay is connected directly to the north end of Chesapeake Bay by the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.