Chesapeake Bay

The Chesapeake Bay – Landsat satellite image
The Chesapeake Bay – Landsat satellite image
Boundaries of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater.
View of the Eastern Bay in Maryland at sunset
The Chesapeake Bay Bridge, near Annapolis, Maryland
The Bay viewed from a plane
Food chain diagram for waterbirds of the Chesapeake Bay
Revised map of John White's original by Theodore DeBry. In this 1590 version, the Chesapeake Bay appears named for the first time.
Later (1630) version of the 1612 map by Captain John Smith during his exploration of the Chesapeake. The map is oriented with west at top.
Oyster boats at war off the Maryland shore (1886 wood engraving). Regulation of the oyster beds in Virginia and Maryland has existed since the 19th century.
Lighthouses and lightships such as Chesapeake have helped guide ships into the Bay.
Example Chesapeake Bay tides from Baltimore and the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel for quarter and full moons during June 2013
A skipjack, part of the oystering fleet in Maryland
The Thomas Point Shoal Light in Maryland
Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay
Dead menhaden floating in the bay in 1973
Dissolved oxygen levels (Milligrams per liter) required by various marine animals living in the Chesapeake Bay.
A cluster of oysters grown in a sanctuary
Sediment sources in the Chesapeake Bay
Maryland Department of Natural Resources survey vessel tied up to a private dock with a continuous monitoring station.
Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System smart buoy on the Patapsco River.

Largest estuary in the United States.

- Chesapeake Bay
The Chesapeake Bay – Landsat satellite image

124 related topics

Alpha

Eutrophication

Process by which an entire body of water, or parts of it, becomes progressively enriched with minerals and nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus.

Process by which an entire body of water, or parts of it, becomes progressively enriched with minerals and nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus.

1. Excess nutrients are applied to the soil. 2. Some nutrients leach into the soil and later drain into surface water. 3. Some nutrients run off over the ground into the body of water.  4. The excess nutrients cause an algal bloom.  5. The algal bloom reduces light penetration. 6. The plants beneath the algal bloom die because they cannot get sunlight to perform photosynthesis.  7. Eventually, the algal bloom dies and sinks to the bottom of the lake. Bacterial communities begin to decompose the remains, using up oxygen for respiration.  8. The decomposition causes the water to become depleted of oxygen if the water body is not regularly mixed vertically. Larger life forms, such as fish die.
Sodium triphosphate, once a component of many detergents, was a major contributor to eutrophication.
Cultural eutrophication is caused by human additions of nutrients into the water that cause over growth of algae which can block light and air exchange. The algae eventually are broken down by bacteria causing anoxic conditions and "dead zones".
Aerial view of Lake Valencia experiencing a large cultural eutrophication flux due to untreated wastewater discharging into the lake.
Eutrophication is apparent as increased turbidity in the northern part of the Caspian Sea, imaged from orbit.
Map of measured Gulf hypoxia zone, July 25–31, 2021-LUMCON-NOAA
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) (blue) and areas with coastal hypoxia (red) in the world’s ocean.
Eutrophication in a canal
The eutrophication of the Mono Lake which is a cyanobacteria-rich Soda lake.
Application of a phosphorus sorbent to a lake - The Netherlands

In the United States, the most well known inter-state effort to prevent eutrophication is the Chesapeake Bay.

Norfolk, Virginia

Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.

Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.

A cannonball lodged in the wall of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, fired by Lord Dunmore's fleet during the Revolutionary War
Norfolk, from Gosport, Virginia, New York Public Library
Joseph Jenkins Roberts, born and raised in Norfolk, became the first President of Liberia
Newport News, Hampton, Isle of Wight County, Suffolk, Chesapeake, Portsmouth and Norfolk, from space, July 1996. Norfolk is located in the upper-right quadrant; east is at the top.
Population density and elevation above sea level in Virginia. Norfolk is especially vulnerable to sea level rise.
Skyline of downtown Norfolk looking towards Elizabeth River
A home in the Ghent neighborhood
Taylor-Whittle House (c. 1790), now occupied by the Junior League of Norfolk-Virginia Beach and the Norfolk Historical Society
Norfolk skyline from across the Elizabeth River in 2016
Population age distribution for Norfolk
Norfolk, Virginia products treemap, 2020
1888 advertisement for the Market Square A&P
A view of Norfolk from Portsmouth
Dominion Square, headquarters of Dominion Enterprises
Nauticus and USS Wisconsin
Half Moone Cruise & Celebration Center
USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) arriving at Naval Station Norfolk
The Douglas MacArthur Statue
Nauticus (National Maritime Center)
Harrison Opera House
Harbor Park
Canal at the Norfolk Botanical Garden
Virginia Zoo
The Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School
Hampton Roads Transit bus at Sentara Norfolk General Hospital
Hampton Roads Bridge–Tunnel
Ferry to Portsmouth
Sentara Norfolk General Hospital

Norfolk is at the core of the metropolitan area, surrounding the Hampton Roads natural harbor at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.

Roanoke Colony

Attempt by Sir Walter Raleigh to found the first permanent English settlement in North America.

Attempt by Sir Walter Raleigh to found the first permanent English settlement in North America.

A 1529 map depicting "Verazzano's Sea" extending from the North Atlantic to the Outer Banks
The arrival of the Englishmen in Virginia (1590). Engraving by Theodor De Bry, from a drawing by John White.
Sir Richard Grenville
Plymouth, Devon, was the burgeoning home port of Drake, Gilbert, Grenville, and Raleigh
Ralph Lane's fort at Mosquetal
Collecting salt in Salinas Bay
The 1585 assault on Aquascogoc village
An artist's rendering of Ralph Lane's Roanoke fort; author unknown, 1962
La Virginea Pars map, by John White
Portrait of a weroance, who may have been Wingina
Map of Sir Francis Drake's 1585–86 voyage
Death of George Howe
Baptism of Virginia Dare
Launch of English fireships against the Spanish Armada, 7 August 1588
John White at the ruins of the Roanoke colony, 1590
Sir Walter Raleigh
Reproduction of the Zúñiga Map
Powhatan attack on Jamestown
Reconstructed earthwork at Fort Raleigh National Historic Site
Archaeological research dig at Fort Raleigh National Historic Site (2009)
Chief Powhatan, detail of map published by John Smith (1612)
Watercolor of a Secotan village, by John White
Construction of a pinnace to evacuate Charlesfort
Reverse of a commemorative 1937 US half-dollar coin, depicting Eleanor and Virginia Dare
Re-creation of the tree inscribed with "CRO", from a production of The Lost Colony

In 1587, Raleigh sent White on an expedition to establish the "Cittie of Raleigh" in Chesapeake Bay.

Virginia Beach, Virginia

Independent city located on the southeastern coast of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.

Independent city located on the southeastern coast of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.

A Chesepian home
Princess Anne County (1691–1963), now defunct, with Virginia Beach from 1895 Virginia map
Hotels along Atlantic Avenue, facing north
Virginia Beach Town Center
Overlooking the Atlantic Ocean
Virginia Beach from space
Map of racial distribution in Virginia Beach, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:
A VF-41 F-4J over NAS Oceana in the late 1960s
Adam Thoroughgood House, before 1957 restoration
The Sandler Center located in Town Center, features performing arts, concerts, forums, and many other events.
A Japanese-style moon bridge in the Miyazaki Japanese Garden, Red Wing Park
People riding a rental surrey on the boardwalk
Local law prohibits the use of profanity along the boardwalk. This sign along Atlantic Avenue indicates this law.
The current building of Frank W. Cox High School
Association for Research and Enlightenment
A Hampton Roads Transit bus on Pacific Avenue in Virginia Beach.

Located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia Beach is the largest city in the Hampton Roads metropolitan area.

Province of Maryland

English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1778, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland.

English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1778, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland.

Map of the Province of Maryland
Henrietta Maria, the French Princess who gave her name to the young colony of "Maryland"
Map of the Province of Maryland
1975 reconstruction of Maryland Dove at St. Mary's City
Catholic church at St Mary's City
A new map of Virginia, Maryland, and the improved parts of Pennsylvania & New Jersey by Christopher Browne, 1685
George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore
Benedict Calvert
Frederick Calvert, 6th and last Baron Baltimore, "conceited, frivolous, and dissipated"
The Maryland Toleration Act, passed in 1649
Col. Henry Darnall, Deputy Governor of Maryland and a Roman Catholic
Tobacco was the main export crop in the colonial era and involved much hand labor, usually by slaves. 1670 painting from Virginia
Maryland Laws 1727

Its first settlement and capital was St. Mary's City, in the southern end of St. Mary's County, which is a peninsula in the Chesapeake Bay and is also bordered by four tidal rivers.

Crisfield, Maryland

Crisfield's waterfront and town pier
John W. Crisfield was president of the Eastern Shore Railroad and brought the railroad to what is now Crisfield.
Flooding from Hurricane Sandy
Location of the Salisbury-Ocean Pines CSA and its components:
National Hard Crab Derby Fair
View of one of the crab races, nearing completion.
A view of Crisfield City Hall from Main Street.
Crisfield High School
West Main Street (MD 413) in downtown Crisfield. The four-lane section of the highway within Crisfield's limits is known as "The Strip" among locals.
The newly constructed nursing home in Crisfield, with the original one in front of it. The original has since been demolished.

Crisfield is a town in Somerset County, Maryland, United States, located on the Tangier Sound, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay.

Harvesting oysters from the pier at Cancale, Brittany, France 2005

Oyster farming

Aquaculture practice in which oysters are bred and raised mainly for their pearls, shells and inner organ tissue, which is eaten.

Aquaculture practice in which oysters are bred and raised mainly for their pearls, shells and inner organ tissue, which is eaten.

Harvesting oysters from the pier at Cancale, Brittany, France 2005
Oyster farming at Walvis Bay, Namibia
Oyster culture using tiles as cultch. Taken from The Illustrated London News 1881
Purpose made oyster baskets
Working on oysters at Belon, Brittany, France 2005
Oyster farm in South Australia
Oyster shucking at Lau Fau Shan, Hong Kong
Here in Yerseke, Netherlands, oysters are kept in large oyster pits after "harvesting", until they are sold. Seawater is pumped in and out, simulating the tide

During the nineteenth century in the United States, various shallow draft sailboat designs were developed for oystering in Chesapeake Bay.

Oyster anatomy

Perkinsus marinus

Species of alveolates belonging to the phylum Perkinsozoa.

Species of alveolates belonging to the phylum Perkinsozoa.

Oyster anatomy

Periodic outbreaks in the Chesapeake Bay have caused extensive oyster mortality.

Susquehanna River

Major river located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, overlapping between the lower Northeast and the Upland South.

Major river located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, overlapping between the lower Northeast and the Upland South.

308x308px
Satellite photo of the river (upper left) where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay (center)
265x265px
Harrisburg, with the Pennsylvania State Capitol dome, seen from Wormleysburg
311x311px
Monument at the site of Gen. Clinton's dam at the river's source at Otsego Lake in Cooperstown, New York
An aerial view looking south over the Wrights Ferry Bridge (front) and the Veterans Memorial Bridge (behind). Columbia, PA is located off the eastern side of the river (left) and Wrightsville, PA is located on the western side (right).
213x213px
285x285px
Three Mile Island on the Susquehanna River.

The river empties into the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay at Perryville and Havre de Grace, Maryland, providing half of the Bay's freshwater inflow.

Chesapeake & Delaware Canal

A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dredge leaves the eastern entrance to the canal on the Delaware River at Reedy Point, Delaware.
Eastern Lock of the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Battery Park, December 2011
C&D Canal Museum

The Chesapeake & Delaware Canal (C&D Canal) is a 14 mi-long, 450 ft-wide and 35 ft-deep ship canal that connects the Delaware River with the Chesapeake Bay in the states of Delaware and Maryland in the United States.